The Emergence Of National Schools: The Role Of Human Geography In Germany And France
Human geography appeared in the 1880s and 1890s. Ratzel coined the term anthropogeographie in 1882. French geographers began to speak of la géographie humaine from 1895.
Human distributions were studied by geographers since a long time. Thanks to the progress of ethnography and folklore studies, the knowledge of the diversity of tools, know-hows, techniques, and human settlements had much progressed from the beginning of the nineteenth century. Ritters position analysis did not stress only the role of atmospheric and oceanic currents in the shaping of the diversity of the Earth, it focused also on the significance of circulation and the role of steamships in contracting the Earths surface.
What motivated the birth of human geography as a semiautonomous field of enquiry within geography was, however, Darwins interpretation of evolution. Human geography was born as a kind of ecology of human groups in their relations to environments. The main aim of the new discipline was to answer a fundamental question: up to what point were human beings and human activities a reflection of environmental conditions? Human geography was born from a deterministic interpretation of man/milieu relationships.
A. Saldanha, in, 2009
William Bunges Theoretical Geography
13In consequence, movements could be anything: migration, advancing ice sheets, the diffusion of ideas, the circulation of the atmosphere. The same applied to patterns: the pattern formed by rivers in a drainage basin, the distribution of cities, of climatic zones, or whatever. He believed that his theoretical geography applied regardless it could, therefore, embrace both human and physical geography and, although he did not dwell on it, resolve the division in the field. The nearness problem was manifest in both air masses move from high pressure to the nearest low pressure, albeit structured in their directionality by the Coriolis force subsequent to the rotation of the earth in economic geography there is a net migration from lower wage areas to higher wage areas, but so as to minimize movement . Likewise in contemplating a uniform distribution of points along a line:
14In other words: Highly imaginative and stimulating. Even so, the insistence on location suggested a human geography bias in his understanding. While rivers are located in the sense of having a geographic location, they do not choose to be where they are: unlike the agents in human geography, they do not reflect on the possibilities and then locate, as in human geographys location theory. Not surprisingly, his assumptions about the world and those of spatial-quantitative geography had limited effect on physical geography.
- 5 This framework is clear in both Terjung and Strahler .
Connecting With Space And Place
Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earths surface and the human societies spread across it. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment and the way that locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there, and how they develop and change over time. Read More…
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A Short Definition For Human Geography
The study of the interrelationships between people, place, and environment, and how these vary spatially and temporally across and between locations. Whereas physical geography concentrates on spatial and environmental processes that shape the natural world and tends to draw on the natural and physical sciences for its scientific underpinnings and methods of investigation, human geography concentrates on the spatial organization and processes shaping the lives and activities of people, and their interactions with places and nature. Human geography is more allied with the social sciences and humanities, sharing their philosophical approaches and methods .
With respect to methods, human geography uses the full sweep of quantitative and qualitative methods from across the social sciences and humanities, mindful of using them to provide a thorough geographic analysis. It also places emphasis on fieldwork and mapping , and has made a number of contributions to developing new methods and techniques, notably in the areas of spatial analysis, spatial statistics, and GIScience.
Human Geography Space And Place
Historiographical studies of human geography outline a disjointed narrative: geography emerged in the early nineteenth century, characterized by environmental determinism and historicism. It became an arm of European imperialism, and fell into a crisis of disciplinary definition until the publication of Richard Hartshornes Nature of Geography in 1939. Hartshorne urged geographers to focus on spatial distributions rather than time. Though some had turned to social interests, the Second World War, the Cold War and McCarthyism in the United States presented significant obstacles. In the 1960s, geography was overcome by technical, statistical and quantitative study and did not return to qualitative methods and a humanistic focus until the 1970s.
Suggesting that places are fundamental in providing a sense of belonging for those who live in them, humanistic perspectives propose a definite but complex relationship between the character of specific places and the cultural identities of those who inhabit them. Against this, materialist perspectives propose that cultural battles create explicit inequalities in the way that space is occupied and used by members of different groups.
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What Is Human Geography
Defining human geography is especially difficult because of complicating factors like the relationship between human geography and geography the rather late professionalization of the discipline variations in human geography written in different languages and the difficulty of being able to identify definitive research questions, sequential paradigms, or key thinkers. It is tempting to define a common ground for human geography’s intellectual core , and wish to enforce this. Such a common ground might provide human geography with a sense of unity. But the reality of how human geography is practiced simply cannot sustain this. As David Livingstone so powerfully put it in The Geographical Tradition , The idea that there is some eternal metaphysical core to geography independent of historical circumstances will simply have to go.
