Economists And Economic Geographers
Generally, spatially interested economists study the effects of space on the economy. Geographers, on the other hand, are interested in the economic processes’ impact on spatial structures.
Moreover, economists and economic geographers differ in their methods in approaching spatial-economic problems in several ways. An economic geographer will often take a more holistic approach to the analysis of economic phenomena, which is to conceptualize a problem in terms of space, place, and scale as well as the overt economic problem that is being examined. The economist approach, according to some economic geographers, has the main drawback of homogenizing the economic world in ways economic geographers try to avoid.
Types Of Transportation Impacts
The relationship between transportation and economic development is difficult to formally establish and has been debated for many years. In some circumstances, transport investments appear to be a catalyst for economic growth, while in others, economic growth puts pressures on existing transport infrastructures and incite additional investments. Transport markets and related transport infrastructure networks are key drivers in the promotion of more balanced and sustainable development, particularly by improving accessibility and the opportunities of less developed regions or disadvantaged social groups. Initially, there are different impacts on transport providers and transport users. There are several layers of activity that transportation can valorize, from a suitable location that experiences the development of its accessibility through infrastructure investment to better usage of existing transport assets through more efficient management. This is further nuanced by the nature, scale, and scope of possible impacts:
- A Multi-Layer Perspective about Transport and Economic Development
- Time Sequence and Nature of Impacts of Transport Investments
- Cycles, Space and Transportation
- Lifespan of Main Transport Assets
Institutional Factors Affecting The Development Of Lodz Before World War I
The first wave of technical revolution in Lodz took place in the 1840s and 1850s. In a short time, manufacturing scaled up from workshop to factory production. The unprecedented investment in technology facilitated exceptional productivity. Within only a single decade, the number of Geyers local competitors grew to five large manufacturersTraugott Grohman, Dawid Lande, Jakub Peters, Karol Moess, and the especially successful, Karol Scheibler, whose thirty mechanical looms combined cotton spinning and weaving in 1844. Scheiblers greater production capacity not only captured the local market but also ventured into other markets, becoming a threat to the smaller producers.
Another acceleration in cotton production derived from the removal of the customs border with Russia in 1851 and from the tsars subsequent customs policies. The abolition of the customs barrier, combined with British reforms to permit the export of machinery, facilitated the industrial modernization of the entire Kingdom but especially of Lodz. Three years later, during the Crimean War, Lodzs economy received an additional boost from an extension to eastern markets when several European countries established a blockade against Russia. A new Russian tariff policy in 1877 that required all customs duties to be paid in gold also helped.
The Population of Lodz 17931914
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How Can Your Environment And Geography Impact Your Economic Activity
the increased consumption of non-renewable resources, higher levels of pollution, global warming and the potential loss of environmental habitats
The need for a stronger central government
Federalists supported a government with federal or centralized power. The Constitution as written provided a stronger central government than the Articles of Confederation provided.
The Constitution provided for a central government with three branches of power to prevent any one branch from getting too much power. The Federalists supported the ratification of the Constitution as originally written. However, another group believed the Constitution needed to have a guarantee of protection of personal rights and protection of the states. Anti-Federalists refused to ratify until amendments were created protecting the people.
US has a greater labor resource.
The US is one of a leading nation in the labor industry. Some reasons perhaps is that the US has a greater population than Canada. It Cant be the last one because Canada is the second largest country. It cant be the 3rd one because canada has A LOT of fresh water up north. the first one and second ones are left. Now, the US has more gold than Canada too. So, it the 2nd one.
Economic Returns Of Transport Investments
A common expectation is that transport investments will generate economic returns, which in the long run, should justify the initial capital commitment. Like most infrastructure projects, transportation infrastructure can generate a 5 to 20% annual return on the capital invested, with such figures often used to promote and justify investments. However, transport investments tend to have . While initial infrastructure investments tend to have a high return since they provide an entirely new range of mobility options, the more the system is developed, the more likely additional investment would lower returns. At some point, the marginal returns can be close to zero or even negative. A common fallacy assumes that additional transport investments will have a similar multiplying effect than the initial investments had, which can lead to capital misallocation. The most common reasons for the declining marginal returns of transport investments are:
- Diminishing Returns of Transport Investments
- Types of Economies in Production, Distribution and Consumption
- Trade, Connectivity and Spatial Inequalities
- Transport Economic Indicators
Heterogeneous Spatial Effects Of Climate Change
The initial scenario in Conte et al. assumes that frictions to the mobility of populations and of goods are constant over time. Their model predicts that Scandinavia, Finland, Siberia, and northern Canada gain populations and see increases in income per capita, while North Africa, the Arabian peninsula, northern India, Brazil, and Central America lose on both counts. Figure 2, which reproduces Figure 6 in their paper, reports the effect of climate change on predicted population in 2200. Agriculture becomes spatially more concentrated and shifts towards Central Asia, China, and Canada. These scenarios imply substantial movement of populations within and across countries, especially if trade is costly. Therefore, impediments to mobility may produce substantially less efficient transitions.
