Exercises And Critical Thinking
Which Psychologist Defied Psychology To Advertising
Psychology in our social lives. What is the insanity defense, and how often is it used? First, i realized that psychology actually did matter to my students, but that i needed to make it clear to them why 2. Which psychologist defied psychology to advertising. He also applied it to management and personal selection. Elton mayo c.walter dill scott d.walter bingham. Greek philosophers began studying the differences between people. Psychology is the science of the mind. The importance of psychology is seen through the many different examples of how psychology is psychology is the study of so many different aspects that relate to the human mind, functions to answer just what the importance of psychology is, first we should define psychology as a practice. And when i say psych, i mean psychology you know, scott, a plug did psychology to advertising, but not just that. A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenting with, and observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments. It provides assistance in various spheres of human the profession of psychologist, in our time, is a prestigious and popular. Experimental psychologist unlike a basic psychologist applies experimental methods to the way they study mental processes and behaviors.
Why We Need Media Psychology
We need media psychology because media technologies are proliferating at the speed of light with new toys and gadgets on the market every day. These technologies are introducing capabilities that are redefining the way we work, play, and communicate. As I see it, a media psychologist can add value in five ways:
The rapid introduction of technology is unsettling and has triggered a spectrum of reactions, from enthusiasm to distrust. We all come to grips in our own ways with change. As technology changes our lives, we are forced to change how we view the world. Human beings are not really very good at that.
Media psychology is the response to this dilemma. It is a relatively new field and hard to define. Media psychology seeks to understand the interaction among individuals, groups, society, and technology and make sense out of it so we can make decisions and go about our lives in the most positive and productive way possible.
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Psychology In Everyday Life: How To Effectively Learn And Remember
One way that the findings of psychological research may be particularly helpful to you is in terms of improving your learning and study skills. Psychological research has provided a substantial amount of knowledge about the principles of learning and memory. This information can help you do better in this and other courses, and can also help you better learn new concepts and techniques in other areas of your life. The most important thing you can learn in college is how to better study, learn, and remember. These skills will help you throughout your life, as you learn new jobs and take on other responsibilities. There are substantial individual differences in learning and memory, such that some people learn faster than others. But even if it takes you longer to learn than you think it should, the extra time you put into studying is well worth the effort. And you can learn to learnlearning to study effectively and to remember information is just like learning any other skill, such as playing a sport or a video game.
A Brief History Of Industrial Psychology
Industrial Psychology is almost as old as Psychology itself. Psychology came about in 1879 in the laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt in Germany and William James at Harvard. Both of them were philosophers and physicians fascinated with the mind-body debate. The older discipline of philosophy could not alone deal with this debate, more room and new tools were needed, giving way to Psychology. Texts applying psychology to business first appeared in 1903 the first Industrial-Organizational psychology text appeared in 1910 . It is believed that four men developed the tone and structure of I/O psychology: Hugo Munsterberg, James Cattell, Walter Dill Scott, and Walter Bingham .
Walter Binghams contributions to the field are many and diverse. He started the Division of Applied Psychology the first academic program in industrial psychology . He headed the Personal Research Federation and directed The Psychological Corporation. He was instrumental in Scotts and Yerkes development of the mental testing program. And, most importantly, he assumed a caretaker and spokesperson role and worked, till his death, to achieve recognition and respectability for I/O psychology because there were no elder statesman left to fill that role . He publicly represented the field, in commissions and on radio, and made numerous contributions to magazines, newspapers and other areas on its topics.
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Relate To Your Customer
Goldstein, Cialdini, and Griskevicius conducted a study on Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels. In particular, they tried to determine what kind of message would get hotel guests to reuse their towels. They used three variations, paraphrased below:
- Standard message: ‘help save the environment’
- 75% of hotel guests in this hotel reuse their towels
- 75% of hotel guests in this room reuse their towels
Messages that related to the participant – other guests reuses towels – increased participants reusing them by 10-15%.
How does this apply to marketing?
This phenomenon where people tend to view others who are similar to them more favorably is called in-group favoritism.
All in all, the best way to motivate your customers to do something is to say that customers in their situation have done so. Try to find common ground and draw similarities among your customers as well as between your company and your customers.
The Psychology Of Advertising
How often have you seen a teeth-whitening ad that shows the person with bright, white teeth as more attractive sexier even?
