Tuesday, May 14, 2024

What Is Distance Decay In Human Geography

Don't Miss

What Is An Example Of Seasonal Migration

AP Human Geography – Friction of Distance and Distance Decay

Seasonal migration can take place over very long distances. Bat, seal, turtle, and insect species all seasonally migrate. For example, the monarch butterfly migrates from southern Canada to winter in central Mexico. Stopping en route to rest and refuel with food and water is common among migratory bird species.

Construction And Maintenance Costs

Water, air, and land are pretty distinct in terms of the different costs they impose on the construction and maintenance of the devices used to transport people, goods, and messages, across or through them, as well as the upkeep of the routes themselves.

For transportation of people and goods, a river needs to have its channel kept open, and a sea needs to have a system of tracking vessels and hazards such as storms. Airspace requires careful attention to the weather as well as a tracking system. Land surfaces, however, require the building and maintenance of a network of transportation routes. All of these can increase or decrease the friction of distance.

For the transport of information , fiber-optic cables, cell towers, and satellites are increasingly reducing the friction of distance.

Distance Decay And Friction Of Distance

Distance decay is an effect of the friction of distance, a fundamental process in geography. Waldo Tobler’s First Law of Geography says it most simply:

Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things.1

The friction of distance is derived from the inverse square law, rooted in physics. Many equations describing spatial activities in the quantitative social sciences are derived from it. The law states that as distance increases, the effect of two things on each other decreases as the inverse of the square of the distance. If they are twice as far from each other, they exert one-quarter of the attraction, etc.

People tend to be bound by the friction of distance because of a wide range of costs imposed by traveling from point A to point B and, usually, back. These costs are all commonsense as we highlighted in the introduction, we choose where we go based on specific variables.

Also Check: What Math Class Do 11th Graders Take

What Are Some Events That Occur In Cycles

Geologic and Evolutionary Cycles Mass extinctions, climate, polar reversals, sea level fluctuations, plate tectonic episodes, and volcanic eruptions also occur in cycles or episodes. Furthermore, such events often take place when cratering occurs, which may be cyclic, or at least, clustered around other events.

The Affect Of Distance Decay On Ecosystems

What Is Friction Of Distance In Human Geography

Biomes are likewise affected by the distance decay phenomenon. The physical distance between two geographic sites is closely proportional to their loss of ecological and biodiversity similarities.

The greater the physical distance between two regions, the more likely it is that climatic and geological features such as lakes and mountains may influence weather patterns in one area but not the other, influencing which species can inhabit them.

Longer distances make seed distribution more difficult for plants. As a result, a grove of maple trees in one place is unlikely to have cousins in a forest a hundred miles distant, and certainly not in a desert a thousand miles away.

Recommended Reading: How Is Human Geography Related To Social Science

What Is An Example Of Cyclic Movement In Human Geography

Cyclic movement, for example, nomadic migration that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally. Distance decay, When contact between two. , Cyclic movement, Or circulation for example, nomadic migration that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally e.g., activity. Migrant labor.

The Fascinating Concept Of Distance Decay Explained With Examples

‘Out of Sight, Out of Mind’, goes the famous adage. But there are deeper concepts which are embedded in this old saying. We shall endeavor to understand the meaning of ‘Distance Decay’, a complex phenomenon, with the aid of some examples.

Like it? Share it!

Out of Sight, Out of Mind, goes the famous adage. But there are deeper concepts which are embedded in this old saying. We shall endeavor to understand the meaning of Distance Decay, a complex phenomenon, with the aid of some examples.

Don’t Miss: What Does L Mean In Math

Factors Affecting Distance Decay

Distance decay between human settlements is somewhat offset by things that enhance interactions among remote groups.

For example, if the populations in groups A, B, and C are connected by a bullet train, then their proximity to each other matters a lot less than if they have to rely to traveling on foot.

If a city can afford to provide well-maintained roads and adequate transit from the center to the outskirts, then the city will experience more even development, and there might be less disparity between the city center and the outskirts.

Inventions like widespread wireless technology and high speed internet have helped cut down on distance decay even more. Now, an individual in France can easily contact an individual in Brazil in seconds via a cable internet connection, allowing for an easy, rapid exchange of ideas.

What Are Distance Decay Examples

Distance Decay/ Time-Space Compression (1 Min APHG Review) #Shorts

As the distance between the two locales increases, the amount of activity between them decreases. Likewise, if you build a store in the middle of nowhere unconnected to transportation, no one will visit your store.

The idea of distance decay has been applied since the beginning of human civilization. Farmers who water their fields are going to keep their supply of water as the shortest route possible. They dont want the distance to be very far.

