Tuesday, April 16, 2024

What Does Stimulate Mean In Biology

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Alternative Stimulus Waveforms That Do Not Produce Temporal Interference

Introduction to Biology: What is Life?

The primary intent of our work was to evaluate how TI stimulation may be used to restore ventilation during severe hypoventilation, but not to directly compare TI efficacy to other forms of stimulation, however we did examine the impact of some alternative waveforms. The control waveforms consisted a dual high frequency , low frequency , or 50 pulses per second 0.2ms/phase charge balanced square wave, 0.5s train duration 1 train/s. The dual high frequency control waveforms were utilized to verify that the offset was required vs. a non-specific excitability of the spinal cord. The dual low frequency waveforms were used determine if a high frequency carrier wave was required for diaphragm activation. We used 50 pps epidural square-wave stimulation, as our final control waveform. We assessed how these waveforms activate the diaphragm, external intercostal and biceps. In urethane anesthetized ventilated, vagal intact, rats with intramuscular electrodes or lateralized epidural electrodes , we found the currents sufficient to generate diaphragm bursts with TI stimulation. At the current which produced robust diaphragm activation using TI stimulation, we next generated the control waveforms for 6s each, while recording EMG activity in the diaphragm, intercostal, and biceps muscles ipsilateral to stimulation

Structural Effect On Network Dynamics

In order to assess how the structural brain connectivity constrains network dynamics, we calculate the similarity, defined by the 2-dimensional correlation coefficient, between the structural connectivity matrix used as a basis of the simulation and the functional matrix describing the resultant brain state. This calculation is done first using the initial functional brain state before stimulation, and then using the functional brain state during the stimulation period. Stimulation of a single region increases the similarity between the structural connectivity and functional brain state, and we quantify this increase, termed the structural effect, by subtracting the correlation obtained before stimulation from that obtained during stimulation. Thus, a high structural effect indicates that the underlying connectivity structure constrains the functional effects of stimulation to this region.

Natural Killer Cells Induce Virus

Another way that the interferons help vertebrates defend themselves against viruses is by stimulating both innate and adaptive cellular immune responses. In Chapter 24, we discuss how interferons enhance the of class I proteins, which present viral antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes . Here, we consider how interferons enhance the activity of , which are part of the innate . Like cytotoxic T cells, NK cells destroy -infected cells by inducing the infected cell to kill itself by undergoing . Unlike T cells, however, NK cells do not express -specific receptors. How, then, do they distinguish virus-infected cells from uninfected cells?

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Human Dsi Data Acquisition And Preprocessing

Diffusion spectrum images were acquired from a total of 8 subjects in triplicate along with a T1 weighted anatomical scan at each scanning session . DSI scans sampled 257 directions using a Q5 half shell acquisition scheme with a maximum b value of 5000 and an isotropic voxel size of 2.4mm. We utilized an axial acquisition with the following parameters: TR = 11.4s, TE = 138ms, 51 slices, FoV .

DSI data were reconstructed in DSI Studio using q-space diffeomorphic reconstruction . QSDR first reconstructs diffusion weighted images in native space and computes the quantitative anisotropy in each voxel. These QA values are used to warp the brain to a template QA volume in MNI space using the SPM nonlinear registration algorithm. Once in MNI space, spin density functions were again reconstructed with a mean diffusion distance of 1.25 mm using three fiber orientations per voxel. Fiber tracking was performed in DSI Studio with an angular cutoff of 55°, step size of 1.0 mm, minimum length of 10 mm, spin density function smoothing of 0.0, maximum length of 400 mm and a QA threshold determined by DWI signal in the CSF. Deterministic fiber tracking using a modified FACT algorithm was performed until 100,000 streamlines were reconstructed for each individual.

