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How Does Physical Geography Affect Military Strategy And Planning

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What Is The Difference Between A Country And A Nation

Physical Geography of the Middle East and North Africa

Many people use the terms “country” and “nation” interchangeably. But not all nations are countries, nor are all countries nations. A country is the equivalent of a State, and is a political entity. A nation is a group of people with a common heritage and culture. Some nations have a State and are thus called a nation-state. Nation-states include France, Germany, Japan, China, and the United States. Some nations have no State, such as the Kurds and Palestinians. Some States have multiple nations such as Belgium, which is composed of two nations, the Flemings and Walloons.

How Does A Choke Point Choke A Body Of Water

A choke point is a narrow waterway between two larger bodies of water that can be easily closed or blocked to control water transportation routes. Though historically the Strait of Gibraltar has been one of the world’s most important choke points, the Strait of Hormuz gained significant attention during the Persian Gulf War of 1991. The Strait of Hormuz, bounded by the United Arab Emirates and Iran, connects the Persian Gulf to the Arabian Sea and, thus, to the Indian Ocean. It was feared that if Iraq controlled the Strait, then most of the oil from the region could not be shipped out.

Qinghai And The Tibetan Plateau

Physical characteristics: Altitude, which can average 3962.4 meters , best defines the physical environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Except in the bright sunlight, it always is very cold. Located mostly in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, the region is arid to semi-arid. This means that despite a latitude close to the Tropic of Cancer, Qinghai and Tibet are nontropical for the most part. Still, there are areas along its southern and western boundaries, where rhododendron and banana trees grow in the shadow of active glaciers. This is attributable to the heavy rainfall and temperatures associated with the Indian monsoon.

History: Because of the region’s adjacence to India and central Asia, the people, economies, and even religion of Qinghai and Tibet have seldom been affected by those of China in the east. Even Mongolia had closer cultural links to this region than did China proper. Animal husbandry and nomadism are traditional ways of life. Until the 1950s, one out of every five Tibetans was a Buddhist nun or monk. Monasteries have been at the center of society since at least the eighth century.

Economic activities and resources today: Qinghai and Tibet remain remote and largely unpopulated. Where conditions permit, the Chinese have encouraged the westward migration of farmers from overpopulated areas to the east. Animals continue to be raised, and wool weavings are another important product. Goods are also produced from indigenous gold and turquoise.

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Geography’s Contributions To Decision Making

Geography’s long-standing concern with the evolving spatial organization and material character of the Earth’s surface is of great relevance to decision makers in business and government. Whether the issue at hand is the location of a new public facility or the development of a stream restoration project, decision makers must consider such geographic matters as location, the relationship between processes at different scales, and the changing character of particular environments and landscapes. As such, geographic expertise can be of great importance in helping organizations and individuals operate more efficiently and make better-informed decisions.

Geographers contribute to policy and decision making in a variety of ways . One contribution is through the publication of research findings in professional journals and other open-literature outlets. These insights usually influence decisions indirectly. Scholarly publications tend to influence society’s general “climate of understanding” about issues, and society’s opinions are transmitted to decision makers through a variety of channels . Although most geographers believe that published research is more valuable before decisions are made, it is often more visibly used in justifying decisions made on other grounds, at least in public policy making . One area of contribution in geography, incidentally, has been in understanding how geographic circumstances fundamentally influence decisions made by public policy makers .

Military Applications And The Irregular Threat

Army Geography : army

Behavioral analysis and predictive analytics increasingly are being incorporated into military operations, particularly as relates to addressing the irregular or asymmetric threat. As outlined in Chapter 2, the influential paper, Fixing Intel17 frames a plan for the creative use of knowledge gathering, management, analysis, and dissemination. Moreover, examples like the behavioral analysis of the Lords Resistance Army outlined in Chapter 11, underscore foundation-level concepts regarding violent or other patterns of predatory behavior that transcend language, culture, and national boundaries, and the applicability of these concepts to other problem spaces. Similarly, the concept of human terrain analysis and other social-science-based approaches increasingly are being incorporated into risk and threat assessment, as well as operational planning and strategy.

Miika Sartonen, … Jussi Timonen, in, 2020

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Military Strategy And Doctrines

Military strategy is in many ways the centerpiece of military science. It studies the specifics of planning for, and engaging in combat, and attempts to reduce the many factors to a set of principles that govern all interactions of the field of battle. In Europe these principles were first defined by Clausewitz in his Principles of War. As such, it directs the planning and execution of battles, operations, and wars as a whole. Two major systems prevail on the planet today. Broadly speaking, these may be described as the “Western” system, and the “Russian” system. Each system reflects and supports strengths and weakness in the underlying society.

