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What Is Framing In Psychology

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Meanwhile, teenagers and young adults display riskier behavior. There are many developmental factors in play that lead them to take more risks. Risk-based behaviors decrease as people age.

Scientific Studies on Framing

In a study conducted by Tversky and Kahneman, participants were asked to pick one of two treatments for an illness. In this scenario, there were 600 people who had a fatal disease.

  • Treatment one was said to fail for 400 people, and therefore, they would die.
  • Treatment two had a 33 percent chance of effectiveness for everyone, and a 66 percent chance that everyone would die.
    • Participants picked the first treatment when it was framed that 200 people would live.
    • Seventy-two percent of people supported this type of framing.
    • When framed as 400 people would die, it dropped to 22 percent support.

    Both framings had the same information, but the spin on each ultimately determined whether or not people were willing to support it.

    Let’s look at another study, this one involving registration for students. In one 2009 case, early registration was framed to students. There were two kinds of framings in this situation.

  • One framed it as, “If you didn’t register early, you would get fined.”
  • Another framed it by saying, “If you registered early, you would get a discount.”
  • How Does Framing Influence You?

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    History Of Climate Activism

    Climate Activism is constantly shaped and reshaped by dialogue at the local, national, and international level pertaining to climate change as well as by evolving societal norms and values.

    Beginning with the 19th century transcendental movement in which Henry David Thoreau penned his novel On Walden Pond detailing his experiences with the natural environment and augmented by the work of other transcendentalists such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, climate activism has taken many forms. John Muir, also from the late 19th century, advocated for the preservation of Earth for its own sake, establishing the Sierra Club. Aldo Leopolds 1949 collection of essays, A Sand County Almanac, established a land ethic and has set the stage for modern environmental ethics, calling for conservation and preservation of nature and wilderness. Rachel Carsons Silent Spring, published in 1962, revealed the environmental and human health harms of pesticides and successfully advocated for the cessation of DDT usage.

    The concept of global climate change and subsequently the activism space pertaining to the climate took off in the 1970s. The first Earth Day took place on April 22, 1970. The decades following witnessed the establishment of Greenpeace, Earth First!, the United Nations Environmental Program , and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change .

    The Framing Effect: The Role Of Amygdala In Mediating Appetitive

    The Framing Effect is probably the best known example of the biasing effect of context on choice . This effect has been shown to play a key role in many different fields such as stock market forecasting , rate of organ donation and even international conflicts . In 2006 we designed an fMRI study that aimed to elucidate the neural computations associated with the framing effect . Volunteers that took part in the study were asked to make a decision between a safe option or a gamble matched in expected value . The critical manipulation consisted in the rewording of the safe option in the following way: Participants were told at the beginning of each trial that they had been given a certain amount of money to play with in that trial in half of the trials the safe option was either presented in a Gain frame by using the word Keep in the other half it was presented in a Loss frame using the word Lose .

    Figure 5.3. Task. Participants were shown a message indicating the amount of money received to play in that trial . Subjects then had to choose between a sure or a gamble option presented in the context of two different frames. The sure option was formulated as either the amount of money retained from the initial starting amount or as the amount of money lost from the initial amount . The gamble option was identical in both frames and represented as a pie chart depicting the probability of winning or losing.

    Kenway Louie, Benedetto De Martino, in, 2014

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    What Is The Framing Effect

    The framing effect is a cognitive bias that impacts our decision making when said if different ways. In other words, we are influenced by how the same fact or question is presented.

    For example, take two yogurt pots. One says 10 percent fat and another says 90 percent fat free. The framing effect will lead to us picking the second option, as it seems like the second is the healthier option.

    Key Points
  • The Framing effect is where we are presented two or more options, but the outcome is the same.
  • Options are worded differently so that they appeal to our biases.
  • We tend to value options that are framed positively.
  • We tend to choose options that have higher numbers, as our bias believes that higher is better.
  • Prospect theory states that individuals are more sensitive to losses than gains, so we tend to become risk-averse. When presented with a 50-50 chance of gaining or losing an equal amount, we tend to avoid such a choice. This is because the fear of loss is greater than the happiness of gaining.

    The framing effect is specifically when the outcome between the two options is the same. In other words, it doesnt matter which is chosen, the result will be the same. However, when the options are framed differently, they result in us choosing the one that is favorably framed.

    Why Its Important To Understand Framing

    Framing Ap Psychology Definition

    Sales. Politics. Medicine. These are some big, important fields that we encounter everyday and make big effects on our lives. If salesman, politicians, or healthcare professionals have motives that go against our motives, they could potentially frame their communication in a way that leads us astray.

    So as you listen to messages from people trying to persuade you to make a decision, think about the framing effect. How narrow is the frame of the other persons message? What could be outside that frame?

