Friday, February 16, 2024

What Does Colonialism Mean In Geography

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Neocolonialism, China, Africa, Oh My! [AP Human Geography Unit 4 Topic 3] (4.3)

During the 19th century, the development of Spain as a mining power in Europe contributed to a context that explains the close ties that developed between the geologists of the Sorbonne and the Muséum dHistoire naturelle and their Spanish counterparts at the end of the century. Under Ernest Munier-Chalmas, several French doctoral students had already begun their geology theses on Spain , with the benevolent help of the Commission of the Geological Map in Madrid, especially that of Lucas Mallada . The latter was the founder of Spanish palaeontology, one of the scientific leaders of the Regeneracionismo movement, and a close friend of Joachím Costa .

Assistant at the Laboratory for the Teaching of Physics at the University of Paris, Bernard Brunhes told his younger brother, Jean, about a conversation he had had with the palaeontologist, Marcellin Boule, and the geologist, Émile Haug, in July 1893. The two academics were especially favourable to the idea of a thesis on Spain, as to their knowledge there had been no recent and serious study in economic geography. Bernard thus advised his younger brother,

  • See the pages consecrated to the aporia of the world .

Postcolonial Novels And Poetry To Consider

  • Calvino, Italio. Invisible Cities. Rome: Giulio Einaudi Editore, 1972.
  • Farah, Nuruddin. Maps. London: Pantheon, 1986.
  • Kincaid, Jamaica. A Small Place. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1988.
  • Nourbese Philip, Marlene. Looking for Livingstone: An Odyssey of Silence. Toronto: The Mercury Press, 1991.
  • Vladislavi, Ivan. Portrait with Keys: The City of Johannesburg Unlocked. London: W.W. Norton & Co, 2009.

Derek Gregory And The Colonial Present

Derek Gregory argues the long trajectory through history of British and American colonization is an ongoing process still happening today. In The Colonial Present, Gregory traces connections between the geopolitics of events happening in modern-day Afghanistan, Palestine, and Iraq and links it back to the us-and-them binary relation between the Western and Eastern world. Building upon the ideas of the other and Said’s work on orientalism, Gregory critiques the economic policy, military apparatus, and transnational corporations as vehicles driving present-day colonialism. Emphasizing ideas of discussing ideas around colonialism in the present tense, Gregory utilizes modern events such as the to tell spatial stories around the colonial behavior happening due to the War on Terror.

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Is There Gold In The Ocean Floor

Yes, there is gold in the ocean. Ocean waters do hold gold, but it’s difficult to say exactly how much. … The ocean, however, is deep, meaning that gold deposits are a mile or two underwater. And once you reach the ocean floor, you’ll find that gold deposits are also encased in rock that must be mined through.

Gayatri Spivak And The Subaltern


In establishing the Postcolonial definition of the term subaltern, the philosopher and theoretician Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak cautioned against assigning an over-broad connotation. She argues:

subaltern is not just a classy word for “oppressed”, for The Other, for somebody who’s not getting a piece of the pie… In postcolonial terms, everything that has limited or no access to the cultural imperialism is subalterna space of difference. Now, who would say that’s just the oppressed? The working class is oppressed. It’s not subaltern…. Many people want to claim subalternity. They are the least interesting and the most dangerous. I mean, just by being a discriminated-against minority on the university campus they don’t need the word ‘subaltern’… They should see what the mechanics of the discrimination are. They’re within the hegemonic discourse, wanting a piece of the pie, and not being allowed, so let them speak, use the hegemonic discourse. They should not call themselves subaltern.

Spivak also introduced the terms essentialism and strategic essentialism to describe the social functions of postcolonialism.

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The Economic Impact Of Colonialism

Daron Acemolu, James Robinson30 January 2017

The immense economic inequality we observe in the world today is the path-dependent outcome of a multitude of historical processes, one of the most important of which has been European colonialism. This column, taken from a recent Vox eBook, discusses how colonialism has shaped modern inequality in several fundamental, but heterogeneous, ways.

Editor’s note: This column first appeared as a chapter in the Vox eBook, The Long Economic and Political Shadow of History, Volume 1, available to download here.

The immense economic inequality we observe in the world today didnt happen overnight, or even in the past century. It is the path-dependent outcome of a multitude of historical processes, one of the most important of which has been European colonialism. Retracing our steps 500 years, or back to the verge of this colonial project, we see little inequality and small differences between poor and rich countries . Now the differences are a factor of more than 40, if we compare the richest to the poorest countries in the world. What role did colonialism play in this?

The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie.

It did, but only in some circumstances. In others it led to a retardation of the bourgeoisie. In consequence colonialism drove economic development in some parts of Europe and retarded it in others.

