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What Is The Definition Of Industrial Organizational Psychology

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Skills Gained With An Organizational Psychology Degree

What is Industrial Organizational Psychology?

Organizational psychology professionals need a diverse skill set to succeed. For example, they may be called upon to interview employees, design surveys, develop training programs, or draft new workplace policies. Workers hone these skills while pursuing a postsecondary degree.

Industrial-organizational psychologists typically need a master’s degree, although many entry- and mid-level positions in human resources only require a bachelor’s. Individuals working in this area may also benefit from pursuing certification or participating in other professional development opportunities.

Listed below are some important skills students gain in organizational psychology programs.

To understand and solve workplace issues, organizational psychologists must know how to collect and analyze data. This may involve designing surveys to collect qualitative information on employee attitudes, interviewing senior leaders to learn about their unique management styles, or conducting market research to inform the development of candidate screening and hiring policies.

Addressing challenges related to productivity often requires a systematic assessment of individual and team performance. Organizational psychology programs provide skills in areas such as setting goals and managing expectations, offering counseling and feedback to employees, and using performance management systems.

The Historical Development Of Industrial And Organizational Psychology

Industrial and organizational psychology had its origins in the early 20th century. Several influential early psychologists studied issues that today would be categorized as industrial psychology: James Cattell at Columbia, Hugo Münsterberg at Harvard, Walter Dill Scott at Northwestern, Robert Yerkes and Walter Bingham at Dartmouth, and Lillian Gilbreth at Purdue. Cattell, Münsterberg, and Scott had been students of Wilhelm Wundt, the father of experimental psychology. Some of these researchers had been involved in work in the area of industrial psychology before World War I. Cattells contribution to industrial psychology is largely reflected in his founding of a psychological consulting company, which is still operating today called the Psychological Corporation, and in the accomplishments of students at Columbia in the area of industrial psychology. In 1913, Münsterberg published Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, which covered topics such as employee selection, employee training, and effective advertising.

The focus of all this research was in what we now know as industrial psychology it was only later in the century that the field of organizational psychology developed as an experimental science . In addition to their academic positions, these researchers also worked directly for businesses as consultants.

Hawthorne Works provided the setting for several early I-O studies.

Link to Learning

The Basics Of Industrial

Its an easy question to ask, but a little more difficult to answer. At the most basic level, I/O Psychology is the scientific study of people at work, and its comprised of two distinct branches:

  • Industrial which is all about recruitment, selection, performance appraisal, and other numbers-oriented constructs.
  • Organizational which includes the more warm and fuzzy topics such as motivation, leadership, and organizational development.

If were delving in a little deeper, though, it may be helpful to describe what I/O psychologists are and what we aint.

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Careers In Io Psychology

Interest in industrial-organizational psychology careers has grown.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicted that I-O psychology would be one of the fastest-growing careers, and wages have been rising over 10 percent per year.

According to employment statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the mean annual wage for I-O psychologists as of May 2016 was $109,030. The bottom 10% of I-O psychologists earned around $51,350 and the top 10% earned an average of $184,380, with a median annual wage of $192,150.

As with other specialty areas, wages vary depending upon a variety of factors including geographic location, educational background, the area of employment, and years of experience in the field. Individuals with a master’s or doctorate degree also command higher yearly salaries.

In general, those in large urban areas will find more employment opportunities as well as higher wages, although such benefits are often accompanied by a higher cost of living.

States employing the most I-O psychologists include Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Missouri, and New Jersey. Professionals working in Virginia earned an average of $126,220, while those employed in Massachusetts earned an average of $75,660.

The U.S. Department of Labor reports that wages also vary considerably depending upon the industry in which industrial-organizational psychologists are employed. The mean annual wage for various industries is as follows:

Human Capital Or People

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In terms of human capital or people consulting, there are major forces for future trends: lack of competencies in STEM and communication fields, aging of workforce, resulting in the loss of experience and expertise in organizations, increasing and aggressive competition for talent, increase in project- or contract-based workforce instead of hiring permanent employees, and globalization. As a result, trends, such as major talent management, selection and recruiting, workplace education and training, and planning for next generation, have emerged. In addition, change management also becomes important in organizations in order to innovate and implement new technology, tools, and systems to cope with changes in the business.

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What Was The Job Search Like After Graduating With Your Degree

During graduate school, I found out about research institutions, so I did a combined job search. I applied for academic jobs, but I also applied to a place called The Center for Creative Leadership that was my dream job. They turned me down! I applied again and they brought me on even though they didnt have a job opening. I was there for nine years and loved every day of it. I left that job as I was planning to get married and needed to move. At that point, I applied for academic positions and was hired by Montclair State University.