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    Main Effects On The Probability Of Suffering A Cyberattack

    The mean probability of suffering a cyberattack during the experiment was higher in the gain-framed treatment than in the loss-framed treatment . A two-tailed t-test comparing the means of the probability of suffering a cyberattack between the two treatments showed a significant effect . A post hoc analysis using jStat with an alpha of 0.05 gave a power of 0.636. A loss-framed message appeared to be more effective in generating secure behavior, lending some support to Hypothesis 1.

    Figure 1. Box-plot of the probability of suffering a cyberattack by experimental group.

    We estimated a first regression model taking as dependent variable the probability of suffering a cyberattack. The explanatory variables were: the treatments cybersecurity knowledge, trusting beliefs and the interactions between the treatments and the other explanatory variables. This first model showed no significant results for the interactions between the treatments and the other independent variables. In other words, the effect of the gain vs. loss-framed messages did not depend on cybersecurity knowledge or trusting beliefs.

    Table 2 provides the estimation of the final model. It shows that the loss-framed message significantly decreased the probability of cyberattack compared to the gain-framed message . The estimated values of the coefficients show that a loss-framed message reduces the probability of suffering a cyberattack by 4.61%. This result confirms support for Hypothesis 1.

    Foundations In Communication Research

    Anthropologist Gregory Bateson first defined the concept of framing as “a spatial and temporal bounding of a set of interactive messages” .

    Sociological roots of media framing research

    Media framing research has both sociological and psychological roots. Sociological framing focuses on “the words, images, phrases, and presentation styles” that communicators use when relaying information to recipients. Research on frames in sociologically driven media research generally examines the influence of “social norms and values, organizational pressures and constraints, pressures of interest groups, journalistic routines, and ideological or political orientations of journalists” on the existence of frames in media content.

    Todd Gitlin, in his analysis of how the news media trivialized the student New Left movement during the 1960s, was among the first to examine media frames from a sociological perspective. Frames, Gitlin wrote, are “persistent patterns of cognition, interpretations, and presentation, of selection emphasis … largely unspoken and unacknowledged … organize the world for both journalists for those of us who read their reports”.

    Psychological roots of media framing research

    Visual Framing

    Visual framing refers to the process of using images to portray certain parts of reality.

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    Founder Psychology: The Importance Of Frames

    His palms are sweaty, knees weak, arms are heavy Theres vomit on his sweater already, moms spaghetti Hes nervous, but on the surface he looks calm and ready To drop bombs, but he keeps on forgetting Eminem

    It was the summer of 2013. My friend Bryan and I nervously sat at a large mahogany conference table. We were in the final stages of acquisition talks with Yahoo for our fantasy football startup. We glanced at each other anxiously as we waited for the senior executives who would determine the fate of our small company.

    I set this scene to introduce one of the most powerful concepts in psychology: the frame. Simply put, a frame is your interpretation of reality. Our senses are constantly bombarded with stimuli, and our brain uses frames to make sense of the chaos. Think of it as the user interface for your neural activity. I wont go too deep into the science, but if you want to read more, Tversky and Kahnemann have done a ton of groundbreaking research on this topic. Here are some examples from their papers:

    • People prefer 80% lean beef rather than 20% fat
    • People prefer a condom that is 95% effective to one that has a 5% failure rate
    • How do you feel about Obamas policies gets very different responses than Compared to Hitler, how do you feel about Obamas policies?

    I think you get the idea.

    Message Framing And Anchor Price

    The Framing Effect Psychology- How to Train Your Brain!

    Based on the research of Grewal et al. and Chang , this study adopted positively and negatively framed messages for organic food advertisements. It positively framed organic lettuce by saying:

    Organic food uses natural and ecological production methods, not only providing you with safe food but also fostering sustainable environmental development, thereby benefiting everyone. When you decide to purchase organic lettuce, you are making a healthy decision that also protects the environment. There is no doubt that there are many benefits to purchasing and eating organic lettuce. By choosing organic food, you are consuming lettuce that is free of harmful content such as chemicals, antibiotics, and pesticides. Choosing Organic lettuce is not only an advantage for your health but also reduces your impact on the environment. It is good for everyone.

    For negative framing, it described the same product using the following phrasing:

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    Origins Of The Framing Effect

    In 1981, Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky studied how various means of phrasing the same information influenced the responses to a hypothetically life and death situation .

    The participants of the study were asked to choose between two options for treatment for 600 people afflicted with a fatal disease.

    The first option was likely to result in the deaths of 400 people. The second option, on the other hand, had 66% possibility of everyone dying and a 33% possibility of no one dying.

    These two options were then presented to the participants of the study with either a negative framing , or a positive framing .