Cognitive Systems Display Varied Roles In The Structure


We next investigated the interplay between the structural and functional effects by examining the structure-function landscape . Stimulation of individual brain regions revealed a range of tradeoffs between structural and functional effect values, with some regions displaying a high functional effect but low structural effect and others displaying a high structural effect but moderate or low functional effect. We therefore asked if there was a relationship between the cognitive function associated with a brain region and its location in the structure-function landscape. Brain regions were assigned to one of nine cognitive systems , eight of which were based on a data-driven clustering of functional brain networks that group regions that perform similar roles across a diverse set of tasks, as well as a group of subcortical regions. Although in reality no region has a singular function, we use these system assignments as a pragmatic means to assess whether controllability diagnostics are differentially identified in distributed brain networks.

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Stimulation Of Cells With Bt

Following cell stimulation, bt-PDGF is internalized in a complex with PDGFR into endocytic structures. However, due to its adhesive properties, PDGF also binds unspecifically to surfaces such as plastic or glass, on which the cells are plated . To specifically detect internalized PDGF, biotins present on the outside of the cells have to be removed by applying a cell-impermeable reducing agent. Such reagent will reduce the disulfide bond present in the linker between PDGF and biotin, allowing for the free biotin to be washed off the glass coverslip. Out of several reagents tested, the most efficient and reproducible results were obtained with a slightly alkaline solution of glutathione :


Plate CCD-1070Sk human fibroblasts on 12 mm glass coverslips in a 24-well dish in MEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 2 mMl-glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 g/ml streptomycin.


Helmut Plattner, in, 2010

Functions Of Follicle Stimulating Hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormones stimulate the maturation of primordial germ cells in both males and females. Other functions of follicle-stimulating hormones are:

In women:

  • It controls the menstrual cycle.
  • It also increases oestradiol production.
  • It stimulates the ovary to produce an egg.
  • It regulates the development, growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive processes.
  • This hormone stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in the ovary before the release of an egg from one follicle at ovulation.

In men:

  • It secretes androgen-binding proteins from Sertoli or nurse cells. T
  • This hormone acts on the nurse cell of the testicles to stimulate sperm production and the process is called spermatogenesis.

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What Chakra Causes Weight Gain

In this video, I go into more detail about how the throat chakra also known as the fifth or Vishuddha chakra plays a role in weight gain and weight loss. The throat chakra is located in the mid-point of your neck. Its the energy center that gives us our abilities around self-expression and communication.

Linear Network Control Theory

GCSE Science Revision Biology “Mean, Median and Mode”

To study the theoretical ability of a certain brain region to influence other regions in arbitrary ways we adopt the control theoretic notion of controllability. Controllability of a dynamical system refers to the possibility of driving the state of a dynamical system to a specific target state by means of an external control input . As in , we employ a simplified noise-free linear discrete-time and time-invariant network model:where x describes the state of brain regions over time, A is a normalized structural connectivity matrix derived from tractography data as described above. In S1 Text contains a discussion of the method used to normalize matrices across subject data sets. The input matrix identifies the control points, and denotes the control strategy.

Classic results in control theory ensure that controllability of the network Eq from the set of network nodes is equivalent to the controllability Gramian being invertible, whereWe utilize this framework to choose control nodes one at a time, and thus the input matrix B in fact reduces to a one-dimensional vector.

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Temporal Modulation Of Dendrodendritic Inhibition

In slices, paired-pulse mitral cell stimulation experiments show that self-inhibition elicited by the second pulse was markedly reduced and recovered with a time constant of 6 s . This finding may, in part, account for the decrement in GABAergic synaptic input to mitral cells across respiratory cycles during odor stimulation . The observation that GC odor responses subside across sniffs may also lead to reduced dendrodendritic inhibition during respiration. Thus, the strength of dendrodendritic inhibition is likely to be temporally modulated with respect to respiration. Other studies indicate that higher frequency local -oscillatory activity generated by mitral cellGC interactions may also modulate GABAergic inhibition. Local -frequency stimulation in the GCL or ELP can facilitate mitral cell feedback and lateral inhibition by relieving the Mg2+ block of NMDA receptors on GCs .

Sex Differences In Erogenous Zones

This table shows the sex differences in erogenous zones and includes the top ten most arousing areas for both sexes. Each body part was rated out of ten for how arousing it is when touched. Apart from body parts exclusive to one gender such as the penis or clitoris, many of the erogenous zones are similar and contain many nerve endings.