Usage Of Colonialism And Imperialism

In contexts dealing with the domination of a people or area by a foreign power, colonialism and imperialism are often used together with no real distinction in meaning. Used separately, however, each of these words can take on a slightly different emphasis. Colonialism comes from colony, and tends to be applied in contexts addressing the effects that colonialism has on the lives of those living in colonies. Imperialism is closely related to empire and therefore tends to place more emphasis on the ruling power and its intent to expand its dominion, as well as on the expanded empire itself, with its distinct parts subsumed under the banner of the dominating force.

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Early European Trade With Asia

The Oriental land and sea routes terminated at ports in the Crimea, until 1461 at Trebizond , Constantinople , Asiatic Tripoli , Antioch , Beirut , and Alexandria , where Italian galleys exchanged European for Eastern products.

Competition between Mediterranean nations for control of Asiatic commerce gradually narrowed to a contest between Venice and Genoa, with the former winning when it severely defeated its rival city in 1380 thereafter, in partnership with Egypt, Venice principally dominated the Oriental trade coming via the Indian Ocean and Red Sea to Alexandria.

Overland routes were not wholly closed, but the conquests of the central Asian warrior Timur whose empire broke into warring fragments after his death in 1405and the advantages of a nearly continuous sea voyage from the Middle and Far East to the Mediterranean gave Venice a virtual monopoly of some Oriental products, principally spices. The word spices then had a loose application and extended to many Oriental luxuries, but the most valuable European imports were pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and cinnamon.

Early Renaissance Europe was short of cash money, though it had substantial banks in northern Italy and southern Germany. Florence possessed aggregations of capital, and its Bardi bank in the 14th century and the Medici successor in the 15th financed much of the eastern Mediterranean trade.

How Can I Use Colonist In A Sentence


Colonist in a Sentence ?

  • A simple colonist alerted the citizens with the oncoming British soldiers, and he became known as Paul Revere.
  • To rebel against British control, the colonist spoke up against the kings rules.
  • Most in the southern colonies had slaves, but one colonist rebelled against it.

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Hinterland And The New Indian Ocean World

The version of the Indian Ocean hinterland used at the Lusaka meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement developed out of a broader challenge to the American-dominated global order in the wake of the Second World War. The war had introduced a new era of geopolitical thinking, posing Alfred Thayer Mahans vision of a world dominated by seapower versus Karl Haushofers belief in continentalism.Footnote 92 In its aftermath, political activists and scholars adopted an Indian Ocean World framework to challenge the ascendant Anglo-American military power in the ocean and on its shores. The new histories of the Indian Ocean World brought back the hinterland of nineteenth-century German histories. Like those earlier histories, postwar Indian Ocean histories foregrounded hinterland connections that predated colonialism to advance alternatives to the dominant form of territoriality.

What Is Role Of Information Technology In The Environment

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R Siva Kumar And Alternative Modernity

In 1997, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of India’s Independence, “Santiniketan: The Making of a Contextual Modernism” was an important exhibition curated by R. Siva Kumar at the National Gallery of Modern Art. In his catalogue essay, Kumar introduced the term Contextual Modernism, which later emerged as a postcolonial critical tool in the understanding of Indian art, specifically the works of Nandalal Bose, Rabindranath Tagore, Ramkinkar Baij, and Benode Behari Mukherjee.

Santiniketan artists did not believe that to be indigenous one has to be historicist either in theme or in style, and similarly to be modern one has to adopt a particular trans-national formal language or technique. Modernism was to them neither a style nor a form of internationalism. It was critical re-engagement with the foundational aspects of art necessitated by changes in one’s unique historical position.

In the post-colonial history of art, this marked the departure from Eurocentric unilateral idea of modernism to alternative context sensitive modernisms.

The brief survey of the individual works of the core Santiniketan artists and the thought perspectives they open up makes clear that though there were various contact points in the work they were not bound by a continuity of style but buy a community of ideas. Which they not only shared but also interpreted and carried forward. Thus they do not represent a school but a movement.

Santiniketan: The Making of a Contextual Modernism, 1997

Why Did France Support The Colonists

Imperialism Definition and Historical Perspective

European nations had a number of reasons why they aided the American colonies against Britain. Common Enemy Britain had become the major power in Europe and the rest of the world. Countries such as France and Spain saw Britain as their enemy. By aiding the Americans they were also hurting their enemy.

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What Is Colonial Answer

Colonialism is defined as control by one power over a dependent area or people. In practice, colonialism is when one country violently invades and takes control of another country, claims the land as its own, and sends people settlers to live on that land. Hope this answer is helpful to you.