    Of the participants, 72% chose the first option for treatment when it was framed positively, i.e., as saving 200 lives. However, only 22% chose the same option when it was framed negatively, i.e., as resulting in the deaths of 400 people.

    The results of the experiment demonstrated that choices which people make when they are offered options to choose from are influenced not merely by the substance of the information but also by the framing thereof.

    Change Your Point Of View

    It’s easy to get into the mindset that your outlook is the only way to look at a problem. Cognitive reframing teaches you to ask yourself questions like, “Is there another way to look at this situation?” or, “What are some other possible reasons this could have happened?” Pointing out alternatives can help you see things from another view.

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    Framing Theory And Frame Analysis In Sociology

    Framing theory and frame analysis provide a broad theoretical approach that analysts have used in communication studies, news , politics, and social movements .

    According to some sociologists, the “social construction of collective action frames” involves “public discourse, that is, the interface of media discourse and interpersonal interaction persuasive communication during mobilization campaigns by movement organizations, their opponents and countermovement organizations and consciousness raising during episodes of collective action.”

    Framing Effect Example: Vaccines

    Effect of Framing

    Consider two framings of two vaccine programs that can save 600 people affected by a virus:

    • Program A will save 200 people. Program B has chance of saving 600 and chance of saving none.
    • Program A will leave 400 people dead. Program B has chance that nobody will die, and chance that 600 will die.

    Per prospect theory and framing effect in psychology, you can predict that people prefer A in the first set and B in the second set. But again, these framings are logically equivalent.

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    The Framing Effect And Teenagers

    In their book , Chip and Dan Heath point out that teenagers are especially prone to something they call a whether-or-not decision. This is a specific type of framing bias.

    Studies show that, when making a decision, only 30% of teenagers consider more than one option.

    Hopefully that sounds crazy to you.

    How could you possibly make a decision by only considering one option?

    Teenagers often get caught up trying to decide whether or not they should do something. Should I go to the party?Should I ask her out?Should I go out with him?

    The problem with this type of whether-or-not framing psychology is laid out in a recent paper by marketing researcher Daniel Mochon called Single-Option Aversion. As the name of the paper implies, Daniel shows that the framing effect is especially strong when we try to make a decision that only involves one option.

    In fact, our brains actually resist making decisions at all until we consider more options.

    The problem for teens is that the decision-making part of their brain is not yet fully developed, so they have a hard time seeing that there are more possibilities.

    Of course, we also dont want to go crazy considering too many options when we make a decision either. This is the thesis of Barry Schwartzs fascinating book The Paradox of Choice.

    In both situations the choice was still ultimately the same: do you want to buy jam or not.

    The Inner And Outer Game Of Frame Control

    Since life is one giant frame more or less, we can take this down to the micro/individual/group level. How you view the world is a frame. The frame is constructed from your past experiences, beliefs, and even suggestions. This frame will dictate the responses you have towards life and ultimately, your behavior towards yourself and other individuals.

    As such, frame ultimately has an inner component that affects what you do in areas such as:

    • Motivation

    And an outer component that affects others and situations such as:

    • General Social Skills
    • Public Speaking
    • Influence

    This means that constructing good frames and being able to persuade not only others but yourself to take certain actions is very important.

    And while there are universal laws and principles of life, the ways and means in which you follow them vary. And it will vary depending on what frame you use to follow it.

    For example, take the question how do you make a million dollars?. The answer will depend on what path you follow. You can be a doctor, you can be #5 at a startup that goes public, and the list goes on and on. This is the essence of frame control. You can frame multiple situations how you want but the frame needs to follow some rules at the end of the day.

    What does that entail? Well, heres a breakdown.

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    Age And The Framing Effect


    The impact of framing upon the decision-making processes of children seem to increase as they grow .

    For instance, while preschoolers tend to base their decisions on quantitative properties like the probability of a certain result, elementary schoolers tend to rely on qualitative reasoning, choosing surer options for gains within a positive frame, and riskier options within a negative frame notwithstanding the probability.

    This increase in qualitative reasoning is associated with a rise in âgist basedâ thinking which is correlated with age .


    While adolescents are more likely to be influenced by the framing effect than are children, their susceptibility to the phenomenon is not as strong as those of adults .

    Adolescents tend to opt for riskier choices under both loss and gain framing situations .

    One explanation for this outcome is that adolescents, unlike adults, lack actual real-life experiences of negative repercussions, and therefore, depend too heavily upon conscious risk-benefit analyses which rely on the specific details associated with quantitative evaluation .

    This diminishes the influence of the framing effect and induces more consistency between positive and negative frames.


    Adults are more susceptible to framing effects than are children and adolescents.

    For instance, a research study of undergraduate students discovered that they are more likely to eat meat labeled 75% lean meat rather than 25% fat .

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