Think of going to a park or shopping and your experience of distance decay? How does Waldo Tobler First Law of Geography describe relationships between close and things farther away?

Take the time to write down some of the stores you patron, and if you are applying distance decay in your everyday life. Find some new stores on the map, and picture how likely you are to travel to go there.

Add a comment below and let me know.

Read Also: What Does F Mean In Physics

Presentation On Theme: Models In Human Geography Distance Decay Model Law Of Spatial Interaction Distance And Interaction Are Inversely Proportional The Shorter The Distance Presentation Transcript:

1 Models in Human Geography

2 Distance Decay Model Law of Spatial Interaction Distance and interaction are inversely proportional The shorter the distance the more likely interaction will occur the greater the distance the less likely interaction occurs The friction of distance increases with distance Relative distance measured in time and cost of travel transferability

3 The Gravity Model predictor of migration flows based on size and distance between two places resembles Newtons law of gravity based on size of 2 objects Gravity Model accounts for: population migration, commodity flows, work commutes, shopping patterns, telephone call volumes

4 Demographic Transition Model Generalized illustration of population change over time prediction of growth pattern that ALL countries will follow. Based on European experience of population growth and then return to equilibrium as result of industrialization and urbanization 1. High, fluctuating birth high, fluctuating death = low growth 2. High birth falling death = high growth 3. Falling birth continued falling death = decreasing growth 4. Low birth low death = low growth

6 Ester Boserup S-Curve Boserup Thesis population increases necessitate technological advancements technology will always raise carrying capacity when overpopulation occurs revision of Malthusian Theory conversion from extensive to intensive

7 Population Pyramids

9 Rostows Model of Economic Development

19 US Megalopolitan Areas

Applications Of Distance Decay

Distance decay models were first introduced to geographic applications during the Quantitative revolution of the 1960s, and have since become common in a number of uses:

You May Like: How To Find Maximum Height Physics

What Is An Example Of Friction Of Distance In Ap Human Geography

What is an example of friction of distance in AP human geography? An example of friction of distance is the interaction that my friend and I had when we attended the same middle school in 8th, compared to different high schools in 9th, including online interaction.

What does friction distance mean? Air travel is able to cover longer distances in a shorter period of time. The friction of distance implies that the length of the journey and its difficulty are a consequence of the energy and resources like money needed to complete the journey.

What is the difference between distance decay and friction of distance? Distance decay describes how spatial interaction decreases with increasing distance between two places because of the penalties in travel time and cost associated with longer distances. This effect has been termed the friction of distance.

How does friction of distance affect migration? Implicit in this statement is that fewer migrants travel longer distances and that distance, therefore, exerts a frictional effect on migration behaviour.

Effects Of Distance Decay

Cartogram ap human geography â Navarilla

Once the distance decay is dealt with, the population of pedestrians on the city streets increases. Some people visit the city to work and others to run different errands, and they can do so because of easier and quicker modes of transport. The streets are no longer empty with people moving up and down. The streets that were once quiet are no longer quiet and in major towns and cities, people are often pushing and shoving as they rush against time to accomplish their desires for the day. The shops in the cities have undergone major changes, moving from shops to convenience stores, and most recently to malls where you are bound to find everything under one roof. The prices of land have skyrocketed in towns and the surrounding areas and the buildings have now evolved into skyscrapers.

Don’t Miss: How To Do Your Math Homework Fast

What Is Distance Decay

Distance decay is a term used in geography to describe the effects of distance on spatial or cultural interactions. Distance decay means that the interaction between locals declines as the distance between them increases. In other words, if the distance between two locales increases, then their interactions decrease. With infrastructure improving every day, this gap is slowly closing. With the construction of many roads and railways, moving from one region to the other is easier and faster which is causing the problem to be solved slowly. The distance is also minimized by modes of communication example being the telephone, letters, telegraph, broadcasts, and most recently the internet.

What Is Cyclic Movement In Migration

Cyclic movement, for example, nomadic migration that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally. Distance decay, When contact between two. , Cyclic movement, Or circulation for example, nomadic migration that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally e.g., activity. Migrant labor.

Also Check: What Does The Term Geography Mean

Understanding Friction Of Distance With Examples

There is always a decrease in interactivity owing to an increase in distance. This distance is heightened, and refuses to decrease without the application of external factors. These factors can be financial, or the supply of energy of some form to decrease the distance. This results in friction of communication, which is known as Friction of Distance. It represents the amount of distance that may affect the interaction of two individuals. One burning example of this phenomenon is migration that takes place. Distance is directly responsible for the migration of people. Due to increased distances, the process of migration is affected. This means that, if the distance between two places increases, the interaction between the occupants of the places would be on the lower side.

