Some Of Freuds Most Influential And For Others Controversial Theories Included:
Id, Ego, and Superego Freud believed that these three are the most essential parts of the human personality. The id he defined as the primitive, impulsive and irrational unconscious that operates solely on the outcome of pleasure or pain and is responsible for instincts to sex and aggression . The ego is the I people perceive that evaluates the outside physical and social world and makes plans accordingly. And the superego is the moral voice and conscience that guides the ego violating it results in feelings of guilt and anxiety. Freud believed the superego was mostly formed within the first five years of life based on the moral standards of a persons parents it continued to be influenced into adolescence by other role models .
Psychic energy Freud postulated that the id was the basic source of psychic energy, or the force that drives all mental processes. In particular he believed that libido, or sexual urges, was a psychic energy that drives all of human actions the libido was countered by thanatos, the death instinct that drives destructive behavior .
Oedipus complex Between the ages of three and five, Freud suggested that as a normal part of the development process all kids are sexually attracted to the parent of the opposite sex and in competition with the parent of the same sex. The theory is named after the Greek legend of Oedipus, who killed his father so he could marry his mother .
Attending University And Finding Love
As his mother’s undisputed favorite, Freud enjoyed privileges that his siblings did not. He was given his own room at home , while the others shared bedrooms. The younger children had to maintain quiet in the house so that “Sigi” could concentrate on his studies. Freud changed his first name to Sigmund in 1878.
Early in his college years, Freud decided to pursue medicine, although he didn’t envision himself caring for patients in a traditional sense. He was fascinated by bacteriology, the new branch of science whose focus was the study of organisms and the diseases they caused.
Freud became a lab assistant to one of his professors, performing research on the nervous systems of lower animals such as fish and eels.
After completing his medical degree in 1881, Freud began a three-year internship at a Vienna hospital, while continuing to work at the university on research projects. While Freud gained satisfaction from his painstaking work with the microscope, he realized that there was little money in research. He knew he must find a well-paying job and soon found himself more motivated than ever to do so.
In 1882, Freud met Martha Bernays, a friend of his sister. The two were immediately attracted to one another and became engaged within months of meeting. The engagement lasted four years, as Freud worked to make enough money to be able to marry and support Martha.
Early Life Education And Career
Freud was born in the Austrian town of Freiberg, now known as the Czech Republic, on May 6, 1856. When he was four years old, Freuds family moved to Vienna, the town where he would live and work for most of the remainder of his life. He received his medical degree in 1881. As a medical student and young researcher, Freuds research focused on neurobiology, exploring the biology of brains and nervous tissue of humans and animals.
After graduation, Freud promptly set up a private practice and began treating various psychological disorders. Considering himself first and foremost a scientist, rather than a doctor, he endeavored to understand the journey of human knowledge and experience.
Early in his career, Freud became greatly influenced by the work of his friend and Viennese colleague, Josef Breuer, who had discovered that when he encouraged a hysterical patient to talk uninhibitedly about the earliest occurrences of the symptoms, the symptoms sometimes gradually abated.
After much work together, Breuer ended the relationship, feeling that Freud placed too much emphasis on the sexual origins of a patient’s neuroses and was completely unwilling to consider other viewpoints. Meanwhile, Freud continued to refine his own argument.
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Freuds Most Important Contribution
Debate continues as to whether Sigmund Freuds theories remain relevant in a modern context. Kendra Cherry, psychology author and educator, suggests that Freuds psychoanalytic method has been supplanted by advances in cognitive psychology, biopsychology and neuroscience.
Criticisms of Freud revolve around his reliance on case studies, lack of empirical basis for his theories, and the emphasis what goes on inside our heads, rather than what is going on around us.
But most psychologists acknowledge his immense influence on the profession, as well as the value of his contribution. Kendra Cherry writes: His approach to therapy the suggestion that mental illness was treatable and that talking about problems could bring relief was a revolutionary concept that left a lasting mark on how we approach the treatment of mental illness.
Perhaps his greatest contribution was in defining the role of the psychologist as someone who listens without judgement, and who treats their patient as someone who needs help and guidance, rather than someone who has morally transgressed in some way.
If the field of psychology interests you, you should consider studying at SACAP , so you can learn more about how the work of Sigmund Freud, and others like him, have helped to advance our understanding of human behaviour. SACAP offers a range of psychology courses, including part-time and full-time as well as online options. For more information, enquire now.
Freud And The Test Of Time
If anyone has increased our consciousness about the mind it is Sigmund Freud. He is synonymous with the exploration of the psyche and undoubtedly was one of the most influential figures of the late nineteenth and twentieth century. He significantly advanced the concept of treatment of psychological conditions through a type of talk therapy he called psychoanalysis. Freud had many believers and followers but also many detractors. So what is his true legacy? How original were his ideas, how were they initially received and are they still relevant today?
