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How Does The Biological Clock Tick Reading Answers

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Striking Back At Lightning With Lasers

IELTS 8 READING TEST 3 PASSAGE 3 |How Does The Biological Clock Tick Passage Answer with Explanation

Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike. Their electrical fury inflicts death or serious injury on around 500 people each year in the United States alone. As the clouds roll in, a leisurely round of golf can become a terrifying dice with death-out in the open, a lone golfer may be a lighting bolts most inviting target. And there is damage to property too. Lightning damage costs American power companies more than $100 million a year.

But researchers in the United States and Japan are planning to hit back. Already in laboratory trials they have tested strategies for neutralising the power of thunderstorms, and this winter they will brave real storms, equipped with an armoury of lasers that they will be pointing towards the heavens to discharge thunderclouds before lightning can strike.

Ielts General Reading Sentence Completion Mock Test Question 2

Answer questions 1-5 which are based on the reading passage below.

High Speed, High Rise

So far, Broad has built 16 structures in China, and another in Cancun. They are fabricated at 2 factories in Hunan, almost one hours drive from Broad Town, its headquarters. The floors and ceilings of the buildings are constructed in parts, each measuring 15.6 x 3.9 metres with a height of 45 cm. Pipes and ducts for electricity, water and waste pass through each floor module while it is still in the factory. The clients flooring choices are also installed prior on top. Standardised truckloads carry two modules each to the site with the required columns, bolts and tools to connect them stacked on top of each other. Once they reach the location, each section is carried by crane to the top of the skyscraper, which is assembled like toy Lego bricks. Workers use the materials on the module to quickly fix the pipes and wires. At last, heavily insulated exterior walls and windows are inserted in by crane. The result is far from pretty but the method is surprisingly safe and phenomenally fast.

Questions 1 – 5

Write Three or fewer words from the passage for each answer.

1 ________ founded the Broad Sustainable Building

2 In just 360 hours, a 100 m tall tower called the T30 rises from an empty site to oversee ________.

3 Zhang aims to make Broad the ________ of the sustainable building industry.

4 Broad has built 16 structures in China, and another in ________

The Cogs Of The Clock

Our biological clocks are unlike any clock that we could read. The cogs of the clocks are proteins. Clock proteins are produced and broken down in a cycle that lasts 24 h . This cycle ticks away in every cell in the body, meaning that each cell has its own clock. But how do all of these separate tiny clocks stay in time with each other? They are coordinated by a central, grandfather clock in the brain, which is called the suprachiasmatic nucleus . The SCN synchronizes all of our cellular clocks with the Earths rotation. How does it perform this tricky task? Using sunlight! .

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How Does The Biological Clock Tick Ielts Reading Answers

The Academic passageHow Does The Biological Clock Tick? is a reading passage that appeared in an IELTS Test.

It contains some of the IELTS reading question types. If you are interested in familiarising yourself with all the question types, dont hesitate to take an IELTS reading practice test.

Answers For How Does The Biological Clock Tick With Explanations

How Does The Biological Clock Tick? IELTS Reading Answers

Question 27-32:

27. ix

28. ii

29. vii

30. i

31. viii live much longer than those which are always active.The metabolic rate of mice can be reduced by a very low consumption of food. They then may live twice as long as their well fed comrades. Womenbecome distinctly older than men)

32. iv

Question 33-36:33. physical chemistry34. thermodynamics

35. adapt

36. Immortality

Question 37-40:37. NO and several thousand years, as with mammoth trees.)

38. YES

39. NOT GIVEN

40. YES

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The History Of Clock Research In Plants

The first writings, at least in the western canon, to recognize diurnal rhythms come from the fourth century BC. Androsthenes described the observation of daily leaf movements of the tamarind tree, Tamarindus indicus, that were observed on the island of Tylos in the Persian Gulf during the marches of Alexander the Great . There was no suggestion that the endogenous origin of these rhythms was suspected at the time, and it took more than two millennia for this to be experimentally tested. The scientific literature on circadian rhythms began in 1729 when the French astronomer de Mairan reported that the daily leaf movements of the sensitive heliotrope plant persisted in constant darkness, demonstrating their endogenous origin . Presciently, de Mairan suggested that these rhythms were related to the sleep rhythms of bedridden humans. It took 30 years before de Mairan’s observations were independently repeated . These studies excluded temperature variation as a possible zeitgeber driving the leaf movement rhythms.

Leaf Movements of a Representative Species.

Sleep movements of Phaseolus coccineus. The position of the primary leaves of a seedling at night is at the left and during the day is at the right.

was originally published as Figure 14 and as Figure 4 in Chapter 2 in Bünning . Both are reproduced with kind permission of Springer Science and Business Media.