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How Do I Heal My Solar Plexus

Some healing practices for this Chakra involve physical activities like starting a yoga practice or any other exercise that involves body movement. As the element of the Solar Plexus Chakra is fire, the Sun provides healing energy. Exercising or walking outside for at least 20-30 minutes of sun every day.

What Are The 5 Major Plexuses


12.6C: Plexuses

  • Cervical PlexusServes the Head, Neck and Shoulders.
  • Brachial PlexusServes the Chest, Shoulders, Arms and Hands.
  • Lumbar PlexusServes the Back, Abdomen, Groin, Thighs, Knees, and Calves.
  • Sacral PlexusServes the Pelvis, Buttocks, Genitals, Thighs, Calves, and Feet.
  • Coccygeal PlexusServes a Small Region over the Coccyx.

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Ras Activation At The Plasma Membrane

Fig. 1. Schematic showing the activation of the Ras to ERK pathway by growth factor binding to a receptor tyrosine kinase. Ligand binding induces receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation. The Grb2 adapter protein binds to activated receptors and increases association of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sos to Ras, resulting in Ras loading of GTP and activation. Ras enhances membrane recruitment and activation of the Raf protein kinases, which activate MEKs, leading to ERK activation. Once activated, ERKs phosphorylate cytoplasmic substrates and translocate to the nucleus to phosphorylate nuclear targets.

Haichao Wang, … Kevin J. Tracey, in, 2003

Use Stimulate In A Sentence

1.Stimulate definition is – to excite to activity or growth or to greater activity : animate, arouse

Strong, Stimulate

2. How to use Stimulate in a sentence

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3. Synonym Discussion of Stimulate.

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4. 32 synonyms of Stimulate from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 103 related words, definitions, and antonyms

Synonyms, Strong, Stimulate

5. Find another word for Stimulate

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6.Stimulate: to give life, vigor, or spirit to.

Strong, Stimulate, Spirit

7.Stimulate definition, to rouse to action or effort, as by encouragement or pressure spur on incite: to Stimulate his interest in mathematics

Strong, Stimulate, Spur

8.Stimulate synonyms, Stimulate pronunciation, Stimulate translation, English dictionary definition of Stimulate

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9. Find 73 ways to say Stimulate, along with antonyms, related words, and example sentences at Thesaurus.com, the world’s most trusted free thesaurus.

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10.Stimulate includes some of the most well-researched ingredients to help you achieve extreme mental focus and performance while also providing you with a boost in physical energy to help your body keep up with your brain.

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11. Oral sex is a great way to start to Stimulate the clitoris

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12. To Stimulate circulation, very gentle taps are recommended with the tips of your fingers.

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What Is The Difference Between Synthetic Biology And Genome Editing

In some ways, synthetic biology is similar to another approach called “genome editing” because both involve changing an organism’s genetic code however, some people draw a distinction between these two approaches based on how that change is made. In synthetic biology, scientists typically stitch together long stretches of DNA and insert them into an organism’s genome. These synthesized pieces of DNA could be genes that are found in other organisms or they could be entirely novel. In genome editing, scientists typically use tools to make smaller changes to the organism’s own DNA. Genome editing tools can also be used to delete or add small stretches of DNA in the genome.

  • What is the difference between synthetic biology and genome editing?

    In some ways, synthetic biology is similar to another approach called “genome editing” because both involve changing an organism’s genetic code however, some people draw a distinction between these two approaches based on how that change is made. In synthetic biology, scientists typically stitch together long stretches of DNA and insert them into an organism’s genome. These synthesized pieces of DNA could be genes that are found in other organisms or they could be entirely novel. In genome editing, scientists typically use tools to make smaller changes to the organism’s own DNA. Genome editing tools can also be used to delete or add small stretches of DNA in the genome.

Where Does Stimulus Come From


The first records of stimulus come from the 1600s. It comes from the Latin word stimulus, meaning cattle proda sharp stick used to poke cattle to get them to keep moving. In a general sense, thats what a stimulus doesit prods something into action. What that action is varies depending on the context.

