What Are The Two Important Physical Features Of Australia
Australia, Zealandia, and New Guinea are continental islands. These three regions share some physical features. All three have mountain ranges or highlandsthe Great Dividing Range in Australia the North Island Volcanic Plateau and Southern Alps in New Zealand and the New Guinea Highlands in Papua New Guinea.
Visa And Immigration Requirements
If you’re not an Australian citizen, you will need a visa before you travel or transit through Australia.
There are different visas depending on your travel purpose and length of visit.
Many visas can be applied for online, and the Electronic Travel Authority can be applied for through travel agents and airlines.
For more information on visa and immigration requirements visit the Department of Home Affairs website
Australia is free of the world’s most serious pests and diseases, and their introduction could have serious environmental and economic impacts for us.
When travelling to Australia, all international passengers must declare any biosecurity risks on their incoming passenger card.
This includes any:
All people, mail, cargo and vessels are screened for biosecurity risks before entering the country.
The penalties for breaking our biosecurity laws include large fines or imprisonment.
For more information on Australia’s biosecurity requirements visit the Department of Agriculture website
Biogeography In Australia And The Pacific
The relative isolation of Oceania defines it as a region but has also contributed to perhaps its quirkiest characteristic: its distinctive wildlife. Biogeography is a branch of geography that explores the spatial distribution of the worlds flora and fauna . While every world region has its own, unique plants and animals, some of the creatures found in Australia and the Pacific are found nowhere else on Earth. A number of world regions have an impressive degree of biodiversity, meaning there are a wide variety of species present. These regions are generally located in the tropics. British biogeographer Alfred Russel Wallace was one of the first to try and determine the boundary of Australia and Southeast Asias unique plants and animalsin the 19th century.
In addition to monotremes, Australia is home to the worlds largest and most diverse array of marsupials, mammals who carry their young in a pouch. A number of marsupials are also found in Central and South America and just one species lives in North America: the Virginia opossum, more typically referred to as a possum. In Oceania, well-known marsupials include the kangaroo, koala, wombat, and the Tasmanian devil. The Kangaroo in particular is a widely used symbol of Australia and kangaroo meat, though controversial, can be found throughout Australia.
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Geography And Climate Of Afghanistan
Two-thirds of Afghanistan’s terrain consists of rugged mountains. It also has plains and valleys in the northern and southwestern regions. The valleys of Afghanistan are its most populated areas and much of the country’s agriculture takes place either here or on the high plains. Afghanistan’s climate is arid to semiarid and has very hot summers and very cold winters.
Geography Climate And Biodiversity
Australia is located in Oceania between the Indian and South Pacific Oceans. Although it is a large country, its topography is not too varied, and most of it consists of low desert plateau. The southeast, however, does have fertile plains. Australia’s climate is mostly arid to semiarid, but the south and east are temperate and the north is tropical.
Although most of Australia is arid desert, it supports a wide range of habitats, thus making it incredibly biodiverse. Alpine forests, tropical rainforests, and a wide variety of plants and animals thrive there because of its geographic isolation from the rest of the world.
As such, 92% of its vascular plants, 87% of its mammals, 93% of its reptiles, 94% of its frogs, and 45% of its birds are endemic to Australia. It also has the greatest number of reptile species in the world as well as some of the most venomous snakes and other dangerous creatures like the crocodile.
Australia is most famous for its marsupial species, which include the kangaroo, koala, and wombat.
In its waters, around 89% of Australia’s fish species both inland and offshore are restricted only to the country.
In addition, endangered coral reefs are common on Australia’s coastthe most famous of these is the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest coral reef system and it stretches over an area of 133,000 square miles
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How Does Australias Geography Affect Its Economy
Geography and Business
Australia is about 2000 miles away from the bulk of Asia. When you look at what Australia exports, the exports to the Asia-Pacific region are huge. 71% of ALL exports are to this region! And the line goes both ways: 58% of Australias two-way trading is done with countries in Asia-Pacific region.
Mining And Aboriginal Lands
Territorial control of Australian lands has become a major issue in recent years. Large portions of western Australia and the outback have traditionally been Aboriginal lands. European colonialism on the Australian continent displaced many of the native people. Large sections of land once used by the Aborigines were taken over by the government or by private interests. Large agricultural operations and mining operations have used the lands without adequate compensation to the Aboriginal people who once controlled them. Court rulings aimed at reparation for native people have had mixed results.
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The Impact Of Geography On Military Strategy
Similarly to economic development, geography plays an important role in a countrys military strategy. First, war mostly occurs between neighboring countries, thus, any isolated country has the benefit of avoiding unnecessary war conflicts and interfere as the third party in a war conflict . The Distances between two rivalry countries dictate types of transportation, weapons, and military operational strategy. Obviously, countries with mountains, deserts, and sea coasts have an advantage over countries that lack these resources, and on some occasions, a war sparks over the control of important geographical areas.