Or viewed an ad for a green cleaning product that made you fearful that using a chemical product would harm your kids?
Or just think of any product diet food, skin care, insurance company, car, medication that features celebrity testimonials or the words of other consumers whove achieved incredible results.
For these common advertising ploys, you can thank John B. Watson, the founder of behaviorism here in America.
After getting fired from his academic post at Johns Hopkins, Watson began working for one of the biggest advertising agencies in New York City, J. Walter Thompson.
He believed that in order for advertising to be effective, it should appeal to three innate emotions: love, fear and rage.
As Ludy Benjamin and David Baker write in From Séance to Science: A History of the Profession of Psychology in America, Watsons ads sold toothpaste, not because of its dental hygiene benefits, but because whiter teeth would presumably increase an individuals sex appeal .
Watson also believed in doing market research, which meant that he applied objective, scientific approaches to advertising. For instance, according to C. James Goodwin in A History of Modern Psychology, Watson used demographic data to target certain consumers . And, as stated above, Watson promoted the use of celebrity endorsements.
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On The Radio From The 1920s
In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. Madison Avenue early on recognized the importance of radio as a new advertising medium. Advertising provided the major funding for most stations in the United States, which never had a licensing fee for set users. Great Britain used the mandatory fee on set owners to fund the British Broadcasting Corporation, which to this day operates without commercials or advertising. However, the British government permitted commercial television in 1954 and commercial radio in 1972.
Public service advertising, non-commercial advertising, public interest advertising, cause marketing, and social marketing are different terms for the use of sophisticated advertising and marketing communications techniques on behalf of non-commercial, public interest issues and initiatives.
In the United States, the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon the station broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising. To meet these requirements, many broadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required public service announcements during the late night or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers are watching, leaving more day and prime time commercial slots available for high-paying advertisers.
Psychology Is The Study Of The Mind And Behavior
Psychology can be defined as the study of mental processes and behavior. The term comes from the Greek words psyche, meaning “breath, spirit, soul,” and logia, meaning “study of.”
Psychology has not always existed as it has today. In fact, it is considered a relatively young discipline, although as the eminent psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus explained, it has a short past but a long history.
Psychology emerged from biology and philosophy and is closely linked to other disciplines including sociology, medicine, linguistics, and anthropology.
Psychology has quickly grown to play a tremendous role in the world today. Psychologists are employed in hospitals, mental health clinics, schools, colleges and universities, government agencies, private businesses, and private practices. They perform a wide variety of tasks and roles ranging from treating mental illness to performing research to influencing public health policy.
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Research Focus: Do We Have Free Will
The behaviourist research program had important implications for the fundamental questions about nature and nurture and about free will. In terms of the nature-nurture debate, the behaviourists agreed with the nurture approach, believing that we are shaped exclusively by our environments. They also argued that there is no free will, but rather that our behaviours are determined by the events that we have experienced in our past. In short, this approach argues that organisms, including humans, are a lot like puppets in a show who dont realize that other people are controlling them. Furthermore, although we do not cause our own actions, we nevertheless believe that we do because we dont realize all the influences acting on our behaviour.
The behaviourists made substantial contributions to psychology by identifying the principles of learning. Although the behaviourists were incorrect in their beliefs that it was not possible to measure thoughts and feelings, their ideas provided new ideas that helped further our understanding regarding the nature-nurture debate and the question of free will. The ideas of behaviourism are fundamental to psychology and have been developed to help us better understand the role of prior experiences in a variety of areas of psychology.
Frame Your Sales Pitches In An Appealing Way
Consider two different situations below.
The original price of the outdoor jacket is $125 $23 for the tripod. There are two different ways to pitch this:
- £113.50 for the outdoor jacket $23 for the tripod
- $125 for the jacket 50% OFF. $11.50 for the tripod
Which one would you be more willing to buy if you had to drive 20 minutes to the store?
This adapted example is based on Kahneman and Tversky’s study. They found that 68% of respondents were willing to buy the tripod whereas only 29% were willing to buy the jacket. You might’ve realized that in both cases, consumers are saving the same amount: $11.50!
The point is that consumers think about gains and losses in relative terms, not absolute terms. In other words, they think in percentages, not dollars. A discount of $11.50 for the tripod is a larger percentage than a discount of $11.50 for the jacket.
