Uneven Development Process Of Geographical Space In Distinct Scales Driven By Accumulation Of Capital: A Discussion On Smith’s Spatial Marxist Theory
Cite this article
XIE Fusheng,GONG Xiaoran. Uneven development process of geographical space in distinct scales driven by accumulation of capital: A discussion on Smith’s spatial Marxist theory.Acta Geographica Sinica, 2018, 73: 1407-1420.
How And Why Is Development Across India In Uneven
India is an emerging country with a rapidly growing economy in Southern Asia. It has the second-largest population in the world with 1.3 billion people. Until 1947 India was a British colony. It now has its own democratically elected government.
India has a diverse cultural background. One of Indias most famous cultural exports is Bollywood films which are exported around the world.
India has a varied landscape from mountains to great plains and desert to lush forests. These natural environments and rich culture and traditions make India a popular tourist destination.
Ports, such as those in Mumbai, have developed along Indias extensive coastline, providing significant trade opportunities for India.
Uneven Development At Different Scales
improving people’slivesEconomicDemographicSocial –*Cultural*PoliticalEnvironmentalMap displaying uneven development at a global scaleTheNorth South Divideglobal scale unevendevelopmentCIA World Fact BookUneven Development at a city scale -NY, Sanitago, Islamabad, IstanbullinkAs you can see from the GDP map of the world on the left and the Oxfam image above the world is a very unequal place. It is important to note that these inequalities don’t just appear at a global scale, but can be seen at a national scale within countries. They can also be found if you zoom into a country at a regional, local and even city scale. Check out the examples below to find out more.Brazil & China – Evidence of uneven development at a national scale.Click on the image below to find out about uneven development within Brazil.The map above shows Brazil’s regional Human Development Index.The map below shows national inequalities within China. Click on the map to be taken to The Economist website and find out which countries in the world their provinces compare to.
|to find out about uneven development in Rio deJaneiro. You may also want to check out Google Earth’s Beyond the map site.Alternatively, those interested in South Africa can see the divide clearly in these images.Blendspace Class Activity||To find out more about the inequalities in China and their ;urban wealth balloon click this link.|
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Policies That Help Even Out Differences In Countries’ Levels Of Development Within The Eu
- The Common Agricultural Policy – this is given to ensure a minimum level of food production for Europe’s population. It helps to give farmers a good standard of living. It also requires farmers to meet environmental and animal welfare standards. Critics say it is expensive.
- Structural Funds – a region qualifies for this if it has less than 75 per cent of the average GDP for Europe. It gives money to help with the region’s infrastructure, especially transport.
- European Regional Development Fund – this includes the Urban II fund, which targets deprived areas in cities. The level of deprivation is calculated by the rate of unemployment in the area. It helps to provide social and economic regeneration in a sustainable way.
How Does Uneven Development Affect The Wealth And Health Of People In Lics And Nees
In all societies, the wealth of a nation is not equally distributed. This is the same for the quality of life. In some LICs and NEEs this inequality has worsened. Nigeria has recently moved from LIC to NEE status. This is the result of wealth gained from trading. However, this wealth is not evenly distributed, in fact, Nigeria has one of the most uneven distributions of wealth on Earth. This difference is best illustrated using the Gini coefficient. It is a ration with values between 0 and 100. A country with a Gini coefficient of 0 would mean that everyone would have the same income. A country with a Gini coefficient of 100 would mean that the income was controlled by only one person. The Gini coefficient for Nigeria is 48.8 compared to Finland which has the lowest Gini coefficient of 21.5.
Another outcome of uneven development is that many LICs are now dependent on HICs and some NEEs for aid. Many LICs are heavily in debt as the result of borrowing money from the World Bank to pay for hospitals and healthcare and large-scale projects such as building dams and reservoirs. Despite borrowing money to improve healthcare the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak exposed the poor quality healthcare infrastructure;in countries such as Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea. Low income and civil war have left health services underfunded and unable to meet the needs of the people.
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New Challenges Problems And Perspectives
Thus defined, the conditions for a positive response to the challenge of history appear severe, and any merging of such conditions remote. That is not surprising. The response to new challenges never comes spontaneously. It takes time for the social structures to stabilize, for the new forms of social movements to produce efficient strategies, for them to formulate legitimate ideologies in keeping with the real challenges. In the meantime, what we have is rather chaos, and therefore disarray and nostalgias of the past, in other words, false responses to real problems. It is in this frame that we can observe revivals of movements which label themselves national liberation, usually on the basis of ethnicity and religion, denying importance to any other dimension of social reality, such as class. Often presented by the dominant ambiguous ideologies as primordial in the sense of being the expression of a transhistorical fundamental difference and specificity, these movements are in fact more of the nature of being a symptom of the crisis rather than an answer to it.