Scientifically speaking, a stimulus is anything that produces a response in an organism or in a cell or tissue of an organism. Such stimuli can be internal or external. Internal stimuli come from inside an organismpain and hunger are internal stimuli. In humans, an external stimulus is anything thats detected by the senseslight, noises, things we feel on our skin. Parents are often told to avoid having newborn babies around too many stimuli at once so that they dont become overstimulated . In psychology, the term stimulus is often used in the context of conditioned responseslike the famous example of Pavlovs dogs salivating at the sound of a bell. In this case, one stimulus became associated with another .

Not all stimulus measures involve sending money directly. The phrase stimulus package typically refers to a whole bundle of government policies meant to stimulate the economy in some way, including tax breaks, interest limits, and other actions, perhaps in addition to payments. During the recession in 2008, the U.S. government issued temporary tax cuts to certain households and businesses with the goal of economic stimulus.

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What Does Innervated Mean In Anatomy

Unless youre into anatomy or zoology, you probably dont need the word innervate very often. Its pronounced inNERVate, accent on the nerve. To innervate is to supply nerves to. It also means to stimulate or to supply with energy. When nerves go into muscle fiber, they innervate the muscle fiber.

How Do You Get Rid Of Tight Tendons

Exercise is at the heart of treatment for tendon tightness and stiffness. If you do not want your muscles to tighten or stiffen, then you must help keep them flexible by stretching them gradually with stretching exercises or yoga. Stretching will help your muscles to relax and loosen and remain flexible.

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Where Is The Tactile Corpuscle Located

Meissners corpuscles, also known as tactile corpuscles, are found in the upper dermis, but they project into the epidermis. They are found primarily in the glabrous skin on the fingertips and eyelids. They respond to fine touch and pressure, but they also respond to low-frequency vibration or flutter.

What Is The Most Basic Need Of A Human Being

What are Cytokinins?

These most basic human survival needs include food and water, sufficient rest, clothing and shelter, overall health, and reproduction. Maslow states that these basic physiological needs must be addressed before humans move on to the next level of fulfillment. Safety needs: Next among the lower-level needs is safety.

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Generation Of Ti Waveforms

The kilohertz voltage sinewaves were generated with a Cambridge Electronics Design Power3 1401 with a DAC conversion rate of 250kHz, this voltage waveform was logged on the 1401 for data analysis. Current was generated using two isolated current source devices . When higher currents were required, units were stacked in parallel to produce to isolated waveforms using four stimulus isolators. Sinewaves were ramped and damped at a rate of 0.88mA/s until the target current was reached. Each source reliably drove current at 5kHz as verified by a< 2% drop in amplitude at 5kHz vs. 10Hz, measured with a digital multimeter on 10 kOhm resistor load. When the two current sources were applied to a common conductive load, i.e., a 6 resistor bridge , at 5kHz and 5.001kHz the power spectrum density at the different frequency was 0.001% of the PSD at the applied kHz frequencies, measured using a FFT spectrum analyzer .

What Is The Synonym Of Stimulate


provoke, excite, stimulate, pique, quicken mean to arouse as if by pricking. provoke directs attention to the response called forth.

Beside above, which is the closest antonym for the word stimulating? Antonyms for stimulate

  • Antonyms: calm, sedate, tranquilize, tranquillise, tranquillize.
  • Definition: cause to be calm or quiet as by administering a sedative to.
  • Usage: The patient must be sedated before the operation.
  • Antonyms: de-energise, de-energize.

Similarly, you may ask, what is the best synonym for stimulate?

Synonyms for stimulate

  • trigger.

What is the synonym of promote?

Synonyms: publicise, tug, agitate, force, boost, crusade, drive, advertise, encourage, upgrade, campaign, elevate, further, labour, kick upstairs, advance, crowd, publicize, press, bear on, raise, advertize, push, fight, labor. Antonyms: demote, relegate, break, bump, kick downstairs. promote

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