What Is Clinical Psychology
Psychology can be used to understand how environmental factors, such as a persons family dynamic, and social pressures, such as influence from peers, affect behavior. Gaining a deeper understanding of how various factors play a role in how an individual thinks, acts, and feels can help people gain valuable insights as to why they think, act, and behave the way they do.
Clinical psychology is used to treat individuals who have a variety of mental health and/or behavioral disorders. Clinical psychologists use psychotherapy to provide care to individuals and families across their lifespan. However, some specialize in treating specific disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, or certain patient populations, such as child or geriatric mental health.
Clinical psychologists also provide treatment for issues such as emotional, intellectual, behavioral, and/or social maladjustment. Although most clinical psychologists work in hospitals and mental health clinics, some work in correctional facilities or in private practice.
Are There Other Theories In Education
Like students themselves, learning theories in education are varied and diverse. In addition to the five theories outlined above, there are still more options, including:
- Transformative learning theory: This theory is particularly relevant to adult learners. It posits that new information can essentially change our worldviews when our life experience and knowledge are paired with critical reflection.
- Social learning theory: This theory incorporates some of the tacit tenets of peer pressure. Specifically, students observe other students and model their own behavior accordingly. Sometimes its to emulate peers other times its to distinguish themselves from peers. Harnessing the power of this theory involves getting students attention, focusing on how students can retain information, identifying when its appropriate to reproduce a previous behavior, and determining students motivation.
- Experiential learning theory: There are plenty of clichés and parables about teaching someone something by doing it, although it wasnt until the early 1980s that it became an official learning theory. This approach emphasizes both learning about something and experiencing it so that students can apply knowledge in real-world situations.
The Science Isn’t Strong Enough
We may express our preferences about how we learn, but they’re not necessarily an accurate reflection of how our brains work. According to neuroscientist Susan Greenfield, the idea that we can be defined as purely visual, auditory or kinesthetic learners is “nonsense.” That’s because, she says, “humans have evolved to build a picture of the world through our senses working in unison, exploiting the immense interconnectivity that exists in the brain.”
A study by Massa and Mayer also found little difference in learning outcomes when they matched their test subjects’ preferences to the learning materials they were given.
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What Does The Science Say
Study after study has shown that matching instructional mode to a students supposedly identified learning style does not produce better learning outcomes. In fact, a students learning style may not even predict the way they prefer to be taught or the way they actually choose to study on their own .
Simply put, students learning preferences as identified via questionnaires do not predict the singular, best way to teach them. A single student may learn best with one approach in one subject and a different one in another. The best approach for them may even vary day-to-day. Most likely, students are best served when a variety of strategies are employed in a lesson.
As appealing as a framework like VARK isrelatively easy to conceptualize and quick to assesseveryone engages in different modes of learning in various ways. The brain processes information in very complex and nuanced ways that cant be so simply generalized.
Unfortunately, the myth has become so prevalent that the majority of papers written about learning styles are based on the assumption that matching teaching style to learning style is desirable . Its no surprise, then, that well-intentioned educators buy into the concept as well.
How Is Technology Used For Learning In Your Industry
- Skinners teaching machines and programmed texts. Computer-assisted instruction and mastery learning.
- Teaching Machines: a mechanical device to automate the task of programmed instructions.
- Films: visual materials to help learners acquire, retain and transfer responses based on the ability of such materials to cue and reinforce specified responses and serve as examples.
- Programmed Instruction: programmed books essentially had the same characteristics as the teaching machines logical presentations of content, requirement of overt responses and presentation of immediate knowledge of correctness (a correct answer would equal positive reinforcement.
- Linear Programming: Linear programming involves a series of learning frames presented in a set sequence.
- Instructional Design: specification of objectives , concentration on behavioral changes in learners, the emphasis on the stimulus and task analysis.
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Popular Theories Stages & Models
The key figures in the history of developmental psychology are predominantly known for their own theories and models.
Each of these models has contributed to the understanding of the process of human development and growth.
Furthermore, each theory and model focuses on different aspects of development: social, emotional, psychosexual, behavioral, attachment, social learning, and many more.
Here are some of the most popular models of development that have heavily contributed to the field of developmental psychology.
Types Of Learning Styles: How Do Students Learn Best
Every student has a strategy they use to remember information more efficiently while studying. Some of them take notes some make diagrams some prefer to listen to lectures, etc. Since no learning style fits all students, scientists have conducted research in order to understand the way students learn new information best.
Lets look at the different types of learning they have distinguished.
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How Educational Learning Theories Can Impact Your Education
Teaching and learning may appear to be a universal experience. After all, everyone goes to school and learns more or less the same thing, right? Well, not quite.
As the prolific number of educational theorists in learning suggests, theres actually an impressive variety of educational approaches to the art and science of teaching. Many of them have been pioneered by educational theorists whove studied the science of learning to determine what works best and for whom.