Modern Western military art is composed primarily of an amalgam of French, German, British, and American systems. The Russian system borrows from these systems as well, either through study, or personal observation in the form of invasion , and form a unique product suited for the conditions practitioners of this system will encounter. The system that is produced by the analysis provided by Military Art is known as doctrine.

The differences in the specifics of Military art notwithstanding, Military science strives to provide an integrated picture of the chaos of battle, and illuminate basic insights that apply to all combatants, not just those who agree with your formulation of the principles.

Military Technology And Equipment

Military technology is not just the study of various technologies and applicable physical sciences used to increase military power. It may also extend to the study of production methods of military equipment, and ways to improve performance and reduce material and/or technological requirements for its production. An example is the effort expended by Nazi Germany to produce artificial rubbers and fuels to reduce or eliminate their dependence on imported POL and rubber supplies.

Military technology is unique only in its application, not in its use of basic scientific and technological achievements. Because of the uniqueness of use, military technological studies strive to incorporate evolutionary, as well as the rare revolutionary technologies, into their proper place of military application.

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The Concept Of Strategy

The word strategy, derived from strategia, the Greek word for generalship, was first used to describe military operations and movements. A strategy is a plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall aim. It is worth exploring the military origins of the concept of strategy and strategic planning for how these inform other uses of the terms. Strategy is both the art of planning and directing overall military operations and movements in a war or battle and the plan itself. Strategy is often contrasted with tactics, as in the assertion, Strategy focuses on long-term aims tactics on short-term gains. But in the military sense, strategy and tactics are not opposites. They are different levels of engagement. Strategy is planning for a set of engagements that will achieve the overall goal of a war. Tactics describe how each of these engagements will be carried out. Tactical success that does not contribute to strategyof the we won the battle, but lost the war kindcan be detrimental to an organization. Between these two levels is the concept of operations, which deals with size, scale, and scope, as well as the placement of military forces and equipment.

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How Did Geography Play A Role In Ww1

Military Geography

4.2/5role did geography playWorld War I

Also question is, how did geography affect WWI?

Geography greatly affected the events and outcomes of World War I. Geographic barriers created diversions and weather patterns helped in leading the Allies to victory. Also, the new spread of technology along with trench warfare and disease eventually led to the defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary.

Additionally, what role did France play in the outbreak of ww1? THE FRENCH SAW MOST OF THE HEAVY FIGHTING IN WW1 . THEY PREVENTED THE GERMANS FROM TAKING TWO IMPORTANT ALLIED STRONGHOLDS , WITH THE HELP OF BRITAIN AND ITALY, DROVE THE GERMAN ARMY NORTH OF THE MARNE AND WERE AMONG THE PRINCIPAL ARBITERS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES.

Beside this, what caused Germany to surrender in ww1?

Germany surrendered because they were unable to sustain the way much longer. This can be broken down into a few factors: Germany had been losing ground and soldiers on the Western Front for a long time at an unsustainable rate. By the end of the war Germany had lost all its allies.

How did the alliance system that developed in the early 1900s help to cause WWI?

It gave everyone assurance that they had back up to move forward and start a war. The treaty took away territory, were forced to have a limited army and had to admit they were the cause of the war.

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Fixed Line Of Hun Invasion And Forced War Of Positions

When the full history of the great World War is written geography will be understood as one of the fundamental causes. When white people migrated into Europe from west central Europe they found a land divided by mountain ranges and arms of the sea into small geographic provinces. This led to the growth of numerous small countries. Physical geography, by isolating peoples, leads to national strength and often to international animosity.

As the population increased the great coal and mineral resources of Europe were discovered, and industrial life began to develop. Then the economic geography became of vital importance to each nation. Political boundary lines have been shifted to include special resources. Later, when greater supplies of raw material were needed at the manufacturing plants and new markets desired, the geography of the world became vital to the life of the nations in western Europe. A period of colonization followed, until almost all the lands of the world have been taken. The nations of western Europe have been most active in this work of colonization.

Geography Determined Strategy.

Peace Conference Problems Difficult.

History Of Operations Research

The discipline of OR has its origins in the application of problem-solving techniques in a military context during World War II, when the practice was termed military OR. In this context, the complex system was designed to wage war, and the components of that system were the enormous resources and requirements of military organizations. Examples of how OR was applied include the determination of the optimal fuse length for depth charges designed to combat submarines, the optimal deployment of radar stations and mining operations, and the optimal arrangement for convoys of ships.

The two changes in the practice of OR have brought about the steady growth in the development and application of OR techniques for over 50 years. Moreover, these techniques have demonstrated that the efficiencies gained by mathematically modeling a system and solving that model optimally are significant and can in some cases be extraordinary. Recent findings show that major corporations have realized savings in the hundreds of millions of dollars attributable to the implementation of optimization techniques.