Climate and terrain have also been major factors of war strategy. Germany has lost two important battles, in WW1 and WW2 , due to muddy quagmires. These factors affect the operation of equipment, visibility, communication, intelligence, and mobility. The United States and China flirt with a war for decades, however, both sides are aware of the high cost and the complexity of the mechanism of operation of this kind.
Geography also impacts the type of weapon an army requires. The Iron Dome, which was developed by Israel to get protection against short-range missiles, is not a demanded product over the world as other countries are not facing a similar military situation.
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Geography is very important to understanding culture. Places along the coast may have an oceangoing culture. Fish might be a major part of their diet. Many ethnic Portuguese dishes use fish. Fish also appears prominently in Thai and British cuisine.
Climate, as it relates to geography, is also important for understanding a culture. Some places in Central and South America have the siesta, a midday break, because it is too hot to do much in the middle of the day. Most countries who are traditionally good at hockey are places with cold winters. This is also true for other cold-weather sports, such as Alpine skiing. People from cold-weather areas also wear heavier clothes than people from warm-weather areas who typically only wear light textiles.
Geography can also affect the economy of a region. Large-scale agriculture is common in the United States and Ukraine due to the fertility of the soil there. Areas next to the coast are known for trade. Tokyo and London have taken advantage of their maritime locations in order to build massive trading empires. Countries rich in oil such as Saudi Arabia have cashed in on their resources, creating an economic system in which a few people have gotten quite wealthy.
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The Southeast Coast And Shanghai
Physical characteristics: This region shares the entire Yangzi Valley’s dominant characteristics of water, wetlands, and hot and humid summers. However, the influence of the Pacific Ocean as well as access thereto make the area distinctive. The ocean’s warm current creates milder winter temperatures than in the interior. In addition the nearby mountains are favorable for crops other than aquaculture , which is prominent in the lowlands. Mild climates and abundant rainfall mean farmers in this area generally expect to obtain three or more crops every year. Some form of food, whether from land or sea, is always abundant and in surplus.
History: This was the first region to feel the impact of the West through the Opium War and “Treaty Ports” of the eighteenth century. It has had the greatest number of Christian missionaries, Chinese Christians, and Christian churches in China. Like so many of China’s distinct physical environments, it is dominated by ethnic peoples not fully identifiable as “Han,” who speak distinct languages and often have closer ties to Chinese overseas.
Housing: plaster or brick to offset rain in rural areas, apartment buildings in urban areas
Social organization: class, family, or business compounds
Transportation: boats and ships on rivers and canals, cars, buses, and bicycles
Food staples: rice, seafood, and tropical fruits
An Assemblage Of Pieces
This background essay introduces the diversity of China’s natural and man-made features, as well as the relative population of its various areas. Used as background information, learners can explore the many different uses of maps . Road maps to find our way to other places. Physical maps show different landforms and elevations and bodies of water. Historical maps help us understand political boundaries and the movement of people, goods, and ideas. Military leaders need maps as they plan their campaigns, and tourists need maps in order to figure out interesting places to visit. Many maps show both natural and man-made features. They often reflect values of the people who create them and define their place in the world. Maps were used for military and political purposes and show how China viewed itself in relation to the rest of the world. In China ownership of a map indicated sovereignty over the land it depicted.
A distinct geographic print might include the following variables: physical and environmental features, such as climates, soils, topography, and location historic patterns and their relationship to the natural environment the economic activities and resources that define the area today.
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Economics And Land Use
Australia has a strong economy due to its extensive natural resources, well-developed industry, and tourism.
The main industries in Australia are mining , industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, and steel manufacturing. Agriculture also plays a role in the country’s economy, and its main products include wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits, cattle, sheep, and poultry.
The Changing Landscape Of Oceania
The human settlement of Oceania, from the earliest migrations to European colonization, has reshaped the physical landscape of this region. Environmental degradation, disturbances to resources like air, land, and water, is a serious concern as economic growth often comes at the expense of environmental sustainability. In Australia, for example, wide stretches of previously sparsely inhabited Outback have become grazing lands. In Papua New Guinea illegal logging has contributed to significant deforestation. Pollution from dairying in New Zealand has led to high levels of water pollution.
Invasive species have also had significant environmental impacts in a region that has been otherwise relatively isolated. Australia has strict quarantine laws in an attempt to limit damage from nonnative plants and animals. The country currently spends around $4 billion yearly in invasive weed management alone. Cats have been banned in parts of New Zealand where they pose a threat to local bird species. Rats brought by early European ships have presented a significant problem for many islands of the Pacific where they kill other plants and animals and also spread disease. Offshore, invasive fish and algae species have damaged fragile ocean ecosystems.
a remote area of extensive grassland pastures in central Australia
a massive underwater coral reef off the coast of northeastern Australia
a region of islands to the northeast of Australia that include Papua New Guinea and Fiji
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Australia In Brief Publication
Australia in Brief provides an authoritative overview of Australia’s history, the land, its people and their way of life. It also looks at Australia’s economic, scientific and cultural achievements and its foreign, trade and defence policies.
