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Which Of The Following Does Economic Geography Study

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ð? What is Geography? Crash Course Geography #1

ESPN+ includes a ton of exclusive video content from live games to on-demand shows and exclusive stories. Subscribers can watch live games from the MLB, NHL, and MLS when their seasons are active there are no live NBA or NFL games. Theres also PGA golf, UFC, college football, international soccer, and tennis.

What Is An Espn Chart

An ESPN chart enables students to systematically examine the economics, social, political and environmental dimensions of a country, and then compare the countries of a region. The teacher in the globalization lesson, Shagufta Ellam, cautions that having students learn how to use ESPN charts effectively, takes time.

Why Is Economic Geography Considered A Dynamic Science

Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. It represents a traditional subfield of the discipline of geography. However, many economists have also approached the field in ways more typical of the discipline of economics.

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How Sociology Is Related With Economics

Sociology and Economics as social sciences have close relations. Relationship between the two is close that one is often treated as the branch of the other. According to Thomas, Economics is, in fact, but one branch of the comprehensive science of sociology. In the word of Silverman, it may be regarded for ordinary purposes as an offshoot of the parent science. Sociology, which studies the general principles of all social relations. But this does not mean that economics is a branch of sociology.

Economics deals with the economic activities of man. Dr. Alfred Marshall defines economics as On the one side the study of wealth, and on the other and more important side a part of the study of man. Prof. Lionel Rohbins defines economics as the science of human behavior in its relations with ends and scarce means, which have attractive uses. It can also be understood as the science of wealth in its three stages namely production and consumption.

Economics studies man as a wealth getter and a wealth disposer. Wealth constitutes the central problem of economics. It studies inter-relations of purely economic factors and forces. The relations of price and supply, money flows, input-output ratios and the like. It studies the structure and function of economic organizations like banks, factories, markets, business firms, corporations, transport etc. Recently economists have shown more interest in motivation behind mans economic action.

Differences between Sociology and Economics:

What Are 4 Types Of Economic Activities

Changing Patterns of Energy Consumption (6hrs)

The four essential economic activities are resource management, the production of goods and services, the distribution of goods and services, and the consumption of goods and services. As you work through this book, you will learn in detail about how economists analyze each of these areas of activity.

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Topics Within Economic Geography

Theoretical economic geography is the broadest of the branches and geographers within that subdivision mainly focus on building new theories for how the world’s economy is arranged. Regional economic geography looks at the economies of specific regions around the world. These geographers look at local development as well as the relationships that specific regions have with other areas. Historical economic geographers look at the historical development of an area to understand their economies. Behavioral economic geographers focus on an area’s people and their decisions to study the economy.

Critical economic geography is the final topic of study. It developed out of critical geography and geographers in this field attempt to study economic geography without using the traditional methods listed above. For example, critical economic geographers often look at economic inequalities and the dominance of one region over another and how that dominance impacts the development of economies.

In addition to studying these different topics, economic geographers also often study very specific themes related to the economy. These themes include the geography of agriculture, transportation, natural resources, and trade as well as topics such as business geography.

How Do You Explain Geography To A Child

Geography is about Earths land, water, air, and living thingsparticularly people. The word comes from the Greek geo, which means Earth, and graphy, which means writing or description. Physical geographers study landforms, water, soil, and climate. They also study the distribution of living things.

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The Location Of Agricultural Activities

Thünen sought to explain the pattern of agricultural activities surrounding cities in preindustrial Germany. Each location in space is characterized by various factors such as soil conditions, relief, geographical position, and the like. Both land rent and land use vary across locations depending on these characteristics. Among them, the most important for location theorists is the transport-cost differential over space. Whereas Ricardo concentrated on fertility differences in his explanation of the land rent, Thünen constructed a theory focusing on the transport-cost differentials across locations. To this end, he used a very simple and elegant setting in which space is represented by a plain on which land is homogeneous in all respects except for a market town in which all transactions regarding agricultural goods must occur. The location of the market town is supposed to be given and the reasons for its existence are left outside of the analysis. By allocating an acre of land near the town to some crop, the costs of delivering all other crops are indirectly affected as they are forced to be grown farther away. Hence, determining which crops to grow where is not an easy task. Though simple, this setting is rich enough to show how a competitive land market can structure the use of land across space by perfectly divisible activities.

Why The Division Of Labor Increases Production


When the tasks involved with producing a good or service are divided and subdivided, workers and businesses can produce a greater quantity of output. In his observations of pin factories, Smith observed that one worker alone might make 20 pins in a day, but that a small business of 10 workers , could make 48,000 pins in a day. How can a group of workers, each specializing in certain tasks, produce so much more than the same number of workers who try to produce the entire good or service by themselves? Smith offered three reasons.