Historical Development Of Industrial And Organizational Psychology

Industrial and organizational psychology had its origins in the early 20th century. Several influential early psychologists studied issues that today would be categorized as industrial psychology: James Cattell , Hugo Münsterberg , Walter Dill Scott , Robert Yerkes , Walter Bingham , and Lillian Gilbreth . Cattell, Münsterberg, and Scott had been students of Wilhelm Wundt, the father of experimental psychology. Some of these researchers had been involved in work in the area of industrial psychology before World War I. Cattells contribution to industrial psychology is largely reflected in his founding of a psychological consulting company, which is still operating today called the Psychological Corporation, and in the accomplishments of students at Columbia in the area of industrial psychology. In 1913, Münsterberg published Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, which covered topics such as employee selection, employee training, and effective advertising.

The focus of all this research was in what we now know as industrial psychology it was only later in the century that the field of organizational psychology developed as an experimental science . In addition to their academic positions, these researchers also worked directly for businesses as consultants.

Figure 3. Hawthorne Works provided the setting for several early I-O studies.

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What Do Industrial Psychologists Do

Industrial psychologists apply the theories and principles of psychology to the workplace in an attempt to enhance the dignity and performance of human beings, and the organizations they work in, by advancing the science and knowledge of human behavior .

In turn, a practitioner adopts various principles and theories, including :

  • Social learning theory to build training and development programs and incentive plans
  • Social psychology to create working groups to understand and reduce employee conflict
  • Motivational and emotional theories to meet the psychological needs of employees and increase their satisfaction at work

While industrial psychologists are engaged in areas similar to human resource managers, they often differ in techniques and rationale. For example, industrial psychologists rely on psychological testing, behavioral interviews, and work data. On the other hand, human resources departments typically adopt unstructured interviews to progress staff selection and promotion .

What Is Industrial And Organisational Psychology

Industrial Organizational Psychology Explained

Industrial and Organisational Psychology definition

Industrial and organisational psychology is the use of psychological knowledge and techniques to better understand how businesses work and how employees function in the workplace what drives them, motivates them, angers them in order to develop a more engaged and productive workforce.

Organisations hire industrial psychologists in order to drive productivity and efficiencies in the workplace through the latest scientific research and knowledge.

Industrial and organisational psychologists may be hired to perform a range of tasks in the workplace, including job analysis, recruitment and selection including psychometric testing, talent and performance management, motivation improvement, cultural change and improving team behaviours and function.

IO psychology uses a range of scientific methods, including quantitative and qualitative research.

Leadership is also a common focus for industrial psychology, particularly helping senior executives become better leaders to drive company performance. There are three main strands of IOP with regard to leadership:

An emerging sub-discipline in IO psychology is occupational health psychology , which is specifically concerned with mental, physical and emotional wellbeing in the workplace.

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What Are Some Of The Pros And Cons Of A Career In Industrial And Organizational Psychology

Pros of a Career in I-O Psychology:

  • Many career opportunities with a Masters-level degree.
  • Diverse career paths
  • Opportunities for self-employment.

Cons of a Career in I-O Psychology:

  • Clients and projects change often.
  • Research can often be tedious and burnout can occur.
  • Many positions require doctoral degrees.

What Is Io Psychology

So What is Industrial Organizational Psychology Anyway?

Okay, so you found your way to our website, which means you’ve at least heard of Industrial Organizational Psychology. We also realize that doesn’t necessarily mean that you feel confident that you know what IO Psychology is, what an IO Psychologist/Practitioner does, or what you, specifically can do in or with this field. We created this page to help guide you through some of these key questions, so you can be confident in your decision to apply to IO Psychology Master’s or PhD programs if you choose to go this route.

As stated on our front page, Industrial Organizational Psychology is the study of people in formal organizations, including the workplace. IO psychologists work throughout industry in consulting, human resources and training departments, government, research, and academia to improve the well-being and outcomes of employees and organizations. IOs can be in the private sector, public sector, government, education, and non profits. Essentially the sky is the limit, and no discipline is as uniquely positioned to influence and improve the workplace. Given how much time adults spend working, that’s a huge impact!

What is Industrial Organizational Psychology?

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Six Key Subject Areas

According to Muchinsky’s book, Psychology Applied to Work: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology, most industrial-organizational psychologists work in one of six major subject areas:

  • Employee selection: This area involves developing employee selection assessments, such as screening tests to determine if job applicants are qualified for a particular position.
  • Ergonomics: The field of ergonomics involves designing procedures and equipment designed to maximize performance and minimize injury.
  • Organizational development: I-O psychologists who work in this area help improve organizations, often through increasing profits, redesigning products, and improving the organizational structure.
  • Performance management: I-O psychologists who work in this area develop assessments and techniques to determine if employees are doing their jobs well.
  • Training and development: Professional in this area often determine what type of skills are necessary to perform specific jobs as well as develop and evaluate employee training programs.
  • Work life: This area focuses on improving employee satisfaction and maximizing the productivity of the workforce. I-O psychologists in this area might work to find ways to make jobs more rewarding or design programs that improve the quality of life in the workplace.