N. Ettlinger, in, 2001
Uneven Development Within The Eu
Countries within the EU have different levels of development. In general, the older members of the EU have higher levels of GNP than those that have joined the EU recently. These countries form the economic core of Europe. The UK and France are two examples. Countries forming the economic periphery of the EU tend to be newer members of the EU, such as Bulgaria.
Measuring development in other ways also shows these differences between countries in the EU, but not as clearly.
The map below shows the countries which are members of the EU in 2013.
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Causes Of Uneven Development
The Development Gap
The Development Gap refers to the widening difference in levels of development between the world’s richest and poorest countries. There are many different measures used to assess the development gap, including HDI, GNI, Life expectancy etc. This GAP has major impacts on the QUALITY of LIFE for millions of people around the globe
There are Economic, historical and physical reasons for this development gap;
Economic factors affecting development
Unfortunately poverty can lead to poverty.; The diagram shows the poverty trap, which is often thought of as a cycle.; Low investment in key areas such as infrastructure , education and healthcare can be bad for a population.;
Populations in countries at low levels of development can become more vulnerable to ill health which reduces the productivity of the workforce.
In addition, a lack of education leads to a lower quality workforce, and poor road networks are not attractive to outside investors.; Simple things like these can exacerbate poverty, and keep countries mired in a low level of development.
Famine in the Horn of Africa – ;
Uneven Geographical Development And The Spatial Fix
A key geographical insight from Marxism is the way that capitalism produces uneven development across space. Marx recognized uneven development to be a basic feature of capitalism in the way that certain places prospered and attracted investment at the expense of others. Uneven development can be seen at a variety of different scales: from the global, in the relations between North and South and the tendency for capital to flow to particular hotspots at the expense of other places ; to the very local, in the way that cities become divided between rich suburbs and poor ghettoes or favellas. At the same time, however, capital accumulation processes are extremely dynamic so that a core region during one phase of growth may fall into decline in the next phase. Theory is unable to predict which regions will suffer this fate as outcomes are not predetermined but are ultimately the result of the interaction between technological changes and changing class relations, both within individual places and across space.
R. Lewis, in, 2009
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Uneven And Combined Development
Uneven and combined development is a concept in intended to describe dynamics of human history involving the interaction of capitalist laws of motion and starting world market conditions whose national units are highly heterogeneous.
The idea was applied systematically by Leon Trotsky around the turn of the 20th century to the case of Russia, when he was analyzing the developmental possibilities for industrialization in the Russian empire, and the likely future of the Tsarist regime in Russia.
The notion was then generalized and became the basis of Trotskyist politics of permanent revolution, which implied a rejection of the Stalinist idea that a human society inevitably developed through a uni-linear sequence of necessary “stages”. Before Trotsky, Nikolay Chernyshevsky, Vasily Vorontsov, and others proposed similar ideas.
The concept is used by Marxist scholars concerned with economic development.David Harvey is an advocate of the usefulness of this theory to reconstruct historical materialism on Modern terms. It is an accepted key concept in academic economic geography.
The Causes Of Uneven Development
Historial CausesGDP is given in US$. Purchase powerparity is just the GDP adjusted to take into account that a $ buys more in some countries than others.;To find out more about PPP and the Burger Index developed by The Economist click on the link here.To investigate how countries have developed over time using a range of different indicators click on the Gapminder graph below and then click on bubble graph.Political causesColonialisation also causes uneven development. Check out the prezi below to find out more.Environmental CausesOther Causes
- Unfair trade & trade blocs with their tariffs and subsidies.
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The Spatiality And Unevenness Of Development
While modernization approaches had been generally optimistic about the prospects for capitalist development in developing countries, much of the literature by dependency theorists had been highly pessimistic. Since at least the 1980s, however, many development theorists have been inclined towards a more nuanced and contextual approach which recognizes both possibilities for and limitations to capitalist development. In place of the earlier emphasis on either diffusion or blocked development, there is now much greater emphasis on the general geographical expansiveness of capital and the unevenness with which its expansion proceeds. The important theoretical work of David Harvey has enriched the conceptual foundations for analyses highlighting uneven internationalization of capitalanalyses which have been carried forward by a variety of development geographers.
V. Vujacic, in, 2001
The Settler Colonial Mesh
In This Benevolent Experiment: Indigenous Boarding Schools, Genocide, and Redress in Canada and the United States , I chart the uneven development of Indigenous boarding schools in North America through a multilayered approach that is attuned to temporal and regional variations in assimilative schooling, as well as their location in a broader settler colonial project. Settler colonial practices of assimilative education are represented as a series of nets that operate at the macro-, meso- , and micro-societal levels. These nets tighten or slacken as they stretch across time and space, and when combined, one on top of the other, form a settler colonial mesh, which entraps Indigenous peoples within a settler colonial eliminationist project . This mesh, however, is prone to snags and tears, such as when relations between the actors and institutions engaged in processes of settlement and assimilation create a gap through which resilience and subversion might be asserted .
