Eastern Europe Eu Countries
Modernize existing health resorts and hot springs, and improve their services. Promote the use of thermal water resources which are known but not yet used for tourism purposes.
116 W O R L D G E O G R A P H Y O F T R AV E L A N D T O U R I S M Develop the infrastructure of health resorts and hot springs through a coordinated and tourism oriented development of health and thermal water-related services and tourism-related infrastructure.
Sports Fields Parks Beaches And Entertainment As Well As Supporting Infrastructure
away from the home setting to experience anomie . 4. Status and Prestige Motivators: The desire for recognition, attention, apprecia- tion and a good reputation among family, friends and acquaintances in the home setting. Source: Mayo, E.J. and Jarvis, L.P. The Psychology of Leisure Travel, Effective Marketing and Selling of Travel Services, CBI Publishing, Boston.
They Produce Essentially The Same Product
Tourism is one of the largest service industries in the world. International tourismexpenditures and receipt account for 30 percent of all international trade in services. This definition of tourism includes a largepart of the recreation activities that occur on the planet, especially anything that isconsidered an attraction, as well almost all of the hospitality industry , and a good chunk of the transportation industry. However, international definitionsof what constitutes particular sectors is important in determining estimates of theirrelative size.
The Old World: Central Asia Through Africa 139
140 W O R L D G E O G R A P H Y O F T R AV E L A N D T O U R I S M The End of the Empires Most of the European empires dissolved in the decades following World WarII. India and Pakistan gained independence in 1949 in the 1950s, the Philippines,Indonesia and Indochina gained independence, alongwith some African countries. In the 1960s and 1970s most of the remaining Africancolonies gained their independence. However, it was not until the end of the 1980sand the beginning of the 1990s that the Russian Empire/USSR finally dissolved . The Central Asian republics have had significant growing pains in establishing legiti-mate political rule and economic stability following their independence from the SovietUnion in the early 1990s, though their remote locations and poor transportation infra-structure may be even greater barriers for international visitors. Every country in theregion has politically sensitive areas, and these issues need to be kept in mind in anydiscussion of tourism resources in Central and Southwest Asia. The two mountaincountries represent two extremes of post-Soviet Central Asia. Despite similar physicalgeography features, Tajikistan has suffered through civil war for most of the 1990s,resulting in tens of thousands of deaths and hundreds of thousands of refugees. On theother hand, Kyrgyzstan is the most democratic and stable of the Central Asian countries.
What Does A Map Of Climate Zones Really Look Like
Distance to the equator is only one part of an areas climate. Things like the movement of the oceans and Earths tilt and rotation also affect how weather patterns move around the globe.
If you classify the United States into climate zones using all of this information, it actually looks something like this:
This is an illustration of the climate zones within the United States. The extra climate zone, labeled “H” on this map, is a special zone called the highlands. The highlands climate zone is characterized by weather that differs from the surrounding area because of mountains. Credit: NOAA
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What Are The Different Climate Types
The Short Answer:
Climate is the average weather conditions in a place over a long period of time30 years or more. And as you probably already know, there are lots of different types of climates on Earth.
For example, hot regions are normally closest to the equator. The climate is hotter there because the Suns light is most directly overhead at the equator. And the North and South Poles are cold because the Suns light and heat are least direct there.
The snow-covered peaks of the Chigmit Range during winter. Credit: NPS/M. Cahill 2015
Using this information, in the late 1800s and early 1900s a German climate scientist named Wladimir Koppen divided the world’s climates into categories. His categories were based on the temperature, the amount of precipitation, and the times of year when precipitation occurs. The categories were also influenced by a regions latitudethe imaginary lines used to measure our Earth from north to south from the equator.
Today, climate scientists split the Earth into approximately five main types of climates. They are:
A: Tropical. In this hot and humid zone, the average temperatures are greater than 64°F year-round and there is more than 59 inches of precipitation each year.
B: Dry. These climate zones are so dry because moisture is rapidly evaporated from the air and there is very little precipitation.
C: Temperate. In this zone, there are typically warm and humid summers with thunderstorms and mild winters.
New England And The Maritime Provinces
The Ozark Plateau and Ouachita Mountains consist of a group of low mountainssometimes called the interior highlands. On the southern edge of the Ozark Plateauare the Boston Mountains, the peaks of which are exposed granite rock. To the south,across the Arkansas River, are the Ouachita Mountains. They are a folded belt thatresembles the ridge and valley area of the Appalachians. At its highest points thisregion is under 2700 ft . The climate of the Ozarks and Ouachitas is similar tothat of the surrounding warm and humid lowlands. This is in part because these inte-rior highlands are an eastwest trending system, which benefits little from altitudinalzonation and rain shadow impacts.
