Integrating Biology Into The Social And Behavioral Sciences
Why should social and behavioral scientists care about biology? While werecognize that most, if not all, social and economic outcomes have somebiological component, social scientistswith a few notableexceptionshave generally not considered biological processes withspecificity or depth. This position does not always derive from theoretical orepistemological stances, and is often due to gaps in data, constraints oftraining and motivational structures that are set within disciplinaryframeworks, and logistical challenges associated with collecting biologicalmeasures in non-clinical settings. Many of these gaps are narrowing.
There are several reasons why putting the bio inbiosocial has the potential to make important contributions tothe social and behavioral sciences. First, humans are biological creatures,embedded in families, social networks, communities, and cultures. Contextmatters to human biology, and engagement with biological concepts and measuresreflects this reality. This is especially clear in the case of human health,where the importance of social determinants is well-establishedand widely known , and where social impacts onunderlying physiological processes are apparent and increasingly elaborated.Attention to biology has the potential to illuminate mechanisms through whichsocioeconomic, demographic, and psychosocial factors shape human development andhealth within the contexts of everyday life.
The Life Course Perspective
Ben-Shlomo and Kuh , mention two models for the life course perspective. The first is the biological programming or the critical periods model in which contact time plays an essential role in later life effects, whether it leads to chronic defects or not. Examples of this can be seen in diseases, such as hypertensive or coronary heart diseases. .The second model is the collection of risk. In this approach, the early life condition has a great impact on the future life. For example, if a child lives in conditions of air pollution, this will affect his adult health condition
Psychological Influences On Health
The psychological component of the biopsychosocial model seeks to find a psychological foundation for a particular symptom or array of symptoms . Individuals with a genetic vulnerability may be more likely to display negative thinking that puts them at risk for depression alternatively, psychological factors may exacerbate a biological predisposition by putting a genetically vulnerable person at risk for other risk behaviors. For example, depression on its own may not cause liver problems, but a person with depression may be more likely to abuse alcohol, and, therefore, develop liver damage. Increased risk-taking leads to an increased likelihood of disease.
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Research Methods Used By The Biological Approach
Animal studies used to investigate biological mechanisms that govern human behaviour, often where ethical guidelines would not allow human participation. Many species are thought to have a similar biological makeup to humans, such that studies conclusions can be generalised to humans. However, this methodology still raises ethical debate, and some argue that complex human behaviour cannot be replicated in non-human animals like rats, and thus cannot be investigated.
Case studies can investigate normal behaviour by observing behavioural abnormality alongside corresponding changes in biology. A very early example is the apparent personality alteration observed in Phineas Gage after a railroad construction accident drastically changed his physiology by forcing an iron rod through his brains frontal lobe.
Drug therapy behaviour can be manipulated by altering an individuals biochemistry, a research method that can ultimately lead to developing drug applications to improve health and wellbeing. Initial phases of research are usually conducted on non-humans.
Scans physiology and activity across the brain can be gauged using various techniques , helping researchers to identify the functions of specific regions .
Relevant Theories And Theorists
George L. Engel, who originally developed the biopsychosocial model, is often considered a primary theorist associated with the model. Engel used this model to offer an alternative to the more readily used biomedical model of the time. Engel felt the biopsychosocial model allows physicians to better understand their patients’ subjective view of their illness and suffering.
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How Is The Behaviourist Approach Used In Healthcare
4.9/5behaviourist approachusedthe health care
Hereof, how is the psychodynamic approach used in healthcare?
A psychodynamic approach can be understood as a way of thinking by the therapist, not only about one?s patients, but also about oneself in the interpersonal field between patient and the treating professional or between the patient and the treatment staff as a whole.
Furthermore, how is the biological approach used in healthcare? Biological Approach in Health CareThis means that the service user can then control their behavior without the need for medication, and they will learn how to act in different situations. This means that the underlying issue is treated, and they can try and learn to live a healthier lifestyle.
Regarding this, how is the behaviorist approach used today?
Applications. Commonly used applications by a behaviorist include: positive reinforcement , negative reinforcement, punishment, token economy , self management , extinction , shaping , contracts ,time out, and systematic desensitization .
What is the behaviourist approach?
Behaviorism refers to a psychological approach which emphasizes scientific and objective methods of investigation. The approach is only concerned with observable stimulus-response behaviors, and states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment.
Background Of Health Psychology To Public Health
The recognition of health psychology as a designated field is widely acknowledged. The relationship between mind and body and the effect of one upon the other has always been a controversial topic amongst philosophers, psychologists and physiologists. Within psychology, the development of the study of psychosomatic disorders owes much to Freud . It has been observed in the recent studies that more deaths are caused now by heart disease, cancer and strokes which are by-product of changes in lifestyles in the twentieth century. Psychologists can be instrumental in investigating and influencing lifestyles and behaviours which are conducive or detrimental to good health .