Recognition And Revolt In Settler

Indigenous scholars have articulated a critique of post-colonialism,noting that the concept obscures the continued existence ofsettler-colonial states. One point of controversy in contemporaryIndigenous political theory literature is the extent to which it isdesirable to participate in colonial legal and political institutionsin order to transform them. At the center of this debate is thequestion of whether institutional accommodation aimed towardsreconciliation advances indigenous interests or further reproduces theconditions of domination that only perpetuate the historicalsettler-colonial relationship. One group of scholars emphasizes thepolitics of refusal and resurgence. In Mohawk Interruptus: APolitical Life Across the Borders of Settler States , AudraSimpson argues that the contemporary democratic practices ofrecognition transform indigenous peoples from sovereign nations intoethnic minority citizens. She suggests that the struggle forself-government requires a politics of refusal. The problem with thepolitics of reconciliation is that it remains in a system that isguided by the logic of Western liberalism and structured by itsattendant hierarchies. Resurgence is best achieved through thepolitics of refusal, which aims towards self-determination andsovereignty through the reintegration of Indigenous culture andcustoms.

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Colonial Geography A Tricky Category

In the spring of 1905, the explorer, Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, crowned the peaceful conqueror of the Congo, was placed at the head of an official commission to investigate the colonial administration in a region he helped conquer. The French government wanted to end several months of public scandal that had been unleashed after the Gaud-Toqué affair had come to light. On July 14, 1903, a senior civil servant of Native Affairs in the Upper Congo had ordered a native prisoner to be publicly executed with dynamite. By initiating the investigation, the French government hoped to avoid a comparison of its administration with that of the Leopoldian Congo, where an international commission had also been sent, in response to an intense campaign of public protests backed by Great Britain.

In contemporary historiography, J. Brunhes is considered one of the founders of human geography some even say he is one of the fathers of social geography. He achieved international recognition with the publication of Géographie humaine and as the scientific director of the Archives de la Planète. Albert Kahn, the benefactor, hired Brunhes to curate the archives and began funding his chair at the Collège of France in 1912 . Brunhes thesis on irrigation on the Iberian peninsula and in Northern Africa is still considered a major contribution to the study of irrigation systems and hydraulic societies around the Mediterranean basin.

What Is The 200 Nautical Mile Limit

COLONIALISM meaning – COLONIALISM definition – How to pronounce COLONIALISM

The U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone extends no more than 200 nautical miles from the territorial sea baseline and is adjacent to the 12 nautical mile territorial sea of the U.S., including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands …

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What Is Colonialism Definition And Examples

  • B.S., Texas A& M University

Colonialism is the practice of one country taking full or partial political control of another country and occupying it with settlers for purposes of profiting from its resources and economy. Since both practices involve the political and economic control of a dominant country over a vulnerable territory, colonialism can be hard to distinguish from imperialism. From ancient times to the beginning of the 20th century, powerful countries openly scrambled to expand their influence through colonialism. By the outbreak of World War I in 1914, European powers had colonized countries on virtually every continent. While colonialism is no longer so aggressively practiced, there is evidence that it remains a force in todays world.

Why Epa Is Called Umbrella Act

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How Important Is The Law Of The Sea

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Does Colonialism Exist Today


Though the traditional practice of colonialism has ended, over 2 million people in 17 non-self-governing territories, scattered around the globe continue to live under virtual colonial rule, according to the United Nations. Rather than being self-governed, the indigenous populations of these 17 areas remain under the protection and authority of former colonial powers, such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States.

For example, the Turks and Caicos Islands is a British Overseas Territory in the Atlantic Ocean midway between the Bahamas and the Dominican Republic. In 2009, the British government suspended the Islands 1976 constitution in response to reports of widespread corruption in the territory. Parliament imposed direct rule over the democratically elected local governments and removed the constitutional right to trial by jury. The territorial government was disbanded and its elected premier was replaced by a British-appointed governor.

While British authorities defended the action as essential to restoring honest government in the territory, the deposed former premier called it a coup detat that he said put Britain on the wrong side of history.

United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has said that the true eradication of colonialism remains an unfinished process, that has been with the global community for too long.

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Scientific Thought In Colonialism Race And Gender

During the colonial era, the global process of colonisation served to spread and synthesize the social and political belief systems of the “mother-countries” which often included a belief in a certain natural racial superiority of the race of the mother-country. Colonialism also acted to reinforce these same racial belief systems within the “mother-countries” themselves. Usually also included within the colonial belief systems was a certain belief in the inherent superiority of male over female, however this particular belief was often pre-existing amongst the pre-colonial societies, prior to their colonisation.

In addition to what would now be viewed as pseudo-scientific studies of race, which tended to reinforce a belief in an inherent mother-country racial superiority, a new supposedly “science-based” ideology concerning gender roles also then emerged as an adjunct to the general body of beliefs of inherent superiority of the colonial era. Female inferiority across all cultures was emerging as an idea supposedly supported by craniology that led scientists to argue that the typical brain size of the female human was, on the average, slightly smaller than that of the male, thus inferring that therefore female humans must be less developed and less evolutionarily advanced than males. This finding of relative cranial size difference was later simply attributed to the general typical size difference of the human male body versus that of the typical human female body.

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