New Approaches To Cancer Treatment
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019 was awarded jointly to William Kaelin, Peter Ratcliffe and Gregg Semenza for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability, and how oxygen levels affect cellular metabolism and physiological function. Some of their important discoveries were made over 25 years ago.5050 Semenza, G. L. Nejfelt, M. K. Chi, S. M. Antonarakis, S. E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1991, 88, 5680.
A key protein for oxygen-sensing in our cells is the hypoxia-inducible factor . Normal oxygen levels control rapid HIF-1 degradation with the help of oxygen-sensitive enzymes . In hypoxia, HIF-1 is protected from degradation and can bind to DNA and regulate gene expression.
There is potential too for medical use of osmium the heaviest congener in group 8 of the periodic table. So far, the medicinal chemistry of osmium has been little explored. My research lab has recently discovered organo-osmium complexes which are more potent toward cancer cells than the clinical drug cisplatin.5252 Hearn, J. M. Romero-Canelon, I. Munro, A. F. Fu, Y. Pizarro, A. M. Garnett, M. J. McDermott, U. Carragher, N. O. Sadler, P. J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2015, 112, E3800.
The Discursive Strategy Of Fundamental Research And The Reassessment Of German Science In The Nazi Period
Over the last decade, German science and its research endeavours under National Socialism have undergone a historical re-evaluation, namely within two major projects on the history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft . The focus has shifted to some extent from the effects of Nazi ideology and the participation of the humanities, anthropology, and medicine in racist and eugenic policies, to the hard and technical sciences that contributed to the military and economic goals of the Nazi regime. Whereas former studies stressed the negative effects of Nazi science policy, such as, the international isolation of the German scientific community, the experience of being cut off from raw materials required by the experimental sciences and the focus on substitute research as a result of a policy of autarky, and, since 1933, the incredible loss of excellent researchers as a result of racist science policy, recent studies present a more differentiated picture of science under the Nazi regime when focusing on research output and technical innovation.
What Chemistry Jobs Pay The Most
Top Jobs for Chemistry Majors Chemical Engineer. Doctor. Forensic Scientist. Pharmacologist. Average Base Pay: $127,000. Materials Scientist. Average Base Pay: $77,000. Research Scientist. Average Base Pay: $83,500. Laboratory Technician. Average Base Pay: $37,000. Environmental Consultant. Average Base Pay: $62,700.
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When Basic Research Crossed Applied Research: The Case Of Taxol By Vania Bernardes
As professor of medicinal chemistry at the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University Paul Sabatier and a research scientist, I have chosen to illustrate, in the following paragraphs, the importance of the basic research through an example that has had a deep impact both on a societal and personal level. I hope this case will help the reader to understand the difference between basic research and applied research.
This is an interesting case, where without the basic research on organic synthesis, the preparation of taxol and even that of its cousin docetaxel 6565 Guenard, D. Guerittevoegelein, F. Potier, P. Acc. Chem. Res. 1993, 26, 160. which is in fact a chemical precursor of taxol serendipitously discovered by the Potiers team, would not have been possible and many women around the world, including myself, could not have benefited from these drugs in breast cancer treatment.
The taxol story is so just one of the cases one can choose to illustrate the importance of fundamental research in the discovery of new drugs. In fact, a large number of drugs have been discovered by chance thanks to the curiosity and interest of researchers in basic disciplines such as for example the microbiology, organic chemistry and others.6666 Sneader, W. Drug discovery: history, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2005.
What Is The Future Of Chemistry
Chemistryis the science that studies and manipulates matter. We human beings are gettingpretty good at it, , but we arefar from an ideal position in which we can easily make any molecule or compoundat will in a matter of minutes.
That isprobably the future of chemical synthesis, being able to shape any compound atwill in a matter of minutes, without relying on long term challenging synthesis projects. Furthermore, the possibilities ofsynthetic chemistry are literally endless: there will always be room for makinga chemical even better, or finding a molecule that works even better for agiven task.
Another keyaspect of the chemistry of the future will be reaching true fullsustainability. Chemistry will be one of the main branches of science to solvethe problem of energy.
Also,chemistry, as the central science, will be responsible to helping technologyand interdisciplinary science in general to develop smoothly.
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Are There Places Other Than My Institution Where I Can Conduct Research
Absolutely! Your school may be close to other universities, government labs and/or industries that offer part-time research opportunities during the academic year. There may also be summer opportunities in these institutions as well as in REU sites .
Contact your chemistry department advisor first. He/she may have some information readily available for you. You can also contact nearby universities, local industries and government labs directly or through the career center at your school. You can also find listings through ACS resources:
What Kinds Of Research Should Be Funded
In this activity, students will be divided into groups of funders and scientists. Using the materials provided, the scientists will pitch their research proposals to the funders, who will have 100 000 at their disposal. The activity will also provide cues to promote argumentation among students to develop critical thinking, reasoning, communication, and scientific literacy skills.
