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What Does Pro Mean In Biology

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First, probiotics must be alive when administered. One of the concerns throughout the scientific literature resides in the viability and reproducibility on a large scale of observed results for specific studies, as well as the viability and stability during use and storage, and finally the ability to survive in stomach acids and then in the intestinal ecosystem.

Second, probiotics must have undergone controlled evaluation to document health benefits in the target host. Only products that contain live organisms shown in reproducible human studies to confer a health benefit may claim to be probiotic. The correct definition of health benefit, backed with solid scientific evidence, is a strong element for the proper identification and assessment of the effect of a probiotic. This aspect is a challenge for scientific and industrial investigations because several difficulties arise, such as variability in the site for probiotic use and mode of application.

Third, the probiotic candidate must be a taxonomically defined microbe or combination of microbes ” rel=”nofollow”> strain level). It is commonly admitted that most effects of probiotics are strain-specific and cannot be extended to other probiotics of the same genus or species. This calls for a precise identification of the strain, i.e. genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the tested microorganism.

Immune Function And Infections

Some strains of LAB may affect pathogens by means of competitive inhibition and some evidence suggests they may improve immune function by increasing the number of IgA-producing plasma cells and increasing or improving phagocytosis, as well as increasing the proportion of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. LAB products might aid in the treatment of acute diarrhea, and possibly affect rotavirus infections in children and travelers’ diarrhea in adults, but no products are approved for such indications. There is weak evidence probiotics might lower the incidence of acute upper respiratory-tract infections in adults.

Probiotics do not appear to change the risk of infection in older people.

Explaining The Concept Of Nutrients As Building Blocks

Building blocks include protein for growing babies in utero, for child and adolescent growth, and for repairing damaged skin, blood, and other body parts in adults who aren’t growing. Some parts of the body are replaced regularly, like blood and skin, so even adults are building new body parts regularly. Calcium is also a building block for building bones. Iron is a building block for blood. Since blood cells only last a few months, the body constantly needs more iron and protein to make new blood.

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Examples Of Pro In A Sentence

proold propro alpro Fox NewsproNew York Timespro The Arizona Republicpro Sun Sentinelpro Hartford Courantpro Good Housekeepingpro USA TODAYpro House BeautifulproLos Angeles Timespro Voguepro Chronpro Town & CountryproSan Diego Union-Tribunepro PEOPLE.compro clevelandpro The Arizona Republicpro alpro Fox Newspro The Arizona Republicpro Hartford Courantpro Good Housekeepingpro USA TODAYpro The Salt Lake Tribunepro cleveland

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘pro.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

Where And How To Branch

Prokaryote Definition and Examples

How are lung branches generated at a defined location and orientation during morphogenesis? Kuan Zhang, Pao-Tien Chuang and colleagues reveal that non-canonical Wnt5a signaling causes changes in lung cell cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, and the resulting altered shape and orientation of the epithelial sheet helps define the position and orientation of lung branches.

Image credit: pbio.3001759

Yao Gong, Gaurav Behera, Yue Chen and colleagues present a comprehensive online database and webserver of the proline hydroxylation proteome, using an exportable spectral library that enables deep profiling and label-free quantification of modification targets in cell lines and tissues.

Image credit: pbio.3001757

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Most Useful Biological Prefixes And Suffixes For The Biology Olympiad

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Students preparing for the biology olympiad should be able to recognize word parts since they often give a clue as to the meaning of a word. Science terminology is predominately based on the Latin and Greek languages. Thus, compiled a list of the most common word parts which are common in biology.

What Does Pro Mean In Proactive

If you are proactive, you make things happen, instead of waiting for them to happen to you. Active means doing something. The prefix pro- means before. So if you are proactive, you are ready before something happens. The opposite is being reactive, or waiting for things to unfold before responding.

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Cathelicidin And Multiple Sclerosis

A study of role of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in autoimmunity, by Katie Smith, Emily Gwyer Findlay and co-workers, shows that it is expressed in lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis and in the spinal cords of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis cathelicidin exposure promotes T cell activation and differentiation, and strongly induces interferon-gamma production in the inflamed nervous system.

Image credit: pbio.3001554

What Does Prefix Mean In Science

Protein Structure and Folding

A prefix is a letter or series of letters attached to the beginning of a word word base or suffix to produce a derivative word with a new meaning. There are many prefixes used by biologists in constructing scientific names and terminology. So telophase is the name of the last phase of meiosis and mitosis.

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In Summary: Comparing Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea. All prokaryotes have plasma membranes, cytoplasm, ribosomes, a cell wall, DNA, and lack membrane-bound organelles. Many also have polysaccharide capsules. Prokaryotic cells range in diameter from 0.15.0 µm.

Like a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes, but a eukaryotic cell is typically larger than a prokaryotic cell, has a true nucleus , and has other membrane-bound organelles that allow for compartmentalization of functions. Eukaryotic cells tend to be 10 to 100 times the size of prokaryotic cells.