Adaptive Fitness Conferred By Circadian Clocks

It has long been presumed that the ability to anticipate light/dark cycles gives organisms a fitness advantage. One long-standing idea, termed the escape from light hypothesis, posits that organisms would accrue advantage from phasing light-sensitive processes, such as DNA replication, to the dark portion of the daily cycle . In cyanobacteria, competitive ability depends on the correspondence between a strain’s free-running period and ambient daylength wild-type strains outcompete either long- or short-period mutants when grown in 24-h days . This does not reflect a competitive advantage to the wild type under all conditions because long-period mutants outcompete the wild type when grown in long cycles .

Early studies in tomato showed that growth improved on light/dark cycles of 24 h rather than short or long cycles or continuous light , although this work only indirectly implicates the circadian clock in the growth response. More direct testing has come in recent years. Arabidopsis clock mutants with longer than normal periods have lower biomass than those with short periods when grown under short cycles , and these differences in size are largely attributable to impaired physiological function, including lower rates of chlorophyll production and carbon fixation .

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Circadian Clocks And Photoperiodism

The role of photoperiod in controlling seasonal responses was noted early in the 20th century . Garner and Allard demonstrated that many plants flower in response to changes in daylength. The connection between photoperiodism and the circadian clock was first noted by Bünning and was developed into the external coincidence model, in which a rhythmic process that controls the photoperiodic response is sensitive to light at certain times of day .

Setting The Clocks By The Light Of The Sun

READING – IELTS 8 – HOW DOES THE BIOLOGICAL CLOCK TICK

Just like an old clock, biological clocks must be adjusted to the correct time every day. Light is detected by cells at the back of our eyes, called photoreceptors. Most photoreceptors detect light so that we can see the world around us. But, in 2002, a new type of photoreceptor was discovered that sends signals directly to the SCN . These special photoreceptors are called intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, or ipRGCs. If the ipRGCs are working, even blind people can keep their rhythms aligned with the sunlight .

Using sunlight, the SCN can adjust the circadian rhythm to gradual changes in daylight hours as we progress through the seasons. But sudden changes in the light-dark cycle can leave us feeling totally out of whack. You may have experienced this yourself: it is called jet lag. Since the invention of airplanes, humans have been able to cross time zones in a matter of hours. An airplane can dump us in bright daylight when our biological clocks are preparing us for sleep. This can leave us feeling drowsy, dizzy and even queasy. Symptoms of jet lag can last for several days, because the SCN takes time to align itself with the new time zone. Now that you know that the SCN uses light to adjust to the time of day, you would not be surprised to hear of the best curespend some time in the sun!

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The Headline Of The Passage: How Does The Biological Clock Tick

Questions 27-32:

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals . A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph which will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. Thats all. Read quickly and dont stop until you finish each sentence.]

Question 27: Paragraph B

Therefore, it can be clearly understood that dead objects is worn down and becomes older for a living organism, becoming older can happen without ageing.

So, the answer is: ix

Question 28: Paragraph C

So, the answer is: ii

Question 29: Paragraph D

Here, constant = stable, but = despite,

So, the answer is: vii

Question 30: Paragraph E

This is the description of the biological clock.

So, the answer is: i

How Does The Biological Clock Tick

A – Limitations of life span

Our life span is restricted. Everyone accepts this as biologically obvious. Nothing lives for ever! However, in this statement we think of artificially produced, technical objects, products which are subjected to natural wear and tear during use. This leads to the result that at some time or other the object stops working and is unusable . But are the wear and tear and loss of function of technical objects and the death of living organisms really similar or comparable?

B – Fundamental differences in ageing of objects and organisms

C – Why dying is beneficial

Thus ageing and death should not be seen as inevitable, particularly as the organism possesses many mechanisms for repair. It is not, in principle, necessary for a biological system to age and die. Nevertheless, a restricted life span, ageing, and then death are basic characteristics of life. The reason for this is easy to recognise: in nature, the existent organisms either adapt or are regularly replaced by new types. Because of changes in the genetic material these have new characteristics and in the course of their individual lives they are tested for optimal or better adaptation to the environmental conditions. Immortality would disturb this system – it needs room for new and better life. This is the basic problem of evolution.

D – A stable life span despite improvements

E – The biological clock

F – Energy consumption

G – Prolonging your life

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Critical Questions That Remain

The progress achieved in the last 15 years toward unraveling the plant circadian clock mechanism is remarkable, but much remains unfinished. An outline of the oscillator mechanism has emerged but remains incomplete. Although we can safely conclude that the paradigm of interlocked feedback loops constituting a circadian oscillator is conserved in plants, not all the components have yet been identified, and the mechanistic details of almost every step are only incompletely understood. It is humbling that, after so much effort and progress, almost all questions remain only incompletely answered and, effectively, all questions remain! Moreover, the field is now expanding its view from the purely reductionist goal of identifying the oscillator itself to a consideration of the evolutionary and ecological consequences of variation in clock function, so a host of new questions are being considered. It is exhilarating to consider what a retrospective view a decade from now will reveal.