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The Role Of The Biological Perspective In Psychology
There are many different ways of thinking about topics in psychology. The biological perspective is a way of looking at psychological issues by studying the physical basis for animal and human behavior. It is one of the major perspectives in psychology and involves such things as studying the brain, immune system, nervous system, and genetics.
One of the major debates in psychology has long centered over the relative contributions of nature versus nurture. Those who take up the nurture side of the debate suggest that it is the environment that plays the greatest role in shaping behavior. The biological perspective tends to stress the importance of nature.
Biological Approach To Health And Social Care
The biological approach can be used to explain many thing within health and social care, it can also be useful in diagnosing and treating service users, and is effective for practitioners to asses and help their patience within heath care and social care alike. The biological approach can have a positive impact on the service user because tests such as the assessment scale are available so that they can fully understand why there behaviour is the way it is, and also what is normal and abnormal for their age. It is useful for practitioners to know if the influence of genetics has anything to do with a persons behaviour so that they can give the service user the best possible help and attention. Genetic testing is also useful it has potential benefits whether the results are positive or negative for a gene mutation. Test results can provide a sense of relief from uncertainty and help people make informed decisions about managing their health care.
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But The Health Behaviour Model Itself Can Fail In Many Aspects Firstly The Participants Must Choose The Project Which They Probably Will Not That Will Lead To A Narrowing Of The Intervention And The Real Underlying Cause Of The Problem Not Being Addressed Always There Is A Risk Of Increasing The Health Inequality Because Of Neglecting The Dignity Of The Participants
On the other hand, the World Health Organisation report on the social determination of health had great value .The report critically highlighted important causes of health inequalities. It also suggested practical intervention to tackle the inequalities. .
Some factors like the education, gender, income and the health system itself are among the social determinants of health locally and internationally. The environmental and social factors are the basic determinants. The government and the entire community sector should share the goal. In holding up
Countries need to change their health polices through developing effective medical base models and intervention. The greatest effort is needed to take and transform public knowledge into political action.
How It Will Help Katya
Help her to manage her difficulties with behaviour
Help Katya develop new skills
Help resolve her issue that she has dealt with
Boost communication skills
Lets her play and do activities and then once comfortable help her problems
Form strong relationships with the therapist- mode of communication and type of relationship facilitates change and growth in children experiencing emotional distress http://www.bapt.info/playtherapycareers.htm
Helps Katya make sense of overwhelming problems by breaking them down into smaller parts
Focuses on the cause of her distress or symptoms in the past, it looks for ways to improve her state of mind now.
Identify Katyas individual patterns of thoughts, emotions, bodily feelings and actions and keep a diary record
Help Katya to work out how to change her unhelpful thoughts and behaviours
Helps Katya to replace unhappy thoughts with positive thoughts
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The Biosocial Model In Health Psychology
Today, the main approach used in health psychology is known as the biosocial model. According to this view, illness and health are the results of a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors.
- Biological factors include inherited personality traits and genetic conditions.
- Psychological factors involve lifestyle, personality characteristics, and stress levels.
- Social factors include such things as social support systems, family relationships, and cultural beliefs.
Implications For Health Belief Model
This model is the best one to select .When the focus is on behaviour motivation, the model convinces the public in making healthy decisions.
The HBM can be used for social and economic conditions .For example, to increase the self esteem after weight loss, or to save money by stopping smoking, or in order to reach better health education on sexual risk behaviour.
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About Determinants Of Health
It is the interrelationships among these factors that determine individual and population health. Because of this, interventions that target multiple determinants of health are most likely to be effective. Determinants of health reach beyond the boundaries of traditional health care and public health sectors sectors such as education, housing, transportation, agriculture, and environment can be important allies in improving population health.
Effects Of Brain Physiology And Neurochemistry
Interactions between regions of the brain help to control different functions, which biological psychologists assume to be significant in determining our actions. For instance, the occipital lobe is involved heavily in processing sight, along with the frontal lobe, which is thought to be involved in control and attention.
Electrical impulses enable an important means of internal communication that directs our behaviour, travelling around the brain and to/from the body via the nervous system. Impulses are transmitted between neurons at synapses, junctions where neurotransmitters are released that inhibit or excite other neurons to achieve different responses. Neurochemical imbalances in the brain are often associated with abnormal behaviour for instance, evidence suggests that imbalances of dopamine are associated with mood disorders such as depression.
The endocrine system is a slower-acting communication system that regulates the circulation of hormones, released by glands into the bloodstream. For example, cortisol and adrenaline are key hormones that facilitate the fight or flight response, a key evolutionary survival mechanism whereby the body primes itself for imminent danger .