Figure 2 Effect of climate change on predicted population in 2200
Notes: The figure displays the logarithm of predicted 2200 population relative to predicted population under no climate change. Regions in dark blue are predicted to more than double their population regions in dark red are predicted to lose more than half of their population.
Explaining Varied Governmental Responses To Economic Shocks
Economic geography can also help elucidate why governments react differently to common economic shocks. The 2008 global recession impacted many countries, but governments responses to the crisis differed. The governments of Sweden and the United States, for example, chose different strategies in response to the financial difficulties that their domestic auto industries faced following the 2008 crisis. The US government funded an $80 billion bailout for Chrysler and General Motorstwo Detroit-based auto makers. In contrast, the Swedish government refused to bail out Saab. The Prime Minister, Fredrik Reinfeldt, said he would not put taxpayer money intended for healthcare or education into owning car companies . Swedish Enterprise and Energy Minister Maud Olofsson told Swedish public radio that voters picked me because they wanted nursery schools, police and nurses, and not to buy loss-making car factories .
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Lodz As A Small Rural Town
The geographical effect on Lodz was subtle, linked to the citys specific history. The development of Lodz did not proceed gradually and steadily but by sharp leaps and bounds in which both geography and politics played a role. Surrounded by forests, and not easily accessible, Lodz remained a small settlement on the periphery of the main Polish regionsGreat Poland, Mazovia, and Little Polandfor many decades. In a sense, Lodz was born twice. The first birth was in 1423, when King Wladyslaw Jagiello granted the city its charter, and the Bishop of Wloclawek established the townspeoples dues and duties. Since the city was far from the diocese, the bishops showed little enthusiasm for its growth. The second birth occurred in the 1820s, when the authorities of the Kingdom of Poland designated Lodz as a new industrial center. During this period, the city became part of various statesthe Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1793, the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807, the Duchy of Warsaw from 1807 to 1815, and the Kingdom of Poland from 1815 until World War I.
What Are Two Types Of Physical Systems
Physical systems may be natural or human-made. Natural physical systems include the solar system and an animals digestive system. Human-made physical systems include mechanical systems, optical systems, electrical systems, and combinations of these. The names of these systems come from the type of energy they use.
Theoretical Background And Influences
There are varied methodological approaches. Neoclassical location theorists, following in the tradition of Alfred Weber, tend to focus on industrial location and use quantitative methods. Since the 1970s, two broad reactions against neoclassical approaches have significantly changed the discipline: Marxist political economy, growing out of the work of David Harvey and the new economic geography which takes into account social, cultural, and institutional factors in the spatial economy.
Economists such as Paul Krugman and Jeffrey Sachs have also analyzed many traits related to economic geography. Krugman called his application of spatial thinking to international trade theory the “new economic geography”, which directly competes with an approach within the discipline of geography that is also called “new economic geography”. The name geographical economics has been suggested as an alternative.
How Did Geography Affect The Economy In The New England Colonies
Since the soil and weather in New England were not suitable for farming, many people did not farm. Instead, they imported crops from other regions or even other countries. In return, they would trade products they had to other countries. That is also a factor that affected what goods people in New England would trade.
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Which Of The Following Choices Is An Example Of Promotional Material
Since I cannot find the rest of your question and examples I will give you and explanation of promotional materials and examples that maybe you have in your question so you can connect and find it by yourself.
-Promotional material is considering all the products that are labeling,detailing and providing material that is made by customer.
For example, in paper marketing, promotional marketing materials can be cards, postcards, business cards and everything that is considering paper and something that paper company has to offer.
Promotional materials can also be, mugs, calendars, t-shirts, event tickets, some gifts and more.
Those materials are having on them signs or something that is promoting their company.
the addition that would strengthen melissas thesis statement, both the dark game and the code book explain the importance of codebreaking, is :
main ideas of each book
melissa should discuss the main ideas of each book because these ideas will fully support her thesis statement. through these details, readers will also understand the importance of codebreaking that melissa referred to, which was inspired by the books.
plz mark me brainliest!
jeez la wheeze! i just checked other people who had the same question as you and both had terrible answers.
i hope i could be a little bit of a though!
if you need on what igbo means, ill give you a hand.
igbo means a member of a people of southeastern nigeria.