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Brave New World Sexual Promiscuity Analysis
One common recreational activity that is programmed to promote happiness, and is encouraged at a very young age, is sexual promiscuity. When humans in the New World Society are children, they are kept in a different type of school than children are today. A school where they are conditioned to act like their social class, learn their job, and to be raised since there are no such things as families. Children would discover each other at recess through erotic foreplay. The nurse shrugged her shoulders.
The Dream Ego By Sigmund Freud
The Dream EgoSigmund Freud is well known in the field of psychology, for he was the founding father of psychoanalysis, a method for treating mental illness and also a theory which explains human behavior. Psychoanalysis is often known as the talking cure. Typically Freud would encourage his patients to talk freely regarding their symptoms and to describe exactly what was on their mind . On May 6, 1856, Sigismund Freud was born in the Moravian Hamlet of Freiberg,
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History And Theory Essay
The viewpoints if Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers have similarities and differences. Both have made significant contribution to the psychology field. The theories from Freud and Rogers are still used in modern psychology. Freud is best known for creating psychoanalysis and Rogers is renowned for developing the person-centered therapy. The subject of this paper pertains to Freuds and Rogers views of their respective theories, how different their theories would be if they were alive today, and
How Freuds Psychoanalysis Theories Shaped Modern
While many question the effectiveness of Freuds methods, few can deny his profound influence on the field of psychology, and Western culture as a whole.
Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, had a profound impact not just on the psychology profession, but on Western culture as a whole. Common phrases like Freudian slip, defence mechanism, and phallic symbol show that Freud, much like Shakespeare, has permeated our cultural lexicon to an extent that most people dont even realise.
While many claim that advances in the field have rendered the psychoanalytic method redundant, few would deny the importance of Freuds contributions. Here are the ways in which his theories helped to shape modern-day psychology.
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Anna Freud Biography And Contributions To Psychology
By Iqra Noor, published June 07, 2020
Who Was Anna Freud?
- Known For: Founder of child psychoanalysis and alsocontributed to ego and adolescent psychology.
- Born: December 3, 1895 in Vienna, Austria.
- Died: October 9, 1982 in London, England.
- Parents: Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays.
- Contributions: Anna Freud became a major force in British psychology, specializing in the application of psychoanalysis to children. Among her best known works are The Ego and the Mechanism of defense . She established the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic . She promoted parent guidance and school consultation as important functions ofthe child therapist.
Because of her lifetime work with children and insight on child psychology through theoreticaland practice perspectives, Anna Freud is known as the founder of child psychoanalysis and alsocontributed to ego and adolescent psychology.
In her own words, she didnât think âI’d be a goodsubject for biography, “not enough ‘action’! You would say all there is to say in a few sentences -she spent her life with children!”
Even in such a simple summary of her life, she greatlyexpanded psychoanalytical thought. Her contribution to ego psychology consisted of describingvarious mechanisms of defense, including repression ,projection, and regression.
What Is Freud Known For
Freud is known for his wide-ranging theories on matters such as the unconscious, dreams, infantile sexuality, libido, repression, and transferenceall of which continue to influence the field of psychology to varying degrees. Trained as a neurologist, Freud conceived of the mind as the desire-centered id, the morally driven superego, and the ego in between, contributed to a new understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of psychological disturbance.
Other concepts that are popularly associated with Freud today include that of revealing “Freudian slips in speech and Freuds theory of the Oedipus complex, in which a child harbors an unconscious sexual attraction to an opposite-sex parent.
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Sigmund Freud’s Five Stages Of Development
Freud’s psychosexual theory of developmentFor Freud, childhood experiences shape our personalities and behavior as adults. Freud viewed development as discontinuous he believed that each of us must pass through a series of stages during childhood and that if we lack proper nurturing and parenting during a stage, we may become stuck in, or fixated on, that stage. According to Freud, childrens pleasure-seeking urges are focused on a different area of the body, called an erogenous zone, at each of the five stages of development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Each stage is characterised by different demands for sexual gratification and different ways of achieving that gratification.
Theories & Contributions To Psychology
His colleague, friend and mentor Josef Breuer inspired Freuds psychoanalytic theory. Freud hypothesized that neuroses had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences that had occurred in the patients past. He believed that the original occurrences had been forgotten and hidden from consciousness. His treatment was to empower his patients to recall the experience and bring it to consciousness, and in doing so, confront it both intellectually and emotionally. He believed one could then discharge it and rid oneself of the neurotic symptoms. . Freuds method of having his patients lie down and speak on whatever is on their mind, during session several times a week proved to be effective. Psychologists in the 21-century, perform this practice only with less frequent sessions. In this modern day, theres limited medical coverage and meeting with a psychologist multiple times a week would be extremely costly and impossible for the middle class to afford. With all of the mental health concerns in our modern day, it would be of great benefit to the population that struggles with mental health disorders, if the states offered coverage for at least one-hour sessions minimum three times a week.