The core defining values of Australian Democracy are:
- freedom of election and being elected
- freedom of assembly and political participation
- freedom of speech, expression and religious belief
- rule of law
- other basic human rights.
Australia is a representative democracy where voters elect candidates to carry out the business of government on their behalf.
All Australian citizens over the age of 18 must vote in elections.
The Australian Constitution of 1901 established a federal system of government, based on the British tradition of government. Powers are distributed between a national government and the six states . The Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory have self-government arrangements.
Australia’s elected national government is answerable to the Parliament for its actions. The Prime Minister leads a Cabinet of ministers, who are responsible for decisions made by their department.
How Does The Size Of A Country Affect Its Economy
The size of a country is not necessarily a major factor for success in the status of its economy. Some small countries with no natural resources were able to efficiently grow and maintain a healthy economy. Nevertheless, the size of a country can be a major advantage for economic development An increase of population, new housing projects, the capacity to grow enough food to feed the population, agriculture, and even solar energy farms in the future.
Lets take two countries with a similar GDP and population, and a different area size and geographic location, Sweden and Israel. Sweden is 22.5X the size of Israel and is located in a peaceful region that provides the country agricultural productivity, better transportation routes, and the ability to trade goods and services without barriers. Though Sweden has a much more social-economic system, the two countries operate a similar capitalistic-liberal economy. If we analyze the housing prices in the two countries, the average price of a house in Sweden is around $311,000 while the average price of a house in Israel is $413,500. The main reason is the size of the country A house in Swedens countryside can cost as low as 100K-200K SEK , while a house in Isreal suburbs costs around 213,000 USD.
What Is The Economic Activity In The South Pacific Area
How does the importance of agriculture, mining, and manufacturing vary among South Pacific countries? Agriculture is important to all countries in the region. Mining and manufacturing are important to some countries such as Australia, but they are not important to many other countries in the region.
Australia And Oceania: Human Geography
Encyclopedic entry. The geography of Oceania defines its historic and contemporary cultures.
Geography, Human Geography, Physical Geography, Social Studies, Economics, World History
The geography of Australia and Oceania defines its historic and contemporary cultures.
Map by the National Geographic Society
Most Renewable Electricity Produced
The Torres Strait Islander Flag
Designed by Bernard Namok, the Torres Strait Islander flag was created as a symbol of unity and identity for Torres Strait Islander peoples. Torres Strait Islanders’ culture and traditions are strongly connected to the land and sea elements represented in the flag. The colours of the flag represent the land, the Indigenous peoples, the sea and peace.
How Does Vegetation Affect The Distribution Of Population
If the vegetation is low lying it is easy to remove so encourages settlement. In areas of dense vegetation it is often difficult to settle. Access to a fresh supply of water is vital for determining the density of an areas population. Where the water supply is good, high population densities will be found.
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Australian Landforms And Their History
Australia is a land of geological contradictions with some of the oldest features in the world alongside rocks which are in the process of formation. The continent is home to rocks dating from more than 3000 million years while others are the result of volcanic activity which continued up to only a few thousand years ago.
An ancient landscape inthe Northern Territory outback.
Recently, scientists have been able to obtain a much clearer picture of Australia’s geological past through deep seismic surveys, which has provided new information about how the continent was formed, particularly around Broken Hill, Mount Isa, Iron Knob and West Arnhem Land .
Although the shape of Australia is due largely to tectonic Earth movements and long term changes in sea level, most of its topography is a result of prolonged erosion by wind and water. About 50 per cent of Australia’s rivers drain inland and often end in ephemeral salt lakes. Many of the features of the drainage pattern have a very long history, and some individual valleys have maintained their position for millions of years.
The Finke River winding throughPalm Valley in theNorthern Territory.
Looking towards Mt Hothamin the Victoria Alps.
Wallaman Falls innorth Queensland.
A volcanic remnantin New South Walesknown as the Sphinx.
The Impact Of Geography And Climate On The Economic Development And Military Strategy Of A Country
We often connect the economic status of a country to various factors such as policy, culture, political leadership, and history. Truly, these factors are accountable for economic success and the development of a certain country. And yet, one of the main factors for the economic development of a nation is its geographic location and climate.
Geography and climate have major effects on economic growth and are an integral part of the economic policy a country chooses to take. For example, the United States has an advantage over most other economies due to its fortunate geographic structure, in terms of economic benefits and military strategy. Due to its geographic location, the United States has adopted the good cop policy as its location allows them to enjoy a protective military strategy. Nowadays, theres no country in the world that can attack the United States due to its unique geographic location.
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