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What Is Globalization In Geography

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Shaping The Map: Unraveling The Processes Of Economic Globalization

What Is Globalization? Understand Our Interconnected World | World101 CFR

In the previous section, we explored the changing contours of the global economic map, noting its immense geographical unevenness and temporal volatility. Such dynamic geographies of globalization are the outcome of extremely complex actions and relationships between economic, political, and social institutions and actors, all of which are deeply grounded and embedded in specific geographical structures. The nature of that groundingâthe contexts in which they are createdâis highly significant in influencing how such processes develop and how actors behave.

Figure 5: A synoptic geographical perspective on globalization actors and processes.

Figure 5 provides a synoptic perspective on the major actors and processes involved. It emphasizes the essentially networked nature of the global economy, one that conceives of economic processes in terms of connections of activities, linked through flows of both material and non-material phenomena into circuits and networks.

Globalisation: A Geographical Process

The image of the blue planet seen from space offers a powerful vantage point that helps us to comprehend the world as just one location. Globalisation is a geographical process that is concerned with the world becoming compressed into a single place.From space, you can see no political borders, no countries. Spaceship Earth is one geographical location.Globalisation is the greatest of all geographical processes and it goes far beyond economics to include topics such as music, food and language – almost everything.Only Numpties think that globalisation is just about Starbucks and McDonald’s.

The History Of Globalization Is Driven By Technology Transportation And International Cooperation

Since ancient times, humans have sought distant places to settle, produce, and exchange goods enabled by improvements in technology and transportation. But not until the 19th century did global integration take off. Following centuries of European colonization and trade activity, that first wave of globalization was propelled by steamships, railroads, the telegraph, and other breakthroughs, and also by increasing economic cooperation among countries. The globalization trend eventually waned and crashed in the catastrophe of World War I, followed by postwar protectionism, the Great Depression, and World War II. After World War II in the mid-1940s, the United States led efforts to revive international trade and investment under negotiated ground rules, starting a second wave of globalization, which remains ongoing, though buffeted by periodic downturns and mounting political scrutiny.

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Positive Aspects Of Globalization

  • As more money is poured into developing countries, there is a greater chance for the people in those countries to economically succeed and increase their standard of living.
  • Global competition encourages creativity and innovation and keeps prices for commodities/services in check.
  • Developing countries are able to reap the benefits of current technology without undergoing many of the growing pains associated with the development of these technologies.
  • Governments are able to better work together towards common goals now that there is an advantage in cooperation, an improved ability to interact and coordinate, and a global awareness of issues.
  • There is greater access to foreign culture in the form of movies, music, food, clothing, and more. In short, the world has more choices.

What Are Some Examples Of Glocalization


Glocalization comes in many forms. For instance, in the U.K., car producers must build vehicles with the steering wheel on the right side instead of the left. Food items are also changed in different countries to fit local tastes. McDonald’s Corporation and other fast-food chains will often serve up versions of local fare along with the core menu of hamburgers and chicken products. Brand image and marketing campaigns are also carried out in local languages and with local customs and cultural cues in mind.

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An Official Definition Of Globalization By The World Health Organization

According to WHO, globalization can be defined as the increased interconnectedness and interdependence of peoples and countries. It is generally understood to include two inter-related elements: the opening of international borders to increasingly fast flows of goods, services, finance, people and ideas and the changes in institutions and policies at national and international levels that facilitate or promote such flows.

What Is The Difference Between Globalization And Glocalization

Globalization is the spread of products, ideas, and capital across international borders by corporations. One criticism of globalization is that it can result in the homogenization of cultures and consumers around the world. Glocalization pays attention to local practices, customs, and culture to have these products better fit regional wants and needs.

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Globalization And The G: What Is The G20

The G20 is a global bloc composed by the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the European Union . Established in 1999, the G20 gathers the most important industrialized and developing economies to discuss international economic and financial stability. Together, the nations of the G20 account for around 80% of global economic output, nearly 75 percent of all global trade, and about two-thirds of the worlds population.

G20 leaders get together in an annual summit to discuss and coordinate pressing global issues of mutual interest. Though economics and trade are usually the centerpieces of each summits agenda, issues like climate change, migration policies, terrorism, the future of work, or global wealth are recurring focuses too. Since the G20 leaders represent the political backbone of the global financial architecture that secures open markets, orderly capital flows, and a safety net for countries in difficulty, it is often thanks to bilateral meetings during summits that major international agreements are achieved and that globalization is able to move forward.