As an example, let us take two acquaintances who live nearby. Their distance from each others home is only a mile. Now, let us consider that either of the friends got transferred elsewhere, and now their distance has increased by three miles. Thus, the result would be a decrease in their interaction. Now, to increase the interaction between them, there ought to be facilitators of communication. They must have an access to communication between their places.

Lets us also consider another example that would lend more clarity to this concept.

How Do Store Planners Use Distance Decay

1.4: Distance Decay, Time-Space Compression, and other Spatial Concepts! AP Human Geography

Distance decay is the idea that the farther away you are from goods or services, the less likely you are to make use of it. For example, if you live in a rural area, its unlikely that you travel to a bigger city 100 miles even if it offers bigger and better goods and services.

So a stores distance has an impact on how many customers it can attract from nearby towns. This varies from place to place with fewer connections or transportation hindering the impact of distance.

Geographers think that you can apply the idea of distance decay all over the world.

And it doesnt only apply to city planners. For example, industries like agriculture use distance decay to shorten travel time to nearby supplies like water and fertilizer for fields.

Become a business analyst:

PowerBI Certification: A Guide to Business Intelligence

Don’t Miss: What Is 1 Mole In Chemistry

Distance Decay: Explanation With An Example

Let us consider the following scenario:

We shall assume that there is a departmental store that has been recently erected for the people within a block. The group of people who reside closest to this store are the probable customers, who would be loyal consumers. We shall call them Group I. The distance between the store and Group I is 1 mile.

The next group of people who reside a little farther away from the store are also customers of the store. Their distance is 1.2 miles. We call them Group II. There is another group which resides 2 miles away from the store, who are also potential customers. We will call them Group III.

Now, let us suppose that there comes up another store which is set up very close to Group III. Hence, these customers who used to visit the first store after commuting 2 miles will no longer choose to travel and go to that store. They would rather opt for the new store which is at a stones throw from them. Group II will have two options at hand, as their distance from both the stores are approximately the same. Hence, they wouldnt be loyal consumers of either stores.

Group I is certainly a bunch of loyal customers of the departmental store, as their distance from the store is lesser as compared to the distance between them and the newly erected store. Hence, apart from the availability of the products, what consumers consider is the time and cost that would be invested in shopping.

What Causes Distance Decay

Main conclusions The distance decay of similarity can be caused by either a decrease in environmental similarity with distance or by limits to dispersal and niche width differences among taxa.

How is the concept of distance decay related to friction of distance?

Distance decay describes how spatial interaction decreases with increasing distance between two places because of the penalties in travel time and cost associated with longer distances. This effect has been termed the friction of distance.

Read Also: What Is The Meaning Of Sas In Math

The End Of Distance Decay

As we mentioned, the friction of distance in terms of communications has effectively been reduced to zero: space no longer matters. Or does it? Will CBDs cease to exist because companies go entirely online? Will more and more places look the same thanks to instantaneous communication and quicker transportation times?

Maybe not. Places may seek to look different and be different to avoid becoming just like everywhere else. Travelers often look for local restaurants and unique experiences, not the same things they can find at home or anywhere else. Only time will tell.

Solution To Distance Decay

Inverse Distance

Distance decay was a great problem that affected people in the past since movement from point A to point B was greatly hindered. The mode of transport has developed over time from traveling on foot, to using camel and donkey backs, to motor vehicles and ships and even faster airplanes. Distance decay will soon become a thing of the past as technology continues to develop. The world is developing at a very fast pace with the developed nations encouraging their people to innovate. The renovation has seen talented people develop telecommunications from the use of telephone booths to mobile phones which almost every person owns. Growth has also been experienced with the development of the web where a person can get all the information they need in the comfort of their homes. The internet has also helped a lot in preventing distance decay to continue. With a good internet connection, one can do business in various nations unlike when they needed to travel for transactions to be made.

Read Also: What Is Blank Solution In Chemistry

What Is Distance Decay In Criminology

Abstract. Criminal distance decay is the fundamental notion that a relationship exists between the distance from an offenders home base to a potential target location and the likelihood that the offender chooses to offend in that location.

How does distance decay relate to the first law of geography?

Toblers First Law of Geography is based on cost distance or distance decay. This means there is a greater hindrance to two places farther apart. For example, people are less likely to travel greater distance to visit a store as shown in Huffs Gravity Model.

More articles

Popular Articles