How Does The Biological Clock Tick: Reading Answers

How Does The Biological Clock Tick? IELTS Reading Answers

IELTS Academic Test Passage 09: How Does The Biological Clock Tick? reading with answers explanation, location and pdf summary. This reading paragraph has been taken from our huge collection of Academic& General Training Reading practice test PDFs.

IELTS reading module focuses on evaluating a candidates comprehension skills and ability to understand English. This is done by testing the reading proficiency through questions based on different structures and paragraphs . There are 40 questions in total and hence it becomes extremely important to practice each and every question structure before actually sitting for the exam.

This reading passage mainly consists of 3 types of questions:

  • Match the headings
  • Fill in the blanks
  • Yes/No/Not Given

We are going to read about the concept of lifespan for every living being with the help of a metaphor The Biological Clock. You must read the passage carefully and try to answer all questions correctly.

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Ielts General Reading Sentence Completion Mock Test Question 3

Elephant communication

A postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University, O’Connell Rodwell, arrived in Namibia’s premier wildlife reserve to investigate the intriguing world of elephant communication. She and her colleagues are a part of the scientific revolution that began 20 years ago with the astonishing discovery that elephants communicate over long distances using low-frequency sounds, often called infrasounds, that are too low for most humans to hear.

The African elephant’s ability to catch seismic sound may begin in the ears, as one might assume. The elephant’s inner ear hammer bone is very massive for a mammal, still it is a characteristic of animals that use vibrational signals. As a result, it is possible that elephants can communicate with seismic sounds. The elephant and its related, the manatee, are also the only animals with a reptilian-like cochlear structure in their inner ear. The cochlea of reptiles permits a high level of sensitivity to vibrations, and elephants’ cochleas may accomplish the same.

Questions 1 – 5

Complete the sentences below.

Write Three or fewer words from the passage for each answer.

1 A postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University, O’Connell Rodwell, arrived in Namibia’s premier _______ to investigate the intriguing world of elephant communication.

2 The African elephant’s ability to catch seismic sound may begin in the ________, as one might assume.

3 It is possible that elephants can communicate with _______.

Ielts General Reading Sentence Completion Mock Test Question 1

Answer questions 1-5 which are based on the reading passage below.

HOW DOES THE BIOLOGICAL CLOCK TICK?

Our lifespan is restricted and everyone accepts this as biologically obvious. Nothing lives forever! But, in this statement we think of artificially made, technical objects, products which are exposed to natural wear and tear during use. This leads to the result that at some time or other the object stops working and becomes unusable . But are the wear and tear and loss of function of technical objects and the death of living organisms really similar or comparable?

Questions 1 – 5

Write Three or fewer words from the passage for each answer.

1 Our dead products are ______, closed systems.2 Being old in this case must occur according to the laws of ________ and of thermodynamics.3 An organism is an open, ________ through which new material flows continuously.4 Destruction of old material and formation of new material are thus in ________.5 Our bodies continuously exchange old substances for new, just like a ________ which more or less maintains its form and movement.

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Academic Ielts Reading Practice

7/01/2016IELTS Reading Passage 60Questions 27-32Reading Passage 60ix27-32

List of Headingsii Why dying is beneficialiii The ageing process of men and womeniv Prolonging your lifev Limitations of life spanvi Modes of development of different speciesvii A stable life span despite improvementsviii Energy consumptionix Fundamental differences in ageing of objects and organismsx Repair of genetic material

Example Answer

Ielts Academic Reading Sample 117

How Time-Telling Bacteria Could Revolutionize Medicine
Details
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You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 117 on the following pages.Questions 27-32Reading Passage 117 has seven paragraphs, AG.Choose the correct heading for paragraphs BG from the list of headings below.Write the correct number, ix, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.

List of Headingsii Why dying is beneficialiii The ageing process of men and womeniv Prolonging your lifev Limitations of life spanvi Modes of development of different speciesvii A stable lifespan despite improvementsviii Energy consumptionix Fundamental differences in ageing of objects and organismsx Repair of genetic material

Example Answer

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The Planet That Never Sleeps

Artificial light means that we can extend daytime activities into the night. It creates a 24-h culture, with restaurants and shops open throughout the night. We can do almost any activity, from reading to driving, at any hour of the day. There are benefits to this. For example, access to healthcare at all times is a lifesaving reality. But what about the doctors and nurses who work through the night? People who work at night must switch their sleep-wake cycles back and forth, and often go days without seeing any natural sunlight. This can cause their biological clocks to get confused, and then all the things that depend on their clocks will also get confused, including sleep. The possible health consequences of this are listed in Box 2. We should do all that we can to keep our circadian clocks in time.

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