The Psychology Of Human Sexuality
Northwest Vista College
Sexuality is one of the fundamental drives behind everyones feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. It defines the means of biological reproduction, describes psychological and sociological representations of self, and orients a persons attraction to others. Further, it shapes the brain and body to be pleasure-seeking. Yet, as important as sexuality is to being human, it is often viewed as a taboo topic for personal or scientific inquiry.
Classism And Counseling Psychology
Bernice Lott and Laura Smith have called attention to the classism that exists in psychological research and practice. Classism, like other forms of oppression, results from those with unearned class privilege exerting their power over others. Lott discussed notions of class superiority and inferiority that result in psychologists and others distancing themselves from poor people through cognitive means such as stereotyping exclusion of low SES individuals from institutions such as education, housing, and politics and interpersonal means such as blatant discrimination and invalidation.
Smith traced the history of psychotherapys treatment of the poor, including the political backlash against community mental health centers and therapists expectations of clients based on White middle-class norms. Current therapeutic models are most likely not addressing the needs of those from lower SES groups, as evidenced by higher treatment dropout rates. An example of an attitudinal barrier is counselors seeing their interventions as less significant because poor clients are facing multiple stressors. As the multicultural counseling competencies have helped to address counselors attitudes regarding race and ethnicity, identification of attitudinal barriers to working with low SES clients will begin to increase counselors competence to work across socioeconomic groups.
An Introduction To Socioeconomic Status
Socioeconomic status is a term used by sociologists, economists, and other social scientists to describe the class standing of an individual or group. It is measured by a number of factors, including income, occupation, and education, and it can have either a positive or negative impact on a person’s life.
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Women’s Health And Low Socioeconomic Status
SES is inextricably linked with poor health across the life span in both men and women. The effects of SES on women’s health compared to men’s health have not been well studied. Health effects of SES in women are likely to be confounded by marital status and by spousal income. Women who are not married are often of lower SES and women who are single heads of households are almost universally of lower SES than women who are married. Thus, it is difficult to separate the effects on health of women’s social class from the effects of their spouse’s social class. Most infectious and chronic diseases are more prevalent in women of lower socioeconomic status than in women of higher SES. In the United States in 1997 among women aged 65 and over, 12 percent of white women, 27 percent of African American women, and 26 percent of Hispanic women were living below the Federal poverty line .
Iisocioeconomic Status And Health
SES has a profound influence on physical and mental health outcomes. Of all the social and psychological factors studied to date, SES exhibits the strongest and most consistent associations with morbidity and mortality. Individuals lower in SES are more likely to develop illnesses in the first place, to have difficulties managing them, and to die from them, compared with their higher-status peers. This social gradient exists for nearly all acute and chronic medical conditions. It also emerges in nearly all countries of the world, regardless of whether their citizens have universal access to care. Lastly, the social gradient persists across the life span, from early childhood to older adulthood .
SES also is associated with a wide variety of psychological variables. These include traditional individual difference variables, such as hostility, optimism, depression, and anxiety . Furthermore, low SES is associated with poor health behaviors, such as increased risk of smoking and decreased physical activity . Finally, evidence suggests that individuals from different SES backgrounds have different types of life experiences. For example, lower SES individuals are more likely to be exposed to stressful life events and are more likely to perceive stress in their lives .
M.P. Neuenschwander, B. Kracke, in, 2011
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Measurement Invariance And Its Practical Consequences
Across 20 measurement invariance analyses, 12 showed evidence of non-invariance using the MFI > .01 threshold. Thus, a first pass at this question would suggest that people with different socioeconomic backgrounds may not be answering the BFI in ways that allow for valid comparisons. However, the authors who suggested this threshold also cautioned against taking it too seriously . Thus, rather than stopping at this result, it prompted us to take a closer look at the data in two ways: by examining the items that were responsible for noninvariance, and by gauging the practical impact of correcting for it.
Examining noninvariant items. In examining the noninvariant items , one observation we made was that two items with work or worker were noninvariant. One possibility is that participants differ in the extent to which they are thinking of paid labor, versus other meanings such as schoolwork or anything involving effort. Furthermore, research on the meaning of work suggests that financial circumstances, and the nature of work tasks, change the way people view work and connect it to their sense of self . So even among participants thinking about employment, systematic differences in the meaning of work could have been responsible for these differences.
Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Health And Well
Research has shown that objective and subjective SES are both robustly and independently associated with health outcomes, albeit through different mechanisms. Material resources grant individuals with better life conditions and a freedom of choices . On the other hand, those who lack these resources are likely to face harsher life conditions, live in suboptimal environments and have limited access to quality education, occupation, and health services . These environmental conditions lead to dire effects on both physical and mental health . For example, research has shown higher rates of cardiovascular diseases and immunological dysfunctions , higher depression , and lower life satisfaction among individuals with lower objective SES. Relatedly, need theory proposes that unfulfilled needs may drive individuals to engage in more health compromising behaviors as a coping mechanism. Furthermore, the social causation hypothesis posits that extreme adverse conditions may even produce psychopathologies or activate a genetic diathesis for individuals with genetic liabilities .