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Sedimentary Igneous And Metamorphic Rock
The surface physiography of a region is shaped by its underlying rock structure. Thethree main types of rock are sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. Sedimentary rockconsists of successive layers of wind or waterborne materials. Under pressure, thesedeposits turn into rock such as sandstone, shale, limestone and coal. Sedimentaryrocks are the most common type found in the United States.
Higher Elevations Have Cooler Climates
Climates become cooler and the cold season lasts longer as elevation above sea level rises. This holds true for mountains and high-elevation plateaus, such as the steppes of Mongolia. Every 1.61 kilometers in elevation gain is roughly equivalent to moving 1,290 kilometers further from the equator. Mechanistically, higher elevations have lower air pressure, fewer atoms per unit of air to excite and, thus, cooler temperatures. Mountains frequently receive more precipitation than the surrounding lowlands, but many high-altitude plains are deserts because of their location on the leeward side of a mountain range or continental mass.
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Liquid Fuels And The Transport System
Economic considerations In the long run, the price of crude oil will be determined by the price of substitutes. Continued high oil prices are anticipated as long as the pressure from the expanding Asian economies such as China and India is maintained.
Settlement Infrastructure: utilities , settlement activities and morphology (retaining,
finance, government, education and science, religion), people Tourist Infrastructure: forms of access , information and
What Is Climate What Is Climate Change
Climate is the average weather in a given area over a longer period of time. A description of a climate includes information on, e.g. the average temperature in different seasons, rainfall, and sunshine. Also a description of the extremes is often included. Climate change is any systematic change in the long-term statistics of climate variables such as temperature, precipitation, pressure, or wind sustained over several decades or longer. Climate change can be due to natural external forcings or it can be human induced.
The classical period used for describing a climate is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization .
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Earth System Modeling
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How Can Information About Climate Zones Be Used
Climate zones can be useful for gardening and farming. Plants grow best in the climate conditions that are found in their native ecosystem. For example, if you want to plant an apple orchard in your backyard, you should first check to see which varieties of apples are a good match for your regions climate.
This is called a Plant Hardiness Zone map. Its a specific type of climate zone map that can help you figure out what kinds of plants will survive in your back yard. Image credit: USDA/Agricultural Research Service/Oregon State University
Why Is The Canadian Shield Not Good For Farming
The lowlands of the Canadian Shield have a very dense soil that is not suitable for forestation it also contains many marshes and bogs . The rest of the region has coarse soil that does not retain moisture well and is frozen with permafrost throughout the year. Forests are not as dense in the north.
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Plant And Animal Life
From the 17th to the 19th century, much of the natural vegetation was destroyed through clearing for agriculture, grazing, and logging. Deforestation accelerated during the 20th century as population increased, and the forests that once covered the country have been reduced to a tiny proportion of the total land area. Patches of virgin forest remain in the Massif de la Selle, which includes tall pines, and in the Massif de la Hotte, where an evergreen forest with giant tree ferns and orchids stands on the slopes of Macaya Peak. Bayahondes , cacti, and acacias form thorny woods on the dry plains. The mangrove swamps on the coast have also declined rapidly, as their trees have been overexploited for firewood and for the production of charcoal.
With the retreat of natural vegetation, wildlife has lost its habitat and shelter. Wild boars, guinea fowls, and wild ducks are no longer present, but caimans still inhabit rivers of the southern peninsula, and some flamingos are found on Gonâve Island, where they are often hunted. Little has been done to conserve Haitis flora and fauna, and few national or regional parks have been established. The lack of conservation measures has been particularly damaging for coral formations and the animal life associated with them.
The Eus Youngest: Romania And Bulgaria
118 W O R L D G E O G R A P H Y O F T R AV E L A N D T O U R I S M set in the beautiful, yet feared, forests of Transylvania. Romanias rural lifestyle andpeasant traditions are important for tourism, as are its cities as major gateways. Since its communist rule collapsed, tourism has become an important priority forBulgaria as well. Like Romania and other neighbors, Bulgaria is a favored stop onBlack Sea Danube cruises, and its rural appeal evokes a similar mental landscape ofhorse-drawn carriages, farmers and small villages.
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Why Does Ontario Have So Many Lakes
The geological region with the most lakes is called the Canadian Shield. All of those glacial pockmarks on the land filled with natural water from ground springs, rain, and waterways to become lakes. Today, many of these small lakes are connected via natural waterways, and form much larger lake and river systems.