Kinga Lubowiecka/EMBL/PhotolabCopyright: EMBL 2019
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Key Takeaways: How To Learn Chemistry
- It’s possible to learn the basic concepts of chemistry online.
- Chemistry concepts should be studied in a logical order because concepts build upon each other. Jumping into the middle of the science can lead to confusion.
- While it’s fine to learn chemistry principles online, be aware that the lab component is an important part of the science. It’s a good idea to supplement textbook learning with experiments using a chemistry kit.
Basic Research Vs Applied Research
Both basic research and applied research are methods for finding certain information. Researchers of these methods use inductive and deductive reasoning to support their research hypotheses. When conducting basic research and applied research, researchers tend to use similar data collection methods, however, their end goals vary. Some differences between basic and applied research include:
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What Are The Categories Of Beauty
When you are shopping for yourself or those lucky recipients on your list, focus on the seven beauty categories. Skin care. Shopping for skin care is always fun, and with so many incredible brands, its hard to choose what to put in your cart. Body care. Makeup. Hair care. Nail care. Fragrance. Tools, devices, accessories.
Why Is Chemistry Important
Everythingis chemistry. Everything that you can observe macroscopically is made ofchemicals. You are made of chemicals, your food is chemicals, you breathechemicals, we live out of and thanks to chemicals, everything you see under thesun is a mixture of chemicals.
Everything you see or do is based on chemical concepts and processes. Fireworks going off takes place thanks to our understanding and application of chemistry. A medicine that you take to cure your illness does it so through chemical processes. A building doesnt fall off because we know chemistry. Obviously, all these examples result from a bunch of different branches of science coming together. Chemistry, as the central science, is in charge of gluing them together.
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What Is Chemistry In Everyday Life
Chemistry is a big part of our everyday life. We start the day with Chemistry. One can find chemistry in daily life in the foods we eat, the air we breathe, cleaning chemicals, our emotions and literally every object we can see or touch. Our body is made up of chemical compounds, which are combinations of elements.
Careers That Use Basic Research And Applied Research
Many industries search for data through the use of either basic research, applied research or both. The type of research they use depends on what the final discovery they want to find is. Here are some careers that use these two research methods:
Researcher: A researcher may use basic research to analyze trends and, depending on the industry they work in, they may work to find a solution to a problem through the use of applied research.
Psychologists: Basic research helps psychologists understand different types of mental health conditions, while applied research can help them find possible solutions to help their patients cope with these conditions.
Research assistant: Like researchers, a research assistant may use basic research when looking to expand knowledge in an area of study and applied research when looking to find a resolution to a problem.
Sociologists: A sociologist often uses basic research when trying to learn more about a particular group of people, such as middle schoolers, in their settings and may also use applied research to find solutions to problems a group faces.
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Basic Research Example In Health
Basic research methods improve healthcare by providing different dimensions to the understanding and interpretation of healthcare issues. For example, it allows healthcare practitioners to gain more insight into the origin of diseases which can help to provide cures to chronic medical conditions.
Many health researchers opine that many vaccines are developed based on an understanding of the causes of the disease such as in the case of the polio vaccine. Several medical breakthroughs have been attributed to the wealth of knowledge provided through basic research.
Examples of basic research in health include:
What Do Cosmetic Chemists Wear
The job itself is just how you probably picture: All of the chemists are in lab coats, we wear protective eyewear if were dealing with products that can splatter or can get into the air, we mix and weigh our ingredients in beakers and flasks, we use stoves to formulate and to combine our ingredients its exactly Mar 7, 2016.
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Basic Versus Applied Science
Applied science focuses on the development of technology and techniques. In contrast, basic science develops scientific knowledge and predictions, principally in natural sciences but also in other empirical sciences, which are used as the scientific foundation for applied science. Basic science develops and establishes information to predict phenomena and perhaps to understand nature, whereas applied science uses portions of basic science to develop interventions via technology or technique to alter events or outcomes. Applied and basic sciences can interface closely in research and development. The interface between basic research and applied research has been studied by the National Science Foundation.
A worker in basic scientific research is motivated by a driving curiosity about the unknown. When his explorations yield new knowledge, he experiences the satisfaction of those who first attain the summit of a mountain or the upper reaches of a river flowing through unmapped territory. Discovery of truth and understanding of nature are his objectives. His professional standing among his fellows depends upon the originality and soundness of his work. Creativeness in science is of a cloth with that of the poet or painter.
Learning Objectives And Context
After the activity, students should understand
- how scientific research is funded and that this involves difficult decisions
- the difference between basic and applied research
- how applied research relies on basic research findings, and that it is difficult to predict what might become useful.