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How Does Ses Impact A Persons Health
Similarly, higher incomes are usually associated with better nutritional status, housing conditions, medical services, etc. In addition, people with higher levels of education tend to have better health awareness and health-related knowledge . Consequently, higher SES may be correlated with better physical health.
Socioeconomic Status And Education Level
Lower socioeconomic status and lower education levels have been found to be risk factors for chronic constipation. In population-based surveys, people with a lower-income status have higher rates of constipation than those who have a higher income status.8,12,28,30 Similarly, persons who have a lower education level tend to have a higher prevalence of constipation than those who have a higher education level.8,16,30,63 Pooled data from a meta-analysis showed a modest increase in the prevalence of chronic constipation in persons of lower socioeconomic status compared with those of higher socioeconomic status.15 These results have been reproduced in other countries, such as Brazil, Germany, and Croatia.68-70
Melanie A. Stearns, … Christina S. McCrae, in, 2021
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Description Of Objective And Subjective Ses Indicators
Regarding the objective SES indicators, the respondents income distribution were as follows: < 650 , 6511300 , 13011950 , 19512600 , 26013250 , 32513900 , 39014550 , 45515200 , 52015800 , and > 5.800 . For educational level, we found the following distribution: primary school , secondary education , vocational training , bachelors degree , incomplete university degree , university degree , masters degree , and doctoral degree . Finally, concerning participants occupation, we found the following: unemployed , agricultural work , unskilled worker , semi-skilled worker , skilled worker , occupations related to the service sector , commercials , office work , senior management administrative occupations , and technical professional occupations .
The frequency distribution of the subjective SES indicators is represented graphically in Figure 1. As this figure illustrates, some differences in the distribution rate of the traditional MacArthur SSS scale compared to each novel ladder for income, education, and occupation, as well as between these new ladders, can be observed. For instance, the mean of the traditional MacArthur SSS scale was 6.04 the means of the income, education, and occupation ladders were 5.25 , 7.15 , and 5.61 , respectively. Responses ranged from 1 to 10 for all ladders.
Figure 1. Frequency distribution of each subjective SES indicator.
What Does Ses Stand For
What does SES mean? This page is about the various possible meanings of the acronym, abbreviation, shorthand or slang term: SES.
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What Does Ses Stand For In Psychology
Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation.
What does the acronym SES stand for?
SES stands for Senior Executive Service This definition appears very frequently and is found in the following Acronym Finder categories:
Age And Socioeconomic Status
The overwhelming majority of enteroviral infections occur in infants, children, and adolescents.76,77 In the United States, attack rates for both infection and illness with nonpolio enteroviruses are highest in infants during their first year of life.76,77,78 Surveillance data from 20002014 documented that 34% of infections reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention occurred in this age group.76 Among nearly 26,737 enteroviral detections reported to the CDC for the years 19832003, 11.4% occurred in neonates.77 Rates of symptomatic enteroviral infection decrease after the second month of life79 but remain higher for infants and toddlers compared with older children and adults.77,80 Enteroviral infections are more prevalent among children of lower socioeconomic status,81 probably because of crowding, poor hygiene, and opportunities for fecal contamination. Simultaneous infection by more than one serotype is common under these circumstances.82
M.N. Haan, in, 2001
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What Are The Two Contrasting Frameworks For Understanding The Relation Of Ses And Mental Disorder
Two contrasting frameworks for understanding the relation of SES to mental disorder are selection and drift on the one hand and social causation on the other hand. Selection refers to the idea that individuals who are predisposed to mental disorder have lower than expected educational and occupational attainment.
Classification Schemes Based On Prestige
Two of the most popular classification schemes for SES are August B. Hollingsheads Index of Social Status and Otis Dudley Duncans Socioeconomic Index. Both of these methods rank occupational categories based on prestige. These methods are based on census data from 1970 and 1950, respectively, and are thus outdated. The Hollingshead Index combines education, occupation, gender, and marital status into one social status score. The Duncan Socioeconomic Index classifies occupational prestige based on the income of, and education required for, the occupation. Another classification method is the Nam-Powers Socioeconomic Status Score, which uses a definition of occupational status based on median income and education of those employed in that occupation, combined with educational level and family income. Problems with these measures include few studies on validity and reliability, the combination of highly intercorrelated SES indicators into one measure, and equating socioeconomic resources with prestige.
Disparities In Language Acquisition
The linguistic environment of low and high SES children differs substantially, which affects many aspects of language and literacy development such as semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.