When coming up with your sales pitches and marketing messages, be sure to take this into account! Think of more appealing ways of framing your messages – even if your messages are describing the same thing!
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How You Can Use The Reciprocity Principle
In a world where many brands already invest in digital marketing to some capacity, chances are you may already be enlisting the elements of the reciprocity principle. Whether its offering free content on your blog, providing your Instagram following with inspirational quotes, or, keeping in touch with your customers through a helpful and curated newsletter once a month, these services provide value to the customer on top of your basic product or service offering.
Hobsons +1 Choice Effect
Oliver Bonas provides the option to have gift boxing at checkout . Hobsons +1 Choice is, therefore, a psychological nudge you can use at checkout to ensure you arent left with those horrible abandoned carts.
This means giving your shoppers an extra option to streamline decision-making and make them feel autonomous in their transaction.
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Psychology Is All Around You
Psychology is not just an academic subject that exists only in classrooms, research labs, and mental health offices. The principles of psychology can be seen all around you in everyday situations.
The television commercials and print ads you see every day rely on psychology to develop marketing messages that influence and persuade people to purchase the advertised products. The websites you visit on a regular basis utilize psychology to understand how people read, use, and interpret online information.
Psychology can also play a role in improving your health and well-being. For example, understanding some of the basic principles of behavioral psychology might come in handy if you are trying to break a bad habit and establish new routines.
Knowing more about some of the things that motivate behavior can be useful if you are trying to stick to a weight loss plan or exercise regimen. Overcoming phobias, managing stress, improving communication skills, and making better decisions are just a few of the things with which psychology can help.
Strategies In The Psychology Of Advertising
By getting to know peoples characteristics and how they purchase, you can have greater persuasive influence over them through the media. How?
If youve ever gone to the supermarket to buy a couple of things and come out with a full cart, congratulations! You have been a victim of the techniques used by the science of advertising! To be more specific, marketers use the psychology of advertising to persuade consumers using strategies like the below:
- Mechanistic: First, mainly using psychoanalysis, this strategy conditions people through repeating a slogan or image. The reiteration aims to convince the consumer to make a purchase.
- Persuasive: Aims to raise a product above the equivalent product of its competitors. To do this, it gives information about its characteristics or attributes and compares them favorably with the other similar items. It also feeds mainly on creativity and personal intuition.
- Projective: This focuses on the models, culture and lifestyles of the subjects. It usually portrays products as matching an individual persons interests or opinions. In addition, sociology and anthropology are key here too.
- Suggestive: Finally this strategy draws on psychoanalytic techniques to read our thoughts. Basically, it focuses on a consumers anxiety, fear, or stress and tries to convince them that there is a magic product our there designed just for them.
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Throw Your Customers An Anchor
Customers that many not be knowledgeable in your field or product price range may scamble for a reference point or anchor to go off of, and if this is provided in the question, you immediately seize it and base/pivot your thinking off of that.
In psychology, this phenomenon, “activating particular representations or associations in memory just before carrying out an action or task,” is called priming, which is one way to explain anchoring. The effort of adjustment also explains the small adjustments around the anchor.
But how is this related to marketing? As shocking as this is in terms of the ethics of deciding on a criminal sentence, you can still use this in an ethical way to maximize your revenues. Let’s pretend that you’re on the phone with a potential customer. Let’s also say that this customer might not be very knowledgeable of a suitable price range for your product. Maybe he/she doesn’t know much about the pricing of competing products or the prospective value of your product. With an email, your customer would have time to do some research and think through the pricing more, but when he/she is on the phone in the hot seat, time is constrained, and he/she needs to think and respond quickly on the spot.
This overlaps with the door-in-the-face technique mentioned above, where you start high and then potentially negotiate a bit lower later on.
What Type Of Psychologist Earns The Most Money
Highest Paying Psychology CareersPsychiatrist. Average Yearly Salary: $216,090. … Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. Average Yearly Salary: $102,530. … Neuropsychologist. Average Yearly Salary: $93,440. … Engineering Psychologist. Average Yearly Salary: $90,340. … Psychology Teacher. … Clinical Psychologist. … Counseling Psychologist. … School Psychologist.Meer items…
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