Can You Explain What Pro

By | Oct. 16, 2019, 4:11 p.m.


Can you explain what pro-choice means and pro-life means? When my family talks about abortion I think theyre saying pro-choice and pro-life wrong, but Im not sure.

The pro-choice and pro-life labels are confusing for a reason: They force people into just two boxes for all their religious, moral, political, and practical beliefs on abortion. Still, a lot of people use these labels . Below, well nail down what most people intend when they say pro-life and pro-choice, plus our suggestions for better words to use when describing your views on abortion.

Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice

Generally, people who identify as pro-choice believe that everyone has the basic human right to decide when and whether to have children. When you say youre pro-choice youre telling people that you believe its OK for them to have the ability to choose abortion as an option for an unplanned pregnancy even if you wouldnt choose abortion for yourself.

People who oppose abortion often call themselves pro-life. However, the only life many of them are concerned with is the life of the fertilized egg, embryo, or fetus. They are much less concerned about the life of women who have unintended pregnancies or the welfare of children after theyre born. In fact, many people who call themselves pro-life support capital punishment and oppose child welfare legislation.

We Say Pro-Reproductive Rights and Anti-Abortion

Pro-Reproductive Rights


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Explaining Macronutrients: Protein Carbohydrate And Fat

Protein: Found in beef, pork, chicken, game and wild meats, fish and seafood, eggs, soybeans and other legumes included in traditional Central America cuisine, protein provides the body with amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins which are needed for growth, development, and repair and maintenance of body tissues. Protein provides structure to muscle and bone, repairs tissues when damaged and helps immune cells fight inflammation and infection.

Carbohydrates: The main role of a carbohydrate is to provide energy and fuel the body the same way gasoline fuels a car. Foods such as corn, chayote, beans, plantains, rice, tortilla, potatoes and other root vegetables such as yucca, bread and fruit deliver sugars or starches that provide carbohydrates for energy.

Energy allows the body to do daily activities as simple as walking and talking and as complex as running and moving heavy objects. Fuel is needed for growth, which makes sufficient fuel especially important for growing children and pregnant women. Even at rest, the body needs calories to perform vital functions such as maintaining body temperature, keeping the heart beating and digesting food.

Fat: Dietary fat, which is found in oils, coconut, nuts, milk, cheese, meat, poultry and fish, provides structure to cells and cushions membranes to help prevent damage. Oils and fats are also essential for absorbing fat-soluble vitamins including vitamin A, a nutrient important for healthy eyes and lungs.

My Definition Of Life

Top 40 Difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Traits are measurable attributes or characteristics of organisms and trait-based approaches have been widely used in systematics and evolutionary studies . Since any definition of life must connect with what we observe in nature, my strategy for finding a definition of life was to establish what are the key attributes or traits common to all living things. What do bacteria, yeasts, lichens, trees, beetles, birds, whales, etc. have in common that clearly differentiates them from non-living systems? In my opinion, living organisms share seven traits: organic nature, high degree of organization, pre-programming, interaction , adaptation, reproduction and evolution, the last two being facultative as they are not present in all living beings.

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What Is An Anti

A person who opposes the use of war or violence to settle a dispute is called a pacifist. If you are a pacifist, you avoid physical confrontations. The beliefs and actions of peacemakers can also be described as pacifist, as in someone whose pacifist beliefs lead him to take part in nonviolent protests against a war.

Prokaryotes May Be Split Into Two Groups

Unlike the above assumption of a fundamental split between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the most important difference between biota may be the division between bacteria and the rest . For instance, DNA replication differs fundamentally between bacteria and archaea , and it may not be homologous between these two groups. Moreover, ATP synthase, though common in all organisms, differs greatly between bacteria and the archaea/eukaryote nucleus group. The last common antecessor of all life should have possessed an early version of this protein complex. As ATP synthase is obligate membrane bound, this supports the assumption that LUCA was a cellular organism. The RNA world hypothesis might clarify this scenario, as LUCA might have been a ribocyte lacking DNA, but with an RNA genome built by ribosomes as primordial self-replicating entities. A Peptide-RNA world hypothesis has been proposed based on the idea that oligopeptides may have been built together with primordial nucleic acids at the same time, which also supports the concept of a ribocyte as LUCA. The feature of DNA as the material base of the genome might have then been adopted separately in bacteria and in archaea , presumably by help of some viruses . As a result, prokaryota comprising bacteria and archaea may also be polyphyletic.

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What Is A Synonym For Pro

In this page you can discover 19 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for pro, like: whiz, expert, professional, lite, master, SmartSync, with, SmartSaver, tools-r, Lview and for. Whose vs. Whos: Get Acquainted With Which One to Use. Misinformation vs. Disinformation: A Simple Comparison.

How To Explain Basic Nutrition Concepts

What is DNA and How Does it Work?