To set the scene, students should be asked who they think funds scientific research. Students will generate multiple answers, from the government to universities and industry. Truthfully, funding can come from a variety of sources and can be public, private, national, or international.
The next question is how do funding bodies select what research should be funded. Scientific research is often broadly divided into two types: basic research and applied research.
- Basic research is about pushing the boundaries of our understanding and generating new knowledge. An example is researching how a physiological process works at the molecular level.
- Applied research involves applying existing knowledge to create solutions to specific problems. An example is developing a treatment for a disease.
However, many research projects have elements of both basic and applied research. Research scientists from around the world must compete and push the merits of their work to get funding.
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Essential Basic Chemistry Concepts Explained
Learning the basic chemistry concepts, in which an entire chemical education process is based on, can be overwhelming for beginners.
One of the reasons is the vast amount of information that there is out there.
For that reason, I decided to go ahead and explain here 15 important basic chemistry concepts, which hopefully will get you in a better shape for learning chemistry. These are clearly explained in most of the chemistry textbooks in our review.
In case you are starting to learn organic chemistry, we have also published an overview of the most important concepts that you will need, and a further review comparing SN1 and SN2 reactions.
We will start off with an introduction to basic chemistry: background on the most basic definitions of chemistry, a bit of history, and highlighting why and how chemistry is important. The basic units in chemistry will be defined: atoms, molecules, subatomic particles. Then, we will discuss them from a beginner point of view, and formulate them in the format of questions.
Therefore, we aim this article to people that are unfamiliar with chemistry or with science in general. If you are a teacher, you might want to redirect your students here.
Disclaimer: This is not intended to be a comprehensive description of each concept, but rather an introduction to each of them: chemistry basics for beginners. We cite and include sources that we consider useful for expanding them further.
So withoutfurther ado, lets dive in!
Matter And Change Chemistry Is A Physical Science
- Slides: 12
Matter and Change Chemistry is a Physical Science
Objectives Define Chemistry List examples of branches of chemistry Compare/Contrast: basic research, applied research, and technological development
Chemistry What is chemistry 1 st what do you think chemistry is Give me some examples 2 nd what kinds of things do not deal with chemistry? Can you give me examples? What? Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes Now, tell me what that is in your own words
Equipment we use Instruments are routinely used in chemistry to extend our ability to observe and make measurements. Instruments make it possible, for example, to look at microstructuresthings too tiny to be seen with the unaided eye. The scanning electron microscope reveals tiny structures by beaming particles called electrons at materials. When the electrons hit a material, they scatter and produce a pattern that shows the materials microstructure. What equipment do you think a chemist might use?
Stump the Chump Game 1 st round you to me Pick a profession I will tell you how it relates to chemistry » It might not be huge, but it will relate 2 nd round Stump the other teams 3 rd round Figure out which branch each of these belong in
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Which Elements Are Essential For Human Life
Dimitri Mendeleev created the periodic table as we know it today in 1869, 151 years ago. He used the information he had about the relative atomic weights of the 63 elements known at that time to arrange them in a periodic order that reveals similarities in their chemical properties, and importantly predicted the existence of gallium, germanium, and scandium, elements which were then unknown, and technetium which did not exist on earth until 1937.
Of the 81 stable elements, there is good evidence that 19 of them are essential for human health: H, C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, and I. Another 7 can be described as potentially essential: F, Si, V, Cr, Ni, Br and Sn. In total there is documented clinical and medical use of about 76 elements in a variety of compounds and other forms. Even radioactive elements find widespread use in the detection and treatment of diseases.4444 Chellan, P. Sadler, P. J. Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 2015, 373.45 Imberti, C. Sadler, P. J. In Advances in Inorganic Chemistry Sadler, P. J., van Eldik, R., eds. Elsevier: Amsterdam, 2020, ch. 1, p. 3.-4646 Needham, R. J. Sadler, P. J. In The Periodic Table II Mingos, D., ed. Springer: New York, 2019, vol. 182, p. 175.
When Was Chemistry Discovered
Very simple chemical processes were performed even during ancient history, at 1000 BC, much before any basic chemistry concepts or laws were actually established. Extraction of metals from ore or getting compounds out of natural sources such as plants, are examples of chemistry that was first performed thousands of years ago and are still a thing today.
The Alchemist in Search of the Philosophers Stone
Alchemytried to explain the nature, properties and transformations of matter. But itwas not science, but rather a set of myths and magic. It is agreed upon that,the transition from alchemy to modern chemistry as we know it, started on the17th century, with the publication of The Sceptical Chymist by Robert Boyle , who isconsidered the father of modern chemistry. The difference between chemistry andalchemy is the application of the scientific method.