Second, workers who specialize in certain tasks often learn to produce more quickly and with higher quality. This pattern holds true for many workers, including assembly line laborers who build cars, stylists who cut hair, and doctors who perform heart surgery. In fact, specialized workers often know their jobs well enough to suggest innovative ways to do their work faster and better.

A similar pattern often operates within businesses. In many cases, a business that focuses on one or a few products is more successful than firms that try to make a wide range of products.

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History And Development Of Economic Geography

The field of economic geography continued to grow as European nations later began to explore and colonize different regions around the world. During these times European explorers made maps describing economic resources such as spices, gold, silver and tea that they believed would be found in places like the Americas, Asia and Africa . They based their explorations on these maps and as a result, new economic activity was brought to those regions. In addition to the presence of these resources, explorers also documented the trading systems that the people native to these regions engaged in.

In the mid-1800’s farmer and economist, Johann Heinrich von Thünen developed his model of agricultural land use. This was an early example of modern economic geography because it explained the economic development of cities based on land use. In 1933 geographer Walter Christaller created his Central Place Theory that used economics and geography to explain the distribution, size, and number of cities around the world.

The Nature Of Competition In Space

The debate about whether the general competitive equilibrium model is comprehensive enough to fully reflect the working of the spatial economy has a long history. When Isard critically discussed general equilibrium analysis, he was mainly concerned with Hickss Value and Capital published in 1939. Isard concluded that Hicks confined himself to a wonderland of no spatial dimensions. He further elaborated this point on page 477 in which he recorded a conversation he had with Schumpeter, who defended the Hicksian analysis, maintaining that transport cost is implicitly contained in production cost, and thus Hicksian analysis is sufficiently comprehensive. In contrast, Isard argued that: production theory cannot justifiably treat certain production costs explicitly and other important ones implicitly in order to avoid the obstacles to analysis which the latter present. Schumpeters argument is a typical example of how general economists viewed the role of space in economic theory.

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Implications For Global Economic Geographies

Global economic geographies can be conceived in terms of institutions, power centers, and flows of influence. In advanced modernity, governance policies and practices are conceived by experts in institutions concentrated in a few power centers, global cities that exercise power in world space. Each power center can be thought, in and of itself, as a place, in the sense of a cluster of interconnected institutions, or what might be termed an institutional complex. Furthermore, centers of power can be classified as belonging to three main types, according to the dominant purpose of their leading institutions and the type of power they initiate: economic, meaning that their leading institutions deal primarily in money, as with financial markets, investment banks, or corporate headquarters, and transmit power as control over investment and financial expertise ideological, meaning that institutions deal in ideas produced at the level of theory, as with universities, research institutes, and foundations and transmit power as scientifically justified ideas, rationalities, and discourses and political, meaning that institutions construct and enforce ideas in practical formats, as with government and governance centers that transmit power as policy. Power, then, takes three forms: ideological, meaning control over rationalities economic, meaning control over capital and political, meaning control over practice.

Exercise: Very Short Answer

Themes &  Big Ideas

Quantitative techniques/statistical techniques.

Q5. Explain different branches of geography under Biogeography.

Answer: Biogeography has emerged as a result of the interface between physical geography and human geography. It has three branches: Plant Geography, Zoo Geography and Ecology.< br> Different branches of Biogeography are as follows:< br> Plant Geography: It studies the spatial pattern of natural vegetation in their habitats.< br> Zoo Geography: It studies the spatial patterns and geographic characteristics of animals and their habitats.< br> Ecology: It is concerned with the scientific study of the habitats characteristic of species.< br> Environmental Geography: It is concerned with environmental problems such as land gradation, pollution and environment conservation.

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Research In The Master Economic Geography

In the field of Economic Geography the emphasis of the researchlays with regional labour market analysis and the demography offirms.

Regional labour market analysis addresses many themes, such aslabour productivity and wage formation, the dynamic of the regionallabour market, and migration, gender and the labour market.Demography of firms addresses amongst other subjects, startingbusinesses and the migration of corporations,and the factors involved in the decision of the choice of location.The relation between foundations and corporate migrations, andregional development is also part of the research.

  • I feel my job is at the heart of what Economic Geography is about

    Sander van Voorn

Meridians Or Lines Of Longitude

The prime meridian sits at 0 degrees longitude and divides the earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The prime meridian is defined as an imaginary line that runs through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, a suburb of London. The Eastern Hemisphere includes the continents of Europe, Asia, and Australia, while the Western Hemisphere includes North and South America. All meridians east of the prime meridian are numbered from 1 to 180 degrees east the lines west of the prime meridian are numbered from 1 to 180 degrees west . The 0 and 180 lines do not have a letter attached to them. The meridian at 180 degrees is called the International Date Line. The International Date Line is opposite the prime meridian and indicates the start of each day . Each day officially starts at 12:01 a.m., at the International Date Line. Do not confuse the International Date Line with the prime meridian . The actual International Date Line does not follow the 180-degree meridian exactly. A number of alterations have been made to the International Date Line to accommodate political agreements to include an island or country on one side of the line or another.