S.C. Aitken, in, 2009
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Uneven Development Production And Labour
Researchers in this sub-theme are economic geographers. Research by Konstantinos Melachroinos is on regional economic growth, evolution of spatial disparities, and the formulation of policies for the reduction of geographic inequalities. More recently, Konstantinos has focused on the role of foreign direct investment in promoting economic development in lagging regions and the territorial effects of the knowledge economy. The regions in which he conducts research are in Great Britain, the European Union, China and the OECD countries.
Gale Raj-Reichert has focused her research on labour governance in the electronics industry global production network/global value chain. More recently, Gale is engaged in research on the effects of socially responsible procurement on labour conditions in developing countries. Much of her research is focused on the Southeast Asia region .
Adrian Smith undertakes research on labour, global production networks, economic security, and the restructuring of industries in post-socialist East-Central Europe and North Africa. His research interests focus on the relations between uneven development and political economy.
How Does Uneven Development Lead To International Migration
Uneven development leads to people migrating. This can be voluntary migration where people search for a better life . People who do this known as economic migrants. Others are forced to move as the result of natural disasters or wars. These people are referred to as refugees.
Internation migration was highest in 2015. This was the result of conflict and poverty. In addition to this as people become more aware of the development gap between LICs and NEEs and HICs people are attracted by the potential economic opportunities available to them. The growth in the use of mobile technologies, particularly in Africa, has led to a greater global awareness amongst the population.
It is highly likely that you will have seen scenes showing African migrants trying to reach Europe by boat. Many thousands of people died trying to reach the continent.
The UK receives migrants from a range of different countries, both within the EU and from outside. Often these migrants are highly educated and/or skilled. This leaves to a brain drain in the country where they were trained and educated. On the other hand though these migrants send money home to their families .
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Globalization And Uneven Development
Even as the world has been transformed from a colonial era in which the futures of many places were under the direct control of others, to an era of neoliberal globalization in which every place is taken to be responsible for its own well-being, geographical inequalities in income and livelihood chances persist at all scales. Faculty are examining the political-economic processes underlying these inequalities, the geographies they produce, and the impact of these geographies on societal change;in an increasingly capitalist global system.
The geographical dynamics of capitalism are of central concern; shaping but also shaped by human and non-human actions whose logics exceed those of the market. What processes underlie the persistence of geographical inequality, at all scales, in our apparently rapidly globalizing and homogenizing world? How do these uneven geographies emerge from interdependent political-economic, cultural and biophysical processes? What is the relationship between development and the good life? How can inequality be eradicated?
If this genre of research interests you, shoot an email to any of our faculty who work in this areathey are more than happy to work with you and answer your questions!
The Theory Of The Contradictory Reproduction Of Capitalism And Its Class Relations
The Marxist theory of the contradictory reproduction of capitalism and capitalist class relations is also based on three fundamental theses.
3.2.1Thesis 1. The social reproduction of class relations thesis
3.2.2Thesis 2. The contradictions of capitalism thesis
The institutional solutions to the problems of social reproduction of capitalist class relations at any point in time have a systematic tendency to erode and become less functional over time. This is so for two principle reasons: First, capitalist development generates changes in technology, the labor process, class structure, markets, and other aspects of capitalist relations, and these changes continually pose new problems of social reproduction. In general, earlier institutional solutions will cease to be optimal under such changed conditions. Second, class actors adapt their strategies in order to take advantages of weaknesses in existing institutional arrangements. Over time, these adaptive strategies tend to erode the ability of institutions of social reproduction to regulate and contain class struggles effectively.
3.2.3Thesis 3. Institutional crisis and renovation thesis
S. Amin, in, 2001
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Future Challenges And Directions
Where should geographies of disability go from here? One important challenge is explaining how the uneven development and dynamics of global patriarchal capitalism perpetuates social and spatial exclusion of the disabled. Systematic studies of how sociospatial restructuring of state institutions and programs is shaping the geographic boundaries and conditions of disabled peoples’ lives in different places, and how different ways of organizing workplaces and labor processes affect disabled persons’ access to paid employment, would help to address such challenges. Geographic variations in the design, production, availability, and consumption of disability aids, and their impacts on disabled peoples’ abilities to negotiate life spaces is another topic for future research. Studies of the sociospatial production of disabling conditions; examining, for instance, how unsafe, stressful conditions of work and the hyperexploitation of female labor in places such as export zones influence the incidence and severity of different disabilities, would also help to address this challenge.
Methodological challenges include gathering data on neglected aspects of disability such as spatial variations in employment and accommodation practices in workplaces, and developing accessible research formats. Ethical and political challenges include ensuring that research empowers disabled persons.
S.J. Smith, in, 2001