Learning is defined as a process that brings together personal and environmental experiences and influences for acquiring, enriching or modifying ones knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, behavior and worldviews, notes the International Bureau of Education. Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how this process takes place.
Generally, there are five widely accepted learning theories teachers rely on:
- Behaviorism learning theory
- Humanism learning theory
- Connectivism learning theory
Educational theorists, teachers, and experts believe these theories can inform successful approaches for teaching and serve as a foundation for developing lesson plans and curriculum.
The Index Of Learning Styles
Various related questionnaires and tests quickly came into use, aimed at helping people to identify their personal learning style. One of the most popular was based on The Index of Learning Styles, developed by Dr Richard Felder and Barbara Soloman in the late 1980s.
The questionnaire considered four dimensions: Sensory/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal, Active/Reflective, and Sequential/Global. The theory was that we’re all somewhere on a “continuum” for each of them. Neither extreme was said to be “good” or “bad.” Instead, we’d do best by drawing on both ends of the spectrum.
Questionnaires like this promised to define anyone’s learning style, so that they could address any “imbalances,” and learn in the ways that would benefit them most.
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How To Apply Learning Theories
So, how do learning theories apply in the real world? Education is an evolving field with a complicated future. And, according to Roggeman, the effects of applied educational theory can be long-lasting.
The learning theories we experienced as a student influence the type of work environment we prefer as adults. For example, if one experienced classrooms based heavily on social learning during the K-12 years, as an adult, one may be very comfortable in a highly collaborative work environment. Reflection on ones own educational history might serve as an insightful tool as to ones own fulfillment in the workplace as an adult.
Educational theories have come a long way since the days of Socrates and even the pioneers of behaviorism and cognitivism. And while learning theories will no doubt continue to evolve, teachers and students alike can reap the benefits of this evolution as we continue to develop our understanding of how humans most effectively learn.
Educational theories of learning are one thing. Adult learning theories are another. Learn more on our blog.
Ready to put theory into practice? Explore Foundations in Virtual Teaching at University of Phoenix!
What Are The Five Main Educational Learning Theories
Cognitive Learning Theory
Cognitive learning theory looks at the way people think. Mental processes are an important part in understanding how we learn. The cognitive theory understands that learners can be influenced by both internal and external elements.
Plato and Descartes are two of the first philosophers that focused on cognition and how we as human beings think. Many other researchers looked deeper into the idea of how we think, spurring more research. Jean Piaget is a highly important figure in the field of cognitive psychology, and his work focuses on environments and internal structures and how they impact learning.
Cognitive theory has developed over time, breaking off into sub-theories that focus on unique elements of learning and understanding. At the most basic level, the cognitive theory suggests that internal thoughts and external forces are both an important part of the cognitive process. And as students understand how their thinking impacts their learning and behavior, they are able to have more control over it.
Cognitive learning theory impacts students because their understanding of their thought process can help them learn. Teachers can give students opportunities to ask questions, to fail, and think out loud. These strategies can help students understand how their thought process works, and utilize this knowledge to construct better learning opportunities.
Behaviorism Learning Theory
Constructivism Learning Theory
Humanism Learning Theory
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Theory # 4 Skinners Operant Conditioning Theory:
As against classical conditioning of Pavlov which emphasizes physiological reflexes and the role of mechanical conditioning in learning, Skinners operant conditioning emphasizes the role of satisfaction in the light of Thorndikes law of effect.
Skinner was a staunch behaviourist and tried to avoid such mentalistic concepts as satisfaction and replaced the term as reinforcementan objective phenomenon. Skinners theory of learning therefore, is also known as the theory of instrumental conditioningreinforcement being the instrument. His analysis of learning, behaviour is a functional analysis, which operates in identifying and isolating environmental variables and learning is a product of such functions.
Skinners theory consists of a collection of concepts and principles and research strategies to explain and analyse a complex behaviour. He believed that any complex behaviour, like thinking or problem-solving, when properly analysed will be interpretable in terms of complex interplay of the elementary concepts and principles involved in them.
But this analysis Skinner conducted by following absolutely behaviouristic methodology, completely ignoring the mentalistic and cognitive explanation of behaviour or any behaviour to be caused by inner psychic forces. But only significant departure from traditional stimulus-response psychology of his predecessors he advanced a division between respondent and operant behaviour in terms of responsesstimuli being less important.
Five Educational Learning Theories
No two students are alike, and the way every person learns will vary. Our brains are all unique, and our experiences all contribute to the different ways we learn. Psychologists have spent countless hours performing tests to better understand how students learn.
Current and aspiring teachers need tobe educated to be prepared for teaching students every day, and an important part of teacher education is understanding different ways of learning. There are many solidified learning theories that teachers can learn from as they prepare to help students in the classroom. Teachers who understand learning theories can use different techniques in their classrooms to cater to different kinds of learning. This can help all students find success in learning.
There are five main educational learning theories that educators can utilize to help them enhance their classrooms and make them better learning environments for all students.
