Wednesday, January 25, 2023

How To Use Stock System Chemistry

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Formulas And Names Of Binary Nonmetal

Stock Naming System – Mr Pauller
  • Systematic Nomenclature:
  • For names start with element to the left side on the periodic table
  • add -ide to the second element
  • use Greek prefixes for number of atoms: mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca
  • Common names: -ous and -ic . Examples:
  • Formula
  • Anions are negative, Cations are positive
  • ammonium ion NH41+
  • Sometimes oxyanions have an extra hydrogen
  • Formula
  • If more than two possibilities:
  • Formula
  • Naming compounds with polyatomic ions
  • Positive charge species on left
  • Negative charge species on right
  • Use parentheses as needed
  • Hydro Acids: Hydro + halogen name + ic
    Formula
  • Recognize as polyatomic ions with a hydrogen at the beginning of the formula.
  • Name with -ous and -ic suffix.
  • -ic suffix is for acid with more oxygen atoms.
  • Rules For Naming Molecular Compounds:

  • Remove the ending of the second element and add ide just like in ionic compounds.
  • When naming molecular compounds, prefixes are used to dictate the number of a given element present in the compound. Mono- indicates one, di- indicates two, tri- is three, tetra- is four, penta- is five, hexa- is six, hepta- is seven, octo- is eight, nona- is nine, and deca is ten.
  • If there is only one of the first element, you can drop the prefix. For example, \text is carbon monoxide, not monocarbon monoxide.
  • If there are two vowels in a row that sound the same once the prefix is added , the extra vowel on the end of the prefix is removed. For example, one oxygen would be monooxide, but instead its monoxide. The extra o is dropped.
  • Generally, the more electropositive atom is written first, followed by the more electronegative atom with an appropriate suffix. For example, \text_2\text can be called dihydrogen monoxide . Organic molecules do not follow this rule.

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    In describing many technological items, it’s not enough to simply say what brand or model we have. We talk about details such as how much horsepower is âunder the hoodâ for a car or how fast the chip is for our computer. Even a simple device like an mp3 player has more than one size. We can get an 8 âââââââMB player, or a 16 MB player. Designation of the item often is incomplete without other information as to its capabilities.

    Transition metals have more than one possibility for ion formation. In order to name these compounds correctly, we need to be able to indicate which ion is involved in any given compound.

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    Formulas And Names Of Binary Metal

  • The name of the metal is first
  • The name of the nonmetal has -ide added
  • IF the metal has more than one possible charge
  • With the Stock Method you must indicate which ion using the charge in roman numerals chloride).
  • Alternatively the common name may be used if the metal has more than one possible ion. Here use the Latin root and then add -ous for the lower charge. -ic for the higher charge.
  • FeCl2ferrous chloride
  • More examples showing the two different systems:
  • Compound

    Binary Compounds Of Cations With Variable Charges Given Formula Write The Name Common Name System

    Chemistry: Went over Homework and then Notes and Practice on Using the ...

    A binary compound is one made of two different elements. There can be one of each element such as in CuCl or FeO. There can also be several of each element such as Fe2O3 or CuBr2.

    This lesson shows you how to name binary compounds from the formula when a cation of variable charge is involved. The four formulas above are all examples of this type. Important point to remember: the cations involved in this lesson have variable charges. The anions involved have only one charge.

    Antoine Laurent Lavoisier reformed chemistry in the late 1700’s with his publication of Méthode de nomenclature chimique in 1787 and Traitéélémentaire de Chimie in 1789. He is known as the “Father of Modern Chemistry.”

    Two typical names of chemicals up to this point in history are “foliated earth of tartar” and “phlogisticated vitriolic acid.” There were hundreds of such names. One goal of the Méthode was to create chemical names based on the chemical composition.

    Lavoisier’s solution, which will be studied in this lesson, was to use different suffixes to indicate differences in composition. Specifically, the use of “-ous” and “-ic” will be studied.

    Here is what the IUPAC currently says about this naming system: “The following systems are in use but not recommended: The system of indicating valence by means of the suffixes -ous and -ic added to the root of the name of the cation may be retained for elements exhibiting not more than two valences.”