Table 1. Contents of Progress in Human Geography, 19782007 numbers of articles by subdisciplinary themea
C. Gibson, G. Waitt, in, 2009
How Do Geographers Understand Space
The concept of space is one of the most fundamental of geographical concepts. Space conceived in this way is the synonym of emptiness. The concept of space may be also conceived in relation ti individual landscape elements as their environments. Space conceived in this way has the character of a field of force.
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Conceptions Of Space In Geography
- 1 See also Harvey .
3In the introduction to his path-breaking book, Social Justice and the City1, David Harvey outlined three different conceptions of space: space as absolute, relative and relational. To think of space as absolute, means understanding it as existing in and of itself without any relations to substance, as mere point or container: a particular intersection of longitude and latitude or an enclosed area like the Lake District or Ohio or even a residential lot just empty and without reference to similar emptinesses elsewhere.
4Once substance, differentially distributed across the earths surface, enters in, then places can be considered in their relation to other places: as lying in another citys hinterland, or distributed in a linear form like the tectonically active areas of the Pacifics ring of fire. The residential lot is now considered in terms of distance from schools or places of work. In this conception, places exist independently of one another and preserve their essential character. As its relative location changes, in virtue of, perhaps, transport innovations, then a city can change quantitatively but not in its essential characteristics: its population grows or declines. Likewise, a river capture simply alters the discharges of different streams.
Table 1. Three conceptions of space exemplified.
Table 2. Permanences in geography.
Keeping Up With The Journal Literature
Want an easy way to keep up with the journal literature for all facets of Geography? And you use a mobile device? You can install the BrowZine app and create a custom Bookshelf of your favorite journal titles. Then you will get the Table of Contents of your favorite journals automatically delivered to you when they become available. Once you have the ToC’s you can download and read the articles you want.
You can get the app from the App Store or Google Play.
Don’t own or use a mobile device? You can still use BrowZine! It’s now available in a web version. You can get to it here. The web version works the same way as the app version. Find the journals you like, create a custom Bookshelf, get ToCs and read the articles you want.
In The Social Sciences
Space has been studied in the social sciences from the perspectives of , feminism, postmodernism, postcolonialism, urban theory and critical geography. These theories account for the effect of the history of colonialism, transatlantic slavery and globalization on our understanding and experience of space and place. The topic has garnered attention since the 1980s, after the publication of Henri Lefebvre‘s The Production of Space . In this book, Lefebvre applies Marxist ideas about the production of commodities and accumulation of capital to discuss space as a social product. His focus is on the multiple and overlapping social processes that produce space.
In his book The Condition of Postmodernity,David Harvey describes what he terms the “time-space compression.” This is the effect of technological advances and capitalism on our perception of time, space and distance. Changes in the modes of production and consumption of capital affect and are affected by developments in transportation and technology. These advances create relationships across time and space, new markets and groups of wealthy elites in urban centers, all of which annihilate distances and affect our perception of linearity and distance.
Stars Planets Asteroids And Comets
Stars are immense balls of gas that produce their own radiation. They can range from red supergiants to cooling white dwarfs that are the leftovers of supernovas, or star explosions that occur when a big one runs out of gas to burn. These explosions spread elements throughout the universe and are the reason that elements such as iron exist. Star explosions can also give rise to incredibly dense objects called neutron stars. If these neutron stars send out pulses of radiation, they are called pulsar stars.
Planets are objects whose definition came under scrutiny in 2006, when astronomers were debating whether Pluto could be considered a planet or not. At the time, the International Astronomical Union ruled that a planet is a celestial body that orbits the sun, is massive enough to have a nearly round shape, and has cleared its orbit of debris. Under this designation, Pluto and similar small objects are considered “dwarf planets,” although not everyone agrees with the designation. After the New Horizons spacecraft flew by Pluto in 2015, principal investigator Alan Stern and others again opened up the debate, saying the diversity of terrain on Pluto makes it more like a planet.
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What Is Space Ap Human Geography
. Also know, what is space in geography?
The concept of space is one of the most fundamental of geographical concepts. It acquires meaning and sense only when related to other concepts. The concept of space may be conceived as a supplement to things, i.e. substantively conceived objects. Space conceived in this way is the synonym of emptiness.