Individual Assessment And Psychometrics

Organisational Psychology. By Theresa Lowry

Individual assessment involves the measurement of individual differences. I-O psychologists perform individual assessments in order to evaluate differences among candidates for employment as well as differences among employees. The constructs measured pertain to job performance. With candidates for employment, individual assessment is often part of the personnel selection process. These assessments can include written tests, aptitude tests, physical tests, psycho-motor tests, personality tests, integrity and reliability tests, work samples, simulations, and assessment centres.

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Organizational Psychology Career Paths

Careers for an organizational psychology major go beyond traditional psychologist positions. Most industries and organizations hire professionals who understand human behavior. For instance, graduates can work in training or human resources for businesses across the country. Professionals can also work as consultants or marketing experts for companies or pursue education roles as administrators or teachers.

Human resources professionals oversee an organization’s staff through tasks like interviewing, hiring, and resolving conflicts among employees. These professionals act as liaisons between management and workers and advise companies on ways to encourage better employee performances. They ensure productive and professional work environments and may also push for better benefits and salaries for employees. These positions are common in most industries.

Organizational psychologists may use their knowledge of human behavior and attitudes to design user-friendly programs or identify needs that can be fulfilled through technology. Individuals following this career path may also work in database administration to maintain, organize, and protect company and personnel records. However, these careers may require certifications related to certain technological concepts or products.

Organizational Psychology Job Description: What Youll Do

This fast-growing field of psychology offers many career options. Here are some of your choices.

A workplace must operate smoothly and efficiently in order to foster success. In businesses where employees are happy and healthy, quality of life is a priority and the organizational infrastructure is strong. Conflicts, when they arise, receive swift and effective resolution.

Industrial-organizational psychologists can help with all of these tasks, and more. If you like the idea of applying the study of human behavior to the workplace, this could be the field where you thrivewhile helping others to do the same.

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Occupational Health And Well

There are many features of work that can be stressful to employees. Research has identified a number of job stressors that contribute to strains . Occupational stress can have implications for organizational performance because of the emotions job stress evokes. For example, a job stressor such as conflict with a supervisor can precipitate anger that in turn motivates counterproductive workplace behaviors. A number of prominent models of job stress have been developed to explain the job stress process, including the person-environment fit model, which was developed by University of Michigan social psychologists, and the demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models, which were developed by sociologists.

Research has also examined occupational stress in specific occupations, including police, general practitioners, and dentists. Another concern has been the relation of occupational stress to family life. Other I-O researchers have examined gender differences in leadership style and job stress and strain in the context of male- and female-dominated industries, and unemployment-related distress. Occupational stress has also been linked to lack of fit between people and their jobs.

Workplace bullying, aggression and violence

Relation of I-O psychology to occupational health psychology

What Education Did You Need To Pursue This Career

What is industrial and organizational psychology

In my case, as I wanted to do research, I needed to have a Ph.D. What is really wonderful about I-O psychology, though, is that unlike most fields of psychology, you only need a masters to use your degree. Most people work in organizations, for the government, or as a consultant for those lines of work, you can at least start off with a masters degree. You can go back later to get your Ph.D. if you decide you need it.

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Are You Suited To Be An Industrial Organizational Psychologist

Industrial organizational psychologists have distinct personalities. They tend to be investigative individuals, which means theyâre intellectual, introspective, and inquisitive. They are curious, methodical, rational, analytical, and logical. Some of them are also enterprising, meaning theyâre adventurous, ambitious, assertive, extroverted, energetic, enthusiastic, confident, and optimistic.

Does this sound like you? Take our free career test to find out if industrial organizational psychologist is one of your top career matches.

Examples Of I/o Psychology In Action

Industrial-organizational psychology focuses on human behavior in the workplace. What does an I/O psychologists day to day look like? Check out our three I/O examples here.

Industrial-organizational psychology is a field in which psychologists work within organizations to address assessment, engagement, retention, and productivity of employees and workers. To further digest this complex discipline, the American Psychological Association characterizes I/O psych as the scientific study of human behavior as it concerns workplaces.

Industrial-organizational psychologists might find themselves working within the government, businesses, nonprofits, marketing, human resources, consulting, or higher education among others. In a field that has such wide reach, it can be difficult to imagine what exactly the day-to-day work of an I/O psychologist looks like. The following three examples give possible workplace scenarios for I/O psychologists.

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Organizational Psychology Career Outlook

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics , industrial-organizational psychologists earn a mean annual salary of more than $110,000. However, factors like location and industry can impact salaries. It should also be noted that, according to the BLS, only 630 professionals in the U.S. work as industrial-organizational psychologists, which means jobs may be quite competitive.

However, earning an organizational psychology degree also prepares graduates to work in human resources. There are many human resources positions across the country, with opportunities available in every state.

A worker’s experience level influences their salary, as shown in the table below. In general, salaries increase over time.

Median Annual Salary for Organizational Psychology Careers

Job Title

Employee Selection And Placement

PPT

One of the most important concerns of industrial-organizational psychologists is that of selecting individuals to fill the various work roles in an organization, and placing the employees hired by the organization in jobs so as to create a good match of people to jobs. To accomplish these selection and placement tasks, the following procedures represent major concerns of industrial psychologists.

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