    Element

    Example #1: FeO

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    The Stock Method Of Naming

    An ionic compound is named first by its cation and then by its anion. The cation has the same name as its element. For example, \text^ is called the potassium ion, just as \text is called the potassium atom. The anion is named by taking the elemental name, removing the ending, and adding -ide. For example, \text^ is called fluoride, for the elemental name, fluorine. The -ine was removed and replaced with -ide. To name a compound, the cation name and the anion named are added together. For example, \text is also known as sodium fluoride.

    If either the cation or the anion was a polyatomic ion, the polyatomic ion name is used in the name of the overall compound. The polyatomic ion name stays the same. For example, \text_3\text_2 is called calcium nitrate.

    Naming Compounds Part 1 YouTube: This video explains how to name covalent and ionic compounds.

    Presentation On Theme: Ionic Compounds Cont Using The Stock System Chemistry Joke A Neutron Sits Down At The Counter And Asks The Waitress How Much For A Coke The Waitress Presentation Transcript:

    2 Ionic Compounds, Cont. Using The Stock System

    3 Chemistry Joke A neutron sits down at the counter and asks the waitress, How much for a coke? The waitress replies For you, no charge!

    4 Elements Weve Been Avoiding Metals that form more than one ion. Metals that form more than one ion. These include ALL metals not in Groups 1A or 2A except Ag, Zn,Cd, and Al. These include ALL metals not in Groups 1A or 2A except Ag, Zn,Cd, and Al. Ag Ag +1 Zn Zn +2 Cd Cd +2 Ag Ag +1 Zn Zn +2 Cd Cd +2 Formulas are written using the same 3-step Criss Cross method. Formulas are written using the same 3-step Criss Cross method. The difference comes in how they are named. The difference comes in how they are named.

    5 For Example Iron forms both a 2+ ion and a 3+ ion. If we just name the ionic compound that iron forms with chlorine, iron chloride, is it iron +2 or iron +3? Iron 2+ or 3+ Would the formula be FeCl 2 or FeCl 3 ? Soto name compounds with these metals, we use the Stock Naming System. This system uses Roman numerals to indicate charge. , , , ,

    6 Using the Stock System Chromium can form ions of +3 and +2. The Stock System uses Roman numerals to indicate charge, so we name the ion Chromium or Chromium . These Roman numerals will always refer to the charge of the metal before them. SoChromium is Cr 3+ AndChromium is Cr 2+ What is the ion symbol for Tin ? Sn 4+

    8 Lets Name CuCl 2 and SnO 2 Copper Chloride and Tin Oxide

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    Common Names V Systematic Names

    Many chemicals are so much a part of daily life that people know them by their familiar names. Ordinary cane sugar, for example, is more formally known as sucrose, but asking for it at the dinner table by that name will likely be a conversation stopper. Now imagine using its systematic name in the same context: Please pass the -D-glucopyranosyl—D-fructofuranoside! But saying sucrose would be quite appropriate if you needed to distinguish this particular sugar from the hundreds of other named sugars. And the only place you would come across a systematic name such as the rather unwieldy one mentioned above would be in scientific documentation in reference to a sugar that has no simple common name.

    Many common chemical names have very old and intriguing origins, as the following two examples illustrate.

    Most people associate the name ammonia with a gas with a pungent odor. While its systematic name, nitrogen trihydride , tells you its formula, what it will not tell you is the interesting history of its discovery. Smoke from burning camel dung condenses on cool surfaces to form a crystalline deposit, which the ancient Romans first noticed on the walls and ceiling of the temple that the Egyptians had built to the sun god Amun in Thebes. They named the material sal ammoniac, meaning salt of Amun. In 1774 Joseph Priestley found that heating sal ammoniac produced a gas with a pungent odor, which T. Bergman named ammonia eight years later.

    Molecular Masses From Chemical Formulas

    Chemical Compound Naming…Stock System

    The molecular mass, or molecular weight of a compound is obtained by addingup the atomic masses of all of the atoms present within a unit of the substance.

    For ionic compounds, the term formula mass or formula weight is used instead,since there aren’t really any molecules present.

    The molecular/formula mass is numerically equal to the mass of one mole ofthe substance.