A Short Definition For Economic Geography
However, from the early 1970s a new generation of economic geographers began to question quantitative economic geography. As part of the radical geography movement inspired by the worldwide political protests of 1968, these geographers offered four criticisms of the research pursued by an older generation. First, it was accused of a naive objectivism, or belief that the facts could provide a value-free, unbiased test of a theory. Second, it was criticized for its theoretical assumptions, notably the assumption that economic actors are governed by a universal form of reason . Third, it was accused of focusing on phenomenal forms not underlying economic processes. Fourth, it was criticized for treating the worlds economic geography as if it should display a spatial order, such that place and regional differences were mere noise to be filtered out in the search for general patterns.
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Why Do We Need To Model A Physical System
In order to develop new concepts into prototypes and ultimately into products, physical system modeling is virtually a necessity. These packages require that the product is near final form, as the input files for these programs require details about the system that would not be known in the concept development stage.
The Role Of Minorities In The Development Of Lodz
In the context of the institutional factors decisive for Lodzs long-term growth in the nineteenth century, special mention should go to Lodzs German and Jewish minorities. Jews were subject to fiscal persecution for many years in the Kingdom of Poland, forced to pay a recruitment tax, an alcoholic-beverage tax, a property-lease tax, a rental-agreement tax, a transportation tax , and a kosher-meat tax, in addition to other local taxes. A policy enacted in the 1820s allowed cities to designate certain districts for Jewish populations. When Lodz imposed this regulation in 1825, only the affluent and the educated members of the Jewish community were exempt from it.
After the decree of 1862, Jewish entrepreneurs began to invest in the textile industry Jewish capital eventually displaced German capital. At the beginning of the twentieth century, when the textile industry accounted for more than 90 percent of Lodzs total production, Jewish businessmen owned 40 percent of the textile factories and Germans 25 percent. Jewish entrepreneurs owned 47 percent of the industry and German entrepreneurs 44 percent other ethnic groups, including the Poles, held only 9 percent. The number of Jewish factories in the textile industry increased between 1869 and 1913 from around 40 to more than 200from 13 percent of the total to 52 percent. During the same period, the production and employment of workers in Jewish plants increased from 16 percent to about 40 percent of Lodzs total.
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How Does Geography Affect The Development Of A Country
One of the most important factors in development is geography, where the country is in the world, and climate. Its no coincidence that the poorest countries are in the tropics, where it is hot, the land is less fertile, water is more scarce, where diseases flourish. Some countries are just at a natural disadvantage.
Definition Of Economic Geography:
Economic Geography is the study of man and his economic activities under varying sets of conditions. Geographers are of different opinions as regarding the definition of the subject.
In fact, different authorities have defined Economic Geography in a variety of ways but their opinions converge at a common point of accord, where it means the study of the spatial distribution of mans economic activities in relation to its environment, be it physical or non-physical.
According to Dudley Stamp, Economic Geography involves consideration of the geographical and other factors which influence mans productivity, but only in limited depths, so far as they are connected with production and trade.
Professor E. W. Zimmermann pointed out that, Economic Geography deals with the economic life of man with relation to environment.
R. S. Thoman in his book The Geography of Economic Activity has remarked, Economic Geography may be defined as an enquiry into the production, exchange and consumption of goods by people in different areas of the world. Particular emphasis is placed on the location of economic activity upon asking just why economic functions are situated where they are in this world.
Surpassing all, Chisholmes says that Economic Geography is presumed to form some reasonable estimate of the future course of commercial development, as determined by geographical factors.
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What Are The 7 Type Of Physical Activity
You are breathing hard and fast and you will find it difficult to hold a conversation with someone. Examples of vigorous-intensity physical activity include: Jogging or running.Moderate-intensity aerobic activity
- Brisk walking
- Strengthen Your Bones and Muscles.
- Improve Your Ability to do Daily Activities and Prevent Falls.
- Increase Your Chances of Living Longer.
Economic Geography Politics And Policy
Annual Review of Political Science
Stephanie J. Rickard
Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science, London WC2A 2AE, United Kingdom email:
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External Costs Of Economic Growth
- Pollution. Increased consumption of fossil fuels can lead to immediate problems such as poor air quality and soot, . Some of the worst problems of burning fossil fuels have been mitigated by Clean Air Acts which limit the burning of coal in city centres. Showing that economic growth can be consistent with reducing a certain type of pollution.
- Less visible more diffuse pollution. While smogs were a very clear and obvious danger, the effects of increased CO2 emissions are less immediately obvious and therefore there is less incentive for policymakers to tackle. Scientists state the accumulation of CO2 emissions have contributed to global warming and more volatile weather. All this suggests economic growth is increasing long-term environmental costs not just for the present moment, but future generations.