Territorial Embeddedness Of Production Networks

Globalization I – The Upside: Crash Course World History #41

Capital, it is often argued, has become hyper-mobile, freed from the tyranny of distance and no longer tied to place. In other words, economic activity is becoming âdeterritorializedâ or âdisembedded.â The sociologist Manuel Castells argues that the forces of globalization, especially those driven by the new information technologies, are replacing this âspace of placesâ with a âspace of flows.â Anything can be located anywhere and, if that does not work out, can be moved somewhere else with ease. But such seductive ideas are highly misleading. The world is both a space of places and a place of flows. Global production networks do not just float freely in a spaceless/placeless world.

Every component in a global production networkâevery firm, every economic functionâis, quite literally, grounded in specific locations. Such grounding is both physical and also less tangible . Hence, the precise nature and articulation of firm-centered production networks are deeply influenced by the concrete socio-political, institutional, and cultural contexts within which they are embedded, produced, and reproduced.

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The History Of Globalization

Globalization is not a new concept. Traders traveled vast distances in ancient times to buy commodities that were rare and expensive for sale in their homelands. The Industrial Revolution brought advances in transportation and communication in the 19th century that eased trade across borders.

The think tank, Peterson Institute for International Economics , states globalization stalled after World War I, and nations’ moved toward protectionism as they launched import taxes to more closely guard their industries in the aftermath of the conflict. This trend continued through the Great Depression and World War II until the U.S. took on an instrumental role in reviving international trade.

Globalization has sped up at an unprecedented pace, with public policy changes and communications technology innovations cited as the two main driving factors.

One of the critical steps in the path to globalization came with the North American Free Trade Agreement , signed in 1993. One of NAFTA’s many effects was to give American auto manufacturers the incentive to relocate a portion of their manufacturing to Mexico where they could save on the costs of labor. NAFTA was replaced in 2020 by the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement .

Governments worldwide have integrated a free market economic system through fiscal policies and trade agreements over the last 20 years. The core of most trade agreements is the removal or reduction of tariffs.

Creating Value In Global Production Networks

My central argument is that the reshaping of the global economic map is being driven increasingly by the emergence of extremely complex organizational and geographical networks of production, distribution, and consumption. The precise form of such networksâhow they are controlled and coordinated, as well as the shape and extent of their specific geographiesâvaries enormously. A key question, therefore, is the extent to which a placeâs insertion into GPNs affects its developmental prospects.

The fact that GPNs have become the predominant mode within which production is organized means that it is very difficult indeed for local firms/economies to prosper outside them. Being thereâas an insiderâis virtually a prerequisite for development. Both the ability of local firms to participate in GPNs and of a local economyâs ability to capture value created in those parts of a GPN located there depend, therefore, on far more than just what happens in a firm. The local context itself matters enormously. In effect, this means that to participate in a GPN successfully a local economy needs to develop institutions and practices that meet the needs of GPNs.

  • Over-use of non-renewable and renewable resources
  • Over-burdening of natural environmental âsinksâ
  • Destruction of increasing numbers of ecosystems to create space for urban and industrial development.

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Is Globalization Good Or Bad

It depends. Proponents of globalization will point to the dramatic decline in poverty that has taken place throughout the world over the past several decades, which many economists attribute in part to increased trade and investment between nations. Similarly, they will argue that globalization has allowed products and services such as cellphones, airplanes, and information technology to be spread far more widely throughout the world. On the other hand, critics of globalization will point to the negative impact it has had on specific nations industries, which might face increased competition from international firms. Globalization can also have negative environmental impacts due to economic development, industrialization, and international travel.

What Is Globalization Geography Find Out Here

What Does It Mean to Be Global?

What is globalization geography? Since globalization is a theory of cultural, economic, and political policies that are all connected the world has been shrinking which means that people and things are traveling more.

This means that there are many new business opportunities that are opening up all over the world. It means that the world is starting to look more and more like a global village.

Globalization is the process of the extension of social, economic, cultural, and political contacts across the world. Globalization has increased due to advances in transportation, communication, and information technology.

There is no clear definition for globalization, as it is generally viewed as a positive phenomenon. Globalization touches all aspects of human economic activity, including economic systems, legal systems, cultural exchange, education, language, and politics.

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A Simple Globalization Definition

Globalization means the speedup of movements and exchanges all over the planet. One of the effects of globalization is that it promotes and increases interactions between different regions and populations around the globe.

Negative Aspects Of Globalization

  • Outsourcing, while it provides jobs to a population in one country, takes away those jobs from another country, leaving many without opportunities.
  • Although different cultures from around the world are able to interact, they begin to meld, and the contours and individuality of each begin to fade.
  • There may be a greater chance of disease spreading worldwide, as well as invasive species that could prove devastating in non-native ecosystems.
  • There is little international regulation, an unfortunate fact that could have dire consequences for the safety of people and the environment.
  • Large Western-driven organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank make it easy for a developing country to obtain a loan. However, a Western focus is often applied to a non-Western situation, resulting in failed progress.