    For example, the molecular weight of water would be obtained by the followingprocess:

    Molecular mass of H2O = + = + amu = 18.02 amu

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    Comparison Of Enthalpy To Internal Energy

  • A thermodynamic system can be any physical system with a well-defined volume in space.
  • The outer edge of the system is referred to as its boundary, which often separates the system from the surroundings.
  • Hence, -q means the system loses heat, while +q means a system gains heat.
  • Similarly, +w means work is done on the system, while -w means work is done by the system.
  • However, in open systems, the pressure of the system and the surroundings has stayed constant.
  • Diluting solutions is a necessary process in the laboratory, as stock solutions are often purchased and stored in very concentrated forms.
  • Serial dilutions involve diluting a stock or standard solution multiple times in a row.
  • For isolated systems, entropy never decreases.
  • Increases in entropy correspond to irreversible changes in a system.
  • This is because some energy is expended as heat, limiting the amount of work a system can do.
  • The state function has the important property that in any process where the system gives up energy ÎE, and its entropy falls by ÎS, a quantity at least TR ÎS of that energy must be given up to the system’s surroundings as unusable heat .
  • The entropy of a system is defined only if it is in thermodynamic equilibrium.
  • Everything that is not a part of the system constitutes its surroundings.
  • The system and surroundings are separated by a boundary.
  • Isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermal equilibriumâthe state of maximum entropy of the system.
  • Pressure And Free Energy

  • Gibbs free energy measures the useful work obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure.
  • The Gibbs free energy is the maximum amount of non-expansion work that can be extracted from a closed system.
  • When a system changes from an initial state to a final state, the Gibbs free energy equals the work exchanged by the system with its surroundings, minus the work of the pressure force.
  • Gibbs energy is also the chemical potential that is minimized when a system reaches equilibrium at constant pressure and temperature.
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    General Practices In Naming

    The general practice among chemists is to use the more common chemical names whenever it is practical to do so, especially in spoken or informal written communication. Many of the common names are known and used mainly by the scientific community. Chemical substances that are employed in the home, the arts, or in industry have acquired traditional or popular names that are still in wide use. Many, like sal ammoniac mentioned above, have fascinating stories behind their names.

    Sulfuric acid: The historical name for sulfuric acid is oil of vitriol. Medieval European alchemists prepared it by roasting green vitriol in an iron retort. Its chemical formula is \text_2\text_4.

    Naming Ionic Compounds With Transition Metals

    Chemistry Honors: Went over Homework  Notes on Stock System Of ...

    Transition metals make naming and formula writing a bit more challenging.The key to naming ionic compounds with transition metals is to determine the ionic charge on the metal and use roman numerals to indicate the charge on the transition metal.

    Video: How to Name Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals

    Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals

    • Write the name of transition metal as shown on the Periodic Table.
    • Write the name and charge for the non-metal. If you have a polyatomic ion, use the Common Ion Table to find and write the formula and charge.
    • Use the total charge on the non-metal find the charge on the transition metal.
    • After the name for the metal, write its charge as a Roman Numeral in parentheses. Example: Iron chloride

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    Naming Compounds Using The Stock System

    Naming compounds that involve transition metal cations necessitates use of the Stock system. Consider the binary ionic compound \. To simply name this compound “iron chloride” would be incomplete, because iron is capable of forming two ions with different charges. The name of any iron-containing compound must reflect which iron ion is in the compound. In this case, the subscript in the formula indicates that there are three chloride ions, each with a \ charge. Therefore, the charge of the single iron ion must be \. The correct name of \ is iron chloride, with the cation charge written as the Roman numeral. Here are several other examples:

    Formula
    \ tin oxide

    The first two examples are both oxides of copper . The ratio of copper ions to oxide ions determines the name. Since the oxide ion is \, the charges of the copper ion must be \ in the first formula and \ in the second formula. In the third formula, there is one tin ion for every two oxide ions. This means that the tin must carry a \ charge, making the name tin oxide.

    Writing Formulas Of Ionic Compounds

  • The cation is written first, followed by the monatomic or polyatomicanion.
  • The subscripts in the formula must produce an electrically neutral formulaunit.
  • The subscripts should be the smallest set of whole numbers possible.
  • If there is only one of a polyatomic ion in the formula, do not placeparentheses around it e.g., NaNO3, not Na. If there is more than one of apolyatomic ion in the formula, put the ion in parentheses, and place thesubscript after the parentheses e.g., Ca2, Ba32, etc.
  • Remember thePrime Directive in writing formulas:Ca2 ¹ CaOH2 !

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