Impact Of Geography On Colonial America
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The European colonization of the Americas encountered diverse physical and human geography, which influenced the methods and results. Spanish Conquistadors found large native empires in Mexico and Peru and quickly conquered them to build feudal systems similar to those at home. Where valuable mineral deposits were found, colonies were built on that basis. Places suitable to sugar developed a plantation economy.
North America, where such resources were not found, was colonized later, mainly by France, England, and the Netherlands. Their colonies were initially based on trade with the natives rather than conquest, and later on lumber rather than minerals. Where farmland was good, an export trade in its products developed.
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Factors Related To Location And Relief
Latitude: The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India. The tropic of cancer passes through the central part of Indias east-west direction. Thus the northern part of India lies in the sub-tropical and Temperate zone and the part lying south of the Tropic of Cancer falls in the tropical zone. The tropical zone being nearer to the equator experiences high temperatures throughout the year with a small daily and annual range. The area north of the tropic of cancer being away from the equator experiences an extreme climate with a high daily and annual range of temperature.
The Himalayan Mountains
The lofty Himalayas in the north along with its extensions act as an effective climatic divide. The towering mountain of the chain provides an invincible shield to protect the subcontinent from the cold northern winds. These cold chilly northern Winds originate near the Arctic circle and blow across central and eastern Asia.
Distribution of Land and Water
India is flanked by the Indian Ocean on three sides in the south and grilled by a high and continuous Mountain wall in the north. As compared to the landmass, water heats up and cools down slowly. The differential heating of land and sea creates different air pressure zones in different seasons around the Indian subcontinent. The difference in air pressure causes a reversal in the direction of monsoon winds.
Distance from the sea
Factors Related to Air pressure and wind
Mechanism of weather in the winter season
Comparing The Colonial Regions
Think about the geography and location of the city or town you live in. Are there bodies of water like rivers, lakes or coasts nearby? Or perhaps you live in a place with vast open fields suitable for farming or raising livestock. The natural environment is important when understanding how cities and towns developed. The earliest North American colonies depended on their natural environment. The type of soil, climate, length of seasons, and proximity to bodies of water all played a role in how each colony prospered.
The New England region included Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. The geography consisted of forests and hills. Combined with the hard rocky land, cold climate and long winters, New Englands land was poor for large farming. Those who had small family owned farms were called Yeoman farmers. Colonists relied on fishing and whaling. They became craftsmen and merchants, building and selling boats and lumber. New England settlers were Puritans, hard working, and very religious. Close families and strong communities were very important to them.
A large part of the labor force for these farms came from enslaved men and women of African ancestry. Those held in slavery had few, if any, rights and often saw their families torn apart. Like in the Middle Colonies, the southern colonies had greater religious freedom than in New England, but the Church of England was the majority. The majority of colonists in the Southern region were men.
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The Old World: Central Asia Through Africa 149
150 W O R L D G E O G R A P H Y O F T R AV E L A N D T O U R I S M cold. The Rub al Khali covers much of the Arabian Peninsula andis the largest true desert in the world. A true desert is a solid expanse of sand seaswith no vegetation. The entire region, extending across North Africa and into CentralAsia, has a hot and dry climate, although the more mountainous northern portionsare colder in the winter months.
What Causes Climate Change
A simplified animation of the greenhouse effect. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
There are lots of factors that contribute to Earths climate. However, scientists agree that Earth has been getting warmer in the past 50 to 100 years due to human activities.
Certain gases in Earths atmosphere block heat from escaping. This is called the greenhouse effect. These gases keep Earth warm like the glass in a greenhouse keeps plants warm.
Human activities such as burning fuel to power factories, cars and buses are changing the natural greenhouse. These changes cause the atmosphere to trap more heat than it used to, leading to a warmer Earth.
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The Psychologist Abraham Maslow Proposed A Hierarchy Of Needs That Is
A model is a simplification of reality that tries to eliminate all but the most impor-tant factors to explain how something works. Because human behavior is so complex,no single model will ever be able to address all of the variation in tourist motivations.The psychographic model does not consider the fact that people travel with differ-ent motivations on different occasions, and even at different times on a single trip.
32 W O R L D G E O G R A P H Y O F T R AV E L A N D T O U R I S M A wealthy allocentric may travel to Africa on an annual vacation, but may also takeweekend trips for a psychocentric experience. Life cycle changes, changes in health, andchanges in financial resources can all lead to fluctuations in travel behavior and psych-ographic levels. Finally, just as individuals are complex, so are destinations. Any largemetropolitan area, for example, contains a full range of psychocentric to allocentricneighborhoods and attractions.