One may also ask, is AP Human Geography useful? The Advanced Placement Human Geography course introduces students to the systematic study of patterns and processes that have shaped human understanding, use, and alteration of Earth’s surface. It is an excellent course for preparing students to become geo-literate youth and adults.
Just so, what is an example of space in human geography?
To geographers, a space is a general, objective location or area. For example, when Dustin is studying the languages humans speak, he might look at America or he might compare residents of Texas to residents of Nevada or Massachusetts. The U.S., as well as the states of Texas, Nevada, and Massachusetts, are all spaces.
What is human geography quizlet?
The study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life. human geography. The study of where and why human activities are located where they are. physical geography. The study where and why natural forces occur as they do.
Concepts Of Space Understanding In Human Geography And Spatial Analysis
Spatial analysis was important in the rejuvenation of the spatial tradition. Its intellectual possibilities, however, now seem to be exhausted. Spatial analysis never dealt with more than a subset of the spatial. Conceptsof territory, place, locality, spatial division of labor, etc., proved elusive. Crucial and related shortcomings included the separation of spatial and social relations, the separation of fact from value, and empiricist tendencies. Accordingly the exploitation of the hitherto unaddressed spatial agenda has had to be taken up by those with different assumptions about the nature of the world and how it is best studied. These approaches in turn shed new light on those spatial relations, like scale, that spatial analysis did try to address. They are also well-equipped to clarify the historical geography of spatial analysis as an intellectual movement.
The Definition In Practice
This definition of geography works well for several reasons. First, it emphasizes that geography is a methodology. It stresses the geographic way of organizing and analyzing information pertaining to the location, distribution, pattern, and interactions of the varied physical and human features of Earth’s surface. All geographic inquiry should begin with the question, “Where?” Geographers and all other scientists ask “Why?” And, of course, most major Earth-bound events, features, and conditions can and often do have some impact on our lives, thereby begging the question, “Why care?”
An example on the global scale, petroleum resources in the Middle East certainly have contributed to a host of conflicts, and “petro-politics” surely will be a major issue for decades to come. Oil production, distribution, consumption, and trade all impact the lives of several billion people daily.
The definition I describe is clear and concise. It places no limitation on what geographers study it clearly identifies the discipline’s unique methodologythe spatial dimension of features, including where they are, in what patterns they occur, what important relationships exist, and so forth.
*Charles F. Gritzner, “What Is Where, Why There, and Why Care?,” Journal of Geography, 101, no. 1 , pp. 3840.
A Short Definition For Place
1. A fixed point on the Earths surface.
2. A locus of individual and group identity.
3. The scale of everyday life.
Until the 1970s all three meanings of place were understood via a mosaic metaphor that implied that different places were discrete and singular. However, in the wake of globalization, it became necessary for human geographers to rethink their ideas about place. This is not to imply that places are becoming the same, as if globalization is an homogenizing process. Rather, the challenge has been to conceptualize place difference and place interdependence simultaneously. The inside and outside of a place is no longer clear cut. The metaphors of switching points and nodes better enable us to see places as at once unique and connected, and mediate between older idiographic and nomothetic approaches. As will be explained, these metaphors currently find favour among most human geographers writing about place. Despite definition three possibly implying that all places are of a similar area , human geographers have never sought to offer an absolute measure of what distinguishes a place from, say, a region. This is because what constitutes a place is partly a function of changing technologies and infrastructures . In turn, these affect peoples perceptions of what is near or local, and what is far.
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Why Is Space Important In Human Geography
The concepts of time and space are very important for understanding the function of phenomena in the natural world. Time is important to Physical Geographers because the spatial patterns they study can often only be explained in historic terms. Concrete space represents the real world or environment.
Space Place And Scale In Past And Present
Underpinning many articles in Past and Presents earliest issues is an unspoken agreement with the nation-state as container of historical process. These articles often expose this tendency within their title, including the name of the nation along with an indication of the period studied. While this tendency reflects practical intra-disciplinary divisions , it also reveals a tacit agreement that national borders delimit bounded spaces within which social and economic practices unravel.
Nonetheless, in these early issues of Past and Present, there are deviations from this pattern. The most obvious divergences occur in articles focused on the pre-national period in Europe, which refer, instead, to regional designations of space. In these articles, the focus is on the process studied, often interpreted through the lens of social class. These studies do not emphasize local meaning, but instead treat the space within which processes occur as absolute. Eric J. Hobsbawms work in this early period deserves special mention, as his work focused on social processes that crossed national borders, giving more importance to the role of class than to the national space within which it existed.
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