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Economic Returns Of Transport Investments

A common expectation is that transport investments will generate economic returns, which in the long run, should justify the initial capital commitment. Like most infrastructure projects, transportation infrastructure can generate a 5 to 20% annual return on the capital invested, with such figures often used to promote and justify investments. However, transport investments tend to have . While initial infrastructure investments tend to have a high return since they provide an entirely new range of mobility options, the more the system is developed, the more likely additional investment would lower returns. At some point, the marginal returns can be close to zero or even negative. A common fallacy assumes that additional transport investments will have a similar multiplying effect than the initial investments had, which can lead to capital misallocation. The most common reasons for the declining marginal returns of transport investments are:

  • Diminishing Returns of Transport Investments
  • Types of Economies in Production, Distribution and Consumption
  • Trade, Connectivity and Spatial Inequalities
  • Transport Economic Indicators

The Economic Importance Of Transportation

How Does the Earth Create Different Landforms? Crash Course Geography #20

Development can be defined as improving the welfare of a society through appropriate social, political, and economic conditions. The expected outcomes are quantitative and qualitative improvements in human capital as well as physical capital such as infrastructures .

The development of transportation systems takes place in a socioeconomic context. While development policies and strategies focus on physical capital, recent years have seen a better balance by including human capital issues. Irrespective of the relative importance of physical versus human capital, development cannot occur without both interacting as infrastructures cannot remain effective without proper operations and maintenance. At the same time, economic activities cannot take place without an infrastructure base. The highly transactional and service-oriented functions of many transport activities underline the complex relationship between its physical and human capital needs. For instance, effective logistics rely on infrastructures and managerial expertise.

  • Factors behind the Development of Transport Systems
  • Services and their Associated Infrastructures
  • Economic Impacts of Transportation Infrastructure
  • Employment in Transportation, United States, 1990-2018

Assessing the economic importance of transportation requires the categorization of the types of impacts it conveys. These involve core , operational and geographical dimensions:

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Exercise: Long Answer Type

Q1. What is the importance of Physical Geography?
Q2. Physical and human factors both are dynamic not static. Explain.
Q3. Explain different branches of Physical geography.

Answer: It has four sub-branches which are as follows:-Geomorphology: It is concerned with the study of landforms, their evolution and related processes.-Climatology: It is concerned with the study of structure of atmosphere and elements of weather and climates and climatic types and regions.-Hydrology: It studies the realm of water over the surface of the earth including oceans, lakes, rivers and other water bodies and its effect on different life forms including human life and their activities.-Soil Geography: It is concerned with the study of the processes of soil formation, soil types, their fertility status, distribution and use.

Q4. What matters are studied under Human Geography?

Entrepreneurship And Born Global Firms A New Research Agenda

Economic geography has yet to develop a major research or teaching agenda on entrepreneurship. A reading of the existing geographical literature on entrepreneurship leads to the assumption that entrepreneurship is about clustering or perhaps minority ethnic populations. More recently, an interesting geographical literature is developing on the relationship between place and entrepreneurship and with a particular focus on self-employment . The WWW, new technologies and the on-going division of labor have created opportunities for new forms of entrepreneurship. This has created new business models with distinctive and often unusual economic geographies. The study of small firms and entrepreneurship has tended to be relegated to be of secondary importance compared to research into global value chains, TNCs, and international business. Nevertheless, entrepreneurship is a fundamental geographical process, which is both enabled and constrained by place-based relationships and translocal relationships . There is an interesting opportunity for economic geography to pay more attention to entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship the study of all types of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behavior should form one of the central research and teaching pillars of economic geography.

N.M. Rantisi, J.S. Boggs, in, 2020

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Critical Resource Geography: An Economic Geography Research Agenda

Anglophone economic geography has addressed a wide range of concerns in the post-war period but has avoided a sustained engagement with natural resource questions. An earlier period of geographical inquiry had no such aversion: it inventoried, cataloged, and speculated about resources with an unswerving instrumentalism. The paradoxical legacies of this earlier period are a richly detailed set of resource descriptions, assessments, and maps that can provide a fascinating account of the evolution of a global resource economy and a heterodox tradition of critical inquiry located on the margins of economic geography which considers how resource geographies are structured by economic, political, and social processes and, therefore, owe a debt to more than nature alone. These legacies provide the foundation for a critical resource geography which engages questions of knowledge, scarcity, governance, and sustainability that are at the heart of modern human geography. Critical resource geography accounts for the political, economic, and cultural processes by which particular components of the natural world become produced as resources, and subsequently proliferate through the economy in the form of commodities and examines how the biophysical and material properties of resources influence the social organization of their production.

K. Simonsen, in, 2009

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