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Different Types Of Psychology Fields
Psychology is an area of science that encompasses several specialties. While more ubiquitous areas include clinical psychology, applied behavioral analysis and counseling, other types of psychology and their concentrations include:
Cognitive: Processes of thinking, remembering and learning.
Climate and environmental: Interaction of people with their environment.
Counseling: Peoples development so they can be independent and thrive at all stages of life.
Developmental: Improving the lives of people with developmental challenges.
Experimental: Behavior of humans and animals.
Health: Improving peoples health and wellness using psychology.
Industrial and organizational: Behavior of people in organizations and at work.
Sports and performance: Improving psychological obstacles impeding athletic performance.
How Educational Theories Influence Learning
Educational theories influence learning in a variety of ways. For teachers, learning theory examples can impact their approach to instruction and classroom management. Finding the right approach can make the difference between an effective and inspiring classroom experience and an ineffective one.
Applied learning theories directly impact a classroom experience in a variety of ways, such as:
- Providing students with structure and a comfortable, steady environment.
- Helping educators, administrators, students and parents align on goals and outcomes.
- Empoweringteachers to be, as Bates says, in a better position to make choices about how to approach their teaching in ways that will best fit the perceived needs of their students.
- Impacting howand what a person learns.
- Helping outsiders determine what kind of education you had or are receiving.
- Allowing students a voice in determining how the class will be managed.
- Deciding if instruction will be mostly teacher-led or student-led.
- Determining how much collaboration will happen in a classroom.
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Types Of Therapy Abnormal Psychologists Use
Similar to clinical psychologists, abnormal psychologists also use psychoanalytic therapy to help patients understand the subconscious forces that affect their thoughts and behaviors. According to Psychology Today, one small study found that 77% of patients experienced a significant improvement when this therapeutic model is used. Other therapeutic models, such as art and music therapy, may also be used.
Music therapy is an evidenced-based treatment model in which music is used as a therapeutic mode. After a patient is assessed and their emotional, cognitive, physical, and social needs are determined, a treatment program is prescribed. Treatment programs include activities such as singing, creating, listening to, and/or dancing to certain types of music.
Art therapy is similar to music therapy in that its rooted in the belief that creative expression can improve patients mental well-being. Art therapy is conducted using various techniques such as coloring, painting, drawing, sculpting, and other types of artistic outlets. The goal of this therapeutic model is to help patients engage in self-expression as a means of gaining personal insight and developing more adaptive coping skills.
What Do We Mean By Learning Styles
Its true that people have fairly stable strengths and weaknesses in their cognitive abilities, such as processing language or visual-spatial stimuli. People can also have preferences in the way they receive informationJoan may prefer to read an article while Jay may rather listen to a lecture.
The learning styles theory makes a big leap, suggesting that students will learn better if they are taught in a manner that conforms to their preferences. More than 70 different systems have been developed that use student questionnaires/self-reports to categorize their supposed learning preferences.
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The 8 Types Of Learning According To Psychology
The Types of learning Psychology interests because we usually assume that all behavior is learned or acquired. Therefore, it can also be unlearned if it has a pathological or maladaptive nature.
Perhaps it is in the pedagogical literature and since the Psychology of education where more emphasis has been made on the forms of educational learning.
Although it is something that we do not usually stop to think about, unless we learn new things continuously and because we retain that information we would not have survived as a species.
And not only we as humans, but all beings that inhabit the face of the earth would have totally lost the ability to adapt and, therefore, to overcome the vicissitudes of evolution. Therefore, all living things have different types of learning that allow them to survive.
To begin we must introduce ourselves to the world of learning psychology by defining what this word means. Technically, learning is all behavior that an organism incorporates into its behavioral repertoire.
In other words, everything we do is the result of learning: from walking, to tying our shoes, to talking. It can also be defined as any change that an organism produces in its behavior.
These networks constitute sequences of actions and serve the ultimate phylogenetic end: to maintain and perpetuate the species through survival or adaptation to a medium.
It is above all in the psychopedagogical approach in which we are going to focus this article.
Industrial And Organizational Psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology is a branch of psychology that is slowly gaining recognition. It includes studying and analyzing the behavioral aspects of an employee in an organisation through training programs and by obtaining their feedback. It is all done to improve the performance of the employee thus benefiting the organisation.
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History Of Developmental Psychology
Developmental psychology first appeared as an area of study in the late 19th century . Developmental psychology focused initially on child and adolescent development, and was concerned about childrens minds and learning .
There are several key figures in developmental psychology. In 1877, the famous evolutionary biologist Charles Darwin undertook the first study of developmental psychology on innate communication forms. Not long after, physiologist William Preyer published a book on the abilities of an infant.
The 1900s saw many significant people dominating the developmental psychology field with their detailed theories of development: Sigmund Freud , Jean Piaget , Erik Erikson , Lev Vygotsky , John Bowlby , and Albert Bandura .
In more recent years, it has broadened further to include prenatal development . Developmental psychology is now understood to encompass the complete lifespan .