Use these illustrations when helping educate Central American communities. You can download and print full-size versions by clicking on the thumbnail-size versions below.

Illustration of child running to depict energy

Illustration of building blocks to depict protein and other nutrients

Illustration of child flexing muscle to depict protein

Illustration of healthy growth and development

Illustration of “strong” blood to depict iron and other nutrients

Illustration of “happy” skeleton to depict calcium and other nutrients

Illustration of eye to depict vitamin A and other nutrients

According to a 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics survey of health professionals with experience in Central America, populations in developing areas of this region lack basic knowledge of biology and physiology. Beginning with a discussion of basic health concepts and then explaining how nutrition affects our bodies is a good strategy.

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What Does The Prefix Pro Mean In Proactive

beforeThe adjective proactive can describe a person who gets things done. … Active means “doing something.” The prefix pro- means ” before.” So if you are proactive, you are ready before something happens. The opposite is being reactive, or waiting for things to unfold before responding.

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If you are interested in words with the prefix PRO, be sure to check

What Is Pro War And Anti

Pro-War Advocate: You can dream, but war is inevitable and natural its part of human nature. Anti-War Advocate: In fact at least 90% of humanitys governments invest dramatically less in war than does the U.S. government, and at least 99% of people in the United States do not participate in the military.

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What Does The Prefix Pro Mean In Biology

Biology Prefixes. Biology Prefixes, a subsection of Suffix Prefix Dictionary, defines more biomedical prefixes than any other online source. With examples.

Biology Prefixes is a prefix dictionary, a subsection of Suffix Prefix Dictionary, the most comprehensive online dictionary of biological and medical suffixes and prefixes. The prefix lists accessed from the links on this page provide definitions, examples, and etymologies for a wide variety of prefixes used in biology and medicine . Many of the examples are cross-linked to their definitions in the biology dictionary on this website. To find the meaning of a prefix, click on its first letter below .

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Definition of the word Biological in English

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Biology Prefixes And Suffixes: Proto

Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Mitosis with Fluorescence ...


The prefix means before, primary, first, primitive, or original. It is derived from the Greek prôtos meaning first.


Protoblast – a cell in the early stages of development that differentiates to form an organ or part. Also called a blastomere.

Protobiology – relating to the study of primitive, minute life forms such as bacteriophages. It is also known as bacteriophagology. This discipline concentrates on the study of organisms that are smaller than bacteria.

Protocol – the step by step procedure or overall plan for a scientific experiment. It can also be the plan for a series of medical treatments.

Protoderm – the outer, most primary meristem that forms the epidermis of plant roots and shoots. The epidermis is the primary barrier between the plant and its environment.

Protofibril – the initial elongated group of cells that form in the development of a fiber.

Protogalaxy – a gas cloud that will over time, form a galaxy.

Protolith – the original state of a rock prior to metamorphism. For example, the protolith of quartzite is quartz.

Protolithic – of or relating to the first part of the Stone Age.

Protonema – an initial stage in the development of mosses and liverworts that is observed as a filamentous growth, which develops after spore germination.

Protopathic – relating to sensing stimuli, such as pain, heat, and pressure in a nonspecific, poorly localized manner. This is thought to be done by a primitive type of peripheral nervous system tissue.

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What Does A Prefix Mean In Science

A prefix is a letter or series of letters attached to the beginning of a word, word base, or suffix to produce a derivative word with a new meaning. There are many prefixes used by biologists in constructing scientific names and terminology. … So telophase is the name of the last phase of meiosis and mitosis.

Prokaryotic Cell Vs Eukaryotic Cell

The difference between the prokaryotic cell and the eukaryotic cell is simple. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane and other membrane-bound organelles that perform specific functions in the cell. These membranes form the endomembrane system, which creates a series of specialized chambers within eukaryotic organisms that can complete a diverse range of tasks. By contrast, a prokaryotic cell only has a cellular membrane with no membranes extending on the inside of the cell.

All of the reactions within a prokaryote take place within the cytosol of the cell. While this makes the cells slightly less efficient, prokaryotic cells still have a remarkable reproductive capacity. A prokaryote reproduces through binary fission, a process that simply splits duplicated DNA into separate cells. Without any organelles or complex chromosomes to reproduce, most prokaryotic cells can divide every 24 hours, or even faster with an adequate supply of food.

While many prokaryotic cells have adapted to free-living within the environment, others have adapted to live within the gut of other organisms. These commensal organisms survive by breaking down molecules inside the gut and allow the organism they are living within the ability to digest a wider variety of foods. For example, the human gut contains 2-3 pounds of bacteria that have evolved to help us digest complex carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

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What Is An Example Of Pre

Pre is defined as something that happens before the next word. An example of the pre prefix is preschool or school you attend before you officially start school. An example of the pre prefix is preheat or to heat an oven before you put something in to cook. Before the usual or expected time for doing so.

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