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The North China Plain

Physical characteristics: As its name indicates, this is an area of gently rolling topography. It is subject to flooding, and water often stands in large pools and “lakes,” as there is no place for drainage. This creates marshes and shallow, reed-filled lakes, which are good for thatching and weaving as well as migratory birds, fish, and snails. Winter and summer temperatures can be extreme, and dust storms are common. Highly variable weather means good harvests for only three out of every five years.

History: The North China Plain was one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. China’s earliest agricultural societies as well as dynasties formed there. People traditionally lived in dispersed communities rather than nucleated settlements because food and water were available everywhere. The primary need to nucleate was as a defense against invaders and raiders. The earliest archaeological sites of “cities” are at the foot of the Taihang Mountains, where there are minerals as well as manageable water resources for all seasons.

Housing: mud-based, single-story structures with flat roofs

Social organization: villages and clans

Transportation: walking, wheelbarrows, bicycles, cars

Food staples: wheat-based foods

How Does Geography Affect Foreign Policy

Cold War Gamer: Review

Info: 1333 words Essay 28th Jun 2017 inPolitics

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Therefore, Cold War was a conflict enough to present a real evidence of the heartland theory. At that time, Soviet Union was the one who was ruling the heartland, it controlled

Eastern Europe and as a result was in a position of threat or influence around the whole world. Also in there were located the major oil resources, a key resources of that period to develop military power, and as I said before, the world island was reached with simple and reliable transport, but they need sufficient oil resources to develop an efficient transportation. As result British foreign policy and U:S:A foreign policy was toward this major potential threats. Therefore its main objective during this period was lo limit the expansion and influence of the Soviet Union.

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What Were Some Of The Earliest Colonies

The Phoenicians, around the year 1000 b.c.e., founded some of the first colonies in Tyre . Colonists from there went on to colonize Carthage and the coast of Spain. This enabled them to control access to the Atlantic Ocean and trade with the indigenous peoples of what is today Great Britain and France.

The Southeast Coast And Shanghai

Physical characteristics: This region shares the entire Yangzi Valley’s dominant characteristics of water, wetlands, and hot and humid summers. However, the influence of the Pacific Ocean as well as access thereto make the area distinctive. The ocean’s warm current creates milder winter temperatures than in the interior. In addition the nearby mountains are favorable for crops other than aquaculture , which is prominent in the lowlands. Mild climates and abundant rainfall mean farmers in this area generally expect to obtain three or more crops every year. Some form of food, whether from land or sea, is always abundant and in surplus.

History: This was the first region to feel the impact of the West through the Opium War and “Treaty Ports” of the eighteenth century. It has had the greatest number of Christian missionaries, Chinese Christians, and Christian churches in China. Like so many of China’s distinct physical environments, it is dominated by ethnic peoples not fully identifiable as “Han,” who speak distinct languages and often have closer ties to Chinese overseas.

Housing: plaster or brick to offset rain in rural areas, apartment buildings in urban areas

Social organization: class, family, or business compounds

Transportation: boats and ships on rivers and canals, cars, buses, and bicycles

Food staples: rice, seafood, and tropical fruits

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Base Construction And Closings

The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate.

The United States Department of Defense maintains a larger number of domestic and foreign military bases than all other countries combined. Closing redundant military bases in the United States often has a negative economic impact on local communities. Analysts at the Pentagon respond to budget limitations by identifying installations that have become obsolete for various reasons. Sometimes the needs for the location are no longer prevalent in defense strategies or the installation’s facilities have fallen into disrepair. That is the case with the smaller Reserve and National Guard facilities that dot every state. The personnel on the committees responsible for determining closures also observe the economic impact that their decisions will have on the communities surrounding the installations. If 40,000 people are employed because of the installation, either directly or indirectly, it is more likely that that facility will remain open, but only if there is nowhere for the 40,000 people that would lose their jobs. Those people could end up on welfare, thus becoming just as much of a draw on revenue as they were as employees.

Why Did The Sun Never Set On The British Empire

How was Soviet Military Strategy Developed? – Military Lecture Series

In the early twentieth century, the United Kingdom included colonies from North and South America , Africa (Egypt, South Africa,

Who owns the world’s oceans?

The battle over control of the world’s oceans has increased over the past few decades due to the discovery of vast mineral and fuel resources located under the sea. In 1958, the United Nations held the first Conference on the Law of the Sea. This conference established territorial seas, measuring 12 nautical miles from the shore of coastal nations that are under the full control of that country. Additionally, countries have mineral, fuel, and fishing rights in an Exclusive Economic Zone that spans 200 nautical miles from shore. Problems arise when two countries’ zones overlap. Median lines between countries have been drawn in most cases, but there are still many areas of disagreement.

and Nigeria), Asia , and Oceania . Because the British Empire spanned the globe, there was always at least one portion of the Empire in daylight.

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