Semantics is the study of the meaning of words and phrases. Semantics covers vocabulary, which is affected by SES. Children of high SES have larger expressive vocabularies by the age of 24 months due to more efficient processing of familiar words. By age 3, there are significant differences in the amount of dialogue and vocabulary growth between children of low and high SES. The effects of SES on vocabulary extend from childhood to adolescence and even into early adulthood according to a large socioeconomically diverse study. A lack of joint attention in children contributes to poor vocabulary growth when compared to their high SES peers. Joint attention and book reading are important factors that affect children’s vocabulary growth. With joint attention, a child and adult can focus on the same object, allowing the child to map out words. For example, a child sees an animal running outside and the mom points to it and says, “Look, a dog.” The child will focus its attention to where its mother is pointing and map the word dog to the pointed animal. Joint attention thus facilitates word learning for children.
Positive outcomes of low SES
Assessment Of The Two Types Of Socio
Overall, research is conclusive that both objective and subjective forms of social status are important predictors of health and well-being. However, there is not a definitive answer as to how these different assessments of social status are related to each other, or with the aforementioned outcomes.
Traditionally, objective SES has been assessed using composite scores measuring resource-based or prestige-based indicators. Yet, comparative studies suggest complex pictures, particularly regarding the effects of income, a commonly used proxy to objective SES. For example, Diener and Biswas-Diener showed that income had a stronger effect on subjective well-being particularly on those who lived in poorer countries than those living in more affluent countries . A number of studies have also demonstrated that income is curvilinearly associated with health and subjective well-being . Similarly, Kahneman and Deaton reported a positive linear relationship between income and life evaluation but a curvilinear effect of income on emotional well-being .
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Hierarchical Regression Analyses Predicting Psychological Well
Table 3 through 9 give the findings from the set of multiple hierarchical regression analyses predicting each component of psychological well-being from demographic factors , and the objective and subjective SES measures as predictors.
Table 3. Hierarchical regression analysis predicting self-acceptance.
When demographic characteristics were controlled in Step 1 , our results revealed that, among the indicators of objective SES entered in Step 2, only income exerted predictive utility regarding participants self-acceptance. Thus, the higher the income, the greater the levels of self-acceptance.
Regarding the traditional MacArthur SSS scale, which was included in Step 3, a respondents higher placement on this ladder was indicative of a greater level of self-acceptance.
When we focused on the income, education, and occupation ladders , our results showed that, after controlling for demographics, objective metrics of SES , and the MacArthur SSS scale, the occupation ladder emerged as a significant predictor of self-acceptance . Therefore, the higher the respondents placement in the occupation ladder, the greater their score on self-acceptance. The addition of these new social ladders in Step 4 accounted for incremental criterion variance , F = 3.16, p = 0.025.
Table 4. Hierarchical regression analysis predicting positive relationships.
Table 5. Hierarchical regression analysis predicting autonomy.
The Big Five Across Socioeconomic Status: Measurement Invariance Relationships And Age Trends
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to: Bradley T. Hughes, 1227 University St, Eugene, OR 97403 phone: 346-4921 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Bradley T. Hughes, Cory K. Costello, Joshua Pearman, Pooya Razavi, Cianna Bedford-Petersen, Rita M. Ludwig, Sanjay Srivastava The Big Five Across Socioeconomic Status: Measurement Invariance, Relationships, and Age Trends. Collabra: Psychology 4 January 2021 7 : 24431. doi:
A growing body of evidence has observed a relationship between personality traits and socioeconomic status . For example, conscientiousness positively predicts SES over and above intelligence and neuroticism is negatively associated with income . Moreover, these relationships are linked to important outcomes for example, personality can explain ~20% of the increased all-mortality risk associated with being lower in SES . Documenting these kinds of associations is an important precursor to developing theories about transactional pathways between personality and social contexts, including how social roles and experiences might shape personality development and vice versa.
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Socioeconomic Status And Physical Health
There is a clear relationship between SES and health, as indicated by studies that have found evidence of a gradient where low SES is correlated with most diseases, and the likelihood of contracting or experiencing disease decreases as SES increases. Relationships between various socioeconomic indicators and physical diseases have been found, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and certain types of cancer. Level of education alone has been cited as a predictor of mortality and morbidity in the United States and other countries.
SES is highly correlated with physical health for various reasons. Access to health care, safe workplace conditions, and supportive social networks contribute to the health of those with higher SES. In addition, lower SES is associated with a greater likelihood to engage in risky behaviors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. Individuals coping with the stress of a low SES environment are also less likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as exercise. The physical environment of low SES neighborhoods can also directly impact health. Impoverished neighborhoods are often exposed to pathogens, carcinogens, and environmental hazards. People in poor communities are also more likely to be exposed to, or experience, violence and may have less social support than people living in higher SES communities.