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The Road From Globalization To Regionalization

One of the biggest challenges in international trade today is the shifting of jobs offshore and to other parts of the world. Its no secret that many multinational corporations have relocated their manufacturing facilities to take advantage of lower labor costs. Whether this is a good thing or not depends on your perspective and opinion.

General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade

What is Globalisation? Geography in a minute (or two!)

Globalized free trade took another step forward with the Bretton Woods conference of World War II allies in 1944. The conference produced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade . The GATT preamble describes its purpose as the “substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of preferences, on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis.” Clearly, along with the creation of the U.N., allies believed that free trade was another step in preventing more world wars.

The Breton Woods conference also led to the creation of the International Monetary Fund . The IMF was intended to help nations that might have “balance of payments” trouble, such as Germany had paying reparations after World War I. Its inability to pay was another factor that led to World War II.

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When Did Globalization Begin The History Of Globalization

For some people, this global phenomenon is inherent to human nature. Because of this, some say globalization begun about 60,000 years ago, at the beginning of human history. Throughout time, human societies exchanging trade has been growing. Since the old times, different civilizations have developed commercial trade routes and experienced cultural exchanges. And as well, the migratory phenomenon has also been contributing to these populational exchanges. Especially nowadays, since traveling became quicker, more comfortable, and more affordable.

This phenomenon has continued throughout history, notably through military conquests and exploration expeditions. But it wasnt until technological advances in transportation and communication that globalization speeded up. It was particularly after the second half of the 20th century that world trades accelerated in such a dimension and speed that the term globalization started to be commonly used.

How Does Globalization Contribute To Environmental Issues

Increased emissions: The farther a product travels, the more fuel is consumed, and a greater level of greenhouse gas emissions is produced. These emissions contribute to pollution, climate change, and ocean acidification around the world and have been shown to significantly impact biodiversity.

How do geographers use the term globalization?

Globalization is a set of outcomes that are unevenly distributed and differently manifested across the world. What do we mean by the Why of Where when discussing geography? Spatial Distribution- is the physical location of geographic phenomena across space.

How geographic globalization changes the peoples way of living and thinking?

Globalization is a term used to describe how trade and technology have made the world into a more connected and interdependent place. Globalization also captures in its scope the economic and social changes that have come about as a result. Many scholars say it started with Columbuss voyage to the New World in 1492.

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The Economic Negative Effects Of Globalization

Despite its benefits, the economic growth driven by globalization has not been done without awakening criticism. The consequences of globalization are far from homogeneous: income inequalities, disproportional wealth and trades that benefit parties differently. In the end, one of the criticisms is that some actors benefit more from the phenomena of globalization, while others are sometimes perceived as the losers of globalization. As a matter of fact, a recent report from Oxfam says that 82% of the worlds generated wealth goes to 1% of the population.

What Is Globalization Geography Definition

EconPapers: An introduction to economic geography: globalization ...

Globalization is a term used to describe how trade and technology have made the world into a more connected and interdependent place. Globalization also captures in its scope the economic and social changes that have come about as a result. Many scholars say it started with Columbuss voyage to the New World in 1492.

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What Is Geographical Globalization

In geography, globalization is defined as the set of processes that contribute to the relationship between societies and individuals around the world. It is a progressive process by which exchanges and flows between different parts of the world are intensified.

How do economic issues affect globalization?

In general, globalization decreases the cost of manufacturing. This means that companies can offer goods at a lower price to consumers. The average cost of goods is a key aspect that contributes to increases in the standard of living. Consumers also have access to a wider variety of goods.

What are the positive effects of geographical globalization?

Inward investment by TNCs helps countries by providing new jobs and skills for local people. TNCs bring wealth and foreign currency to local economies when they buy local resources, products and services. The extra money created by this investment can be spent on education, health and infrastructure.

Globalization And International Trade

We live in a global world. We have so many opportunities to learn from each other and share our knowledge. Each day, we are just a click away from finding out what is happening in other countries or what is trending around the world. It is important to understand the impact of globalization and international trade is on the environment.

The world is becoming more and more interconnected, and more countries are involved in international trade. Its not just tangible goods that can be traded between countries, but also workers and ideas. Trade is a global phenomenon that can create wealth and develop nations.

A global approach to trade can mean more sustainable jobs, more equal wages, and greener business practices. Some countries have access to resources that others dont, and international trade allows countries to create a network and help each other out.

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