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The Homework On Latchkey Kids Children Parents Care
“Latchkey Kid” is a term that came into existence during World War II. It was used to describe the large number of youth who were left without direct adult supervision. During this period of time, most Americans were involved in the war effort. Many fathers were in military service and many mothers went to work outside of the home to support their families and help our country win the war. As a …
Also the assessment scale wouldnt be useful within the health care sector for example caring for an adult with clinical depression, the assessment scale Is very limited and therefore is only useful within a small area of health and social care. However a service user with severe depression would benefit from the biological approach by focusing on genetic testing and medication. Depression is thought to involve both genetic and environmental factors, with genetics playing a larger role in the type of depression that is severe and recurrent, and a study has identified a region of DNA that may include a gene or genes that affect an individuals vulnerability to severe persistent depression.
The Importance Of Socializing Biology
The biosocial approach occupies an important and expanding space in thesocial and behavioral sciences, where the emphasis has been on integratingbiological concepts and methods into research designed to address questions ofinterest to social and behavioral scientists . Less appreciated is the opportunity we have to colonize thebiological sciencesas well as public discourse regarding thedeterminants of healthto have an impact on how we conceptualize andstudy human biology.
For the most part, research in the biological sciences privilegesexplanations inside the body, and is speeding down areductionist road that elaborates cellular and molecular processes whileignoring contextual influences outside the body . As just one example, the sequencing ofthe human genome, accomplished in 2003, was celebrated as providing the first glimpse at our own instruction book, and the possibility of achieving all we ever hoped for inmedicine . Clinicalmedicine also privileges reduction, seeking to isolate single, proximate factorsas causes of disease and as targets for treatment. Pathogens cause infection.Tumors cause cancer .
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The Health System As An Intermediary Determinant Of Health
The CSDH framework was different from other frameworks in considering the health system as an intermediary factor. The health system has an important role to play in assessing the impact of the illness on how people live, preventing the deterioration of the social class due to their health state, and motivating people with chronic illness to work.
According to Benzeval, Judge and Whitehead, the health system impacts in three main ways in the reduction of the inequity gap. The summary of it is that health services are meant to enable equal allocation of resources and effective response, depending on the need of the areas and the social group, whilst also creating a platform for strategic and effective interventions and policies at all national levels
Definition Of The Biological Perspective
Charles Darwin first proposed the idea that genetics and evolution both contribute to many human qualities including personality. Biology is defined as the study of life while psychology examines the human mind and its processes, especially those affecting behavior. Biological perspective links biology and psychology by focusing on the analysis of human behavior based on biological and physical evidence.
The Biological Perspective seeks to determine the psychological aspects of human behavior looking at evidence from genetic and neurological studies as well as studies of the immune system. Also known as biopsychology, it has played a major role in psychology from the beginning.
Technology for studying the nervous system and brain has grown tremendously advanced with access to tools such as PET and MRI scans making the biological perspective in psychology increasingly important. The biological perspective is relevant to psychology through three areas of investigation.
1. Comparative method:
- investigates how the nervous system and hormones work
- determines how the brain functions
- determines how changes in structure and function of these systems may affect behavior
- investigates which traits are inherited by offspring from their parents
- investigates the mechanism of inheritance of traits in animals
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Psychological Perspectives For Health And Social Care
Write a 4 pages paper on psychological perspectives for health and social care. Furthermore, there are various psychological approaches to health and social care practices that one can adopt in order to improve psychological development .The behaviourist perspective implies that changes in behaviour are caused by learning from external factors such as rewards and punishments. According to the work of popular behaviourists, Pavlov and Skinner, one learns from the consequences of ones actions. these actions are connected with the satisfaction or displeasure that follows them, taking into consideration life experiences, genetics, individual progress and much more. The cognitive perspective is more about an individuals thinking process, opinions, motivation and beliefs having an impact on behaviour. This inspires individuals to take responsibility for their own health and modify abnormal feelings and thoughts. Social learning is probably the commonest perspective. it is impossible for one to exist in a group, culture or society without conforming due to the social influence. an example of this would be smoking cigarettes because all the cool kids do it. The biological perspective states that behaviour is confirmed by genes, or rather the physical structure and function of the brain as it directs our behaviour. for instance excessive eating .
About This Research Topic
The biopsychosocial approach to healthcare is one that systematically considers biological, psychological, and social factors and their interactions. It has been described both as a framework for understanding health and illness, as well as a guidepost for delivering care that incorporates medical, mental …
Keywords:biopsychosocial approach, implementation, interdisciplinary care, psychosomatic medicine, clinical care, mental health, integrated care
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