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Freud’s Contributions To The Field Of Psychology
Regardless of the perception of Sigmund Freuds theories today, there is no question that he had an enormous impact on the field of psychology. His work supported the belief that not all mental illnesses have physiological causes, and he also recognized that cultural differences have an impact on psychology and behavior.
His work and writings contributed to our understanding of personality, clinical psychology, human development, and abnormal psychology.
Early Life And Training
Freuds father, Jakob, was a Jewish wool merchant who had been married once before he wed the boys mother, Amalie Nathansohn. The father, 40 years old at Freuds birth, seems to have been a relatively remote and figure, while his mother appears to have been more nurturant and emotionally available. Although Freud had two older half-brothers, his strongest if also most ambivalent attachment seems to have been to a nephew, John, one year his senior, who provided the model of intimate friend and hated rival that Freud reproduced often at later stages of his life.
In 1859 the Freud family was compelled for economic reasons to move to Leipzig and then a year after to Vienna, where Freud remained until the Nazi annexation of Austria 78 years later. Despite Freuds dislike of the imperial city, in part because of its citizens frequent anti-Semitism, psychoanalysis reflected in significant ways the cultural and political context out of which it emerged. For example, Freuds sensitivity to the vulnerability of paternal authority within the psyche may well have been stimulated by the decline in power suffered by his fathers generation, often liberal rationalists, in the Habsburg empire. So too his interest in the theme of the seduction of daughters was rooted in complicated ways in the context of Viennese attitudes toward female sexuality.
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Levinson’s Theory Of Seasons Of Adulthood
As children are able to differentiate themselves from their parents they begin to recognize the difference between them and others. Also, between the ages of 17-22 there is a transitional period of about five years from pre adulthood to young adulthood. At this point, the affiliations with family begin to change as people begin to assert themselves in the adult world . Next, is the early adulthood stage that goes from 17-45. Levinson states, It is the adult era of greatest energy
The Theory Of Psychosexual Development
Freud famously emphasised the role of sexuality in human development, such that even people unfamiliar with the finer details of Freudian theory are at least aware of his association with the topic of sex.
Freudian theory suggests that the most critical developmental period occurs in the first five years of life, and that many of our problems can be traced back to the inability to successfully navigate one or more of the psychosexual stages that occur during this phase.
For example, Freud saw acts like biting nails and sucking thumbs as a fixation on a phase where a childs pleasure primarily came from their mothers breast. He thought that if their needs were not sufficiently satisfied during that period or if they were overindulged, it would emerge later on in life as an oral fixation: where comfort was sought through occupying the mouth with things like smoking, drinking and eating.
Naturally, the theory of psychosexual development is one of the most controversial aspects of Freuds legacy, as is his general emphasis on sexual drive as a motivating factor in human development. Critics point out that his focus is primarily on male development, with female sexuality being largely ignored, or portrayed as a passive receptor for male libido .
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Literature Review On The Effects Of Music On Child Development
In this literature review, five articles will be reviewed, on the effects of music on child development in early childhood. Comparing research on children who have been exposed to music in early childhood, the effect of music on the development of the baby in the womb, and children who have not been exposed to music. While also making reference to research on how music therapy affects children with Autism and the effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development. The first article will examine the effects of Mozart ‘s music on child development.
Psychologists Influenced By Freud
In addition to his grand and far-reaching theories of human psychology, he also left his mark on a number of individuals who went on to become some of psychology’s greatest thinkers. Some of the eminent psychologists who were influenced by Sigmund Freud include:
- Ernst Jones
- Otto Rank
While Freud’s work is often dismissed today as non-scientific, there is no question that he had a tremendous influence not only on psychology but on the larger culture as well.
Many of his ideas have become so steeped in public awareness that we oftentimes forget that they have their origins in his psychoanalytic tradition.
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The Theories Behind Freudian Psychoanalysis
The fundamental principle behind psychoanalysis is the belief that dysfunction and disorders can be treated by bringing unconscious elements, such as repressed fears, desires or memories into the conscious mind, thereby allowing the client to achieve catharsis . This is achieved through talk therapy, with a particular emphasis on free association .
But behind the psychoanalytic method lies the revolutionary theories that Freud developed, profoundly altering our understanding of human nature in the process. For example: