Geography Influences Dietary Intake Physical Activity And Weight Status Of Adolescents
Linda J. McCargar
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in the dietary intakes, physical activity levels and weight status of a large sample of Canadian youth in both 2005 and 2008. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study of rural and urban adolescents in Alberta was conducted in both 2005 and 2008 using a web-based survey. Results. There was an overall positive change in nutrient intakes between 2005 and 2008 however, rural residents generally had a poorer nutrient profile than urban residents . They consumed less fibre and a greater percent energy from saturated fat. The mean physical activity scores increased among rural youth between 2005 and 2008 , while remaining unchanged among urban youth. Residence was significantly related to weight status in 2005 , but not in 2008. . Although there were small improvements in nutrient intakes from 2005 to 2008, several differences in the lifestyle behaviours of adolescents living in rural and urban areas were found. The results of this study emphasize the importance of making policy and program recommendations to support healthy lifestyle behaviours within the context of the environments in which adolescents live.
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Dietary Intakes
2.3. Physical Activity
2.4. Weight Status
2.5. Statistical Analyses
3.1. Dietary Intakes
3.2. Physical Activity
3.3. Weight Status
What Can I Do To Improve My Appetite
Changes in lifestyle to increase appetite
Editor Land Use Policy
The geography of food deals with issues of production and consumption of food, and especially global patterns and relationships affecting who produces food, where and how, who consumes it and what links there are between producers and consumers. The linkages often reveal unequal relationships between the farmers growing the raw materials of food and those who sell the food to consumers. This inequality mirrors longstanding relationships between the Global South the worlds Developing Countries – and the rich North of the Developed World. However, there are also inequalities within Developed Countries, with family farmers often disadvantaged by the power wielded by large supermarkets, corporate agribusiness processors and wholesalers, and the fast food giants.
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Readily Available Food Options
Obesity is a major societal problem, a problem that is increasingly associated with the availability of ultra-processed convenience food, says Poelman. A few decades ago there was a scarcity of options, but that has given way to an abundance of cheap and unhealthy products. For example, in walking distance of secondary schools in Utrecht unhealthy food like fried snacks is often more easily available than healthy options like fruits and vegetables. Poelmans team showed this in a recent study published in the Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health in March 2018. Moreover, a larger number of fast-food restaurants near peoples homes also increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Poelmans team and the UMCU concluded in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology in April 2018. The team studied the access to fast-food outlets with data of over two million adults from the Global Geo Health Data Centre.
What Is The Relationship Between Food And Emotions
Emotional eating occurs when individuals utilize food to cope with their emotions rather than to satiate their hunger. Emotional eating may be linked to significant life tragedies such as death or divorce. The numerous small everyday stressors, on the other hand, are more likely to lead someone to seek solace or diversion in food.
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Social Determinants Of Food Choice
Influence of social class
What people eat is formed and constrained by circumstances that are essentially social and cultural. Population studies show there are clear differences in social classes with regard to food and nutrient intakes. Poor diets can result in under- and over-nutrition problems that face different sectors of society, requiring different levels of expertise and methods of intervention.
Cultural influences lead to the difference in the habitual consumption of certain foods and in traditions of preparation, and in certain cases can lead to restrictions such as exclusion of meat and milk from the diet. Cultural influences are however amenable to change: when moving to a new country individuals often adopt particular food habits of the local culture.
Social influences on food intake refer to the impact that one or more persons have on the eating behaviour of others, either direct or indirect , either conscious or subconscious. Even when eating alone, food choice is influenced by social factors because attitudes and habits develop through the interaction with others. However, quantifying the social influences on food intake is difficult because the influences that people have on the eating behaviour of others are not limited to one type and people are not necessarily aware of the social influences that are exerted on their eating behaviour23.
How Cultures Affect The Food Habit Of A Particular State
People from different cultural backgrounds eat different foods. The ingredients, methods of preparation, preservation techniques, and types of food eaten at different meals vary among cultures. The areas in which families live and where their ancestors originatedinfluence food likes and dislikes.
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Little Money Time And Mobility Have Locked These People Into Whatever Food Environment They Find Themselves
Moreland et. al. found that, the prevalence of obesity was lower in areas that had supermarkets and higher in areas with small grocery stores or fast food restaurants . The need to earn a profit is a primary driver of the choice to stock and sell products that are shelf-stable. The companies producing and selling this food are not targeting the poor, but it is no coincidence that foods which increase the likelihood of obesity find their way into the hands of people below the poverty line. Little money, time, and mobility have locked these people into whatever food environment they find themselves.
There are three distinct detrimental food environments researchers have identified. The first two have been known for over a decade now and can be found in certain areas dependent upon the type of community. In Steins 2011 study in Florida, she found that food deserts tend to be located in suburban and rural areas while food swamps tend to be located immediately surrounding the urban center of Tampa, and that both of these areas are found along major highways. . The food tundra which is perhaps the most nefarious of the three was conceived of far more recently, with almost no mention prior to 2016.
What Cultural Factors Do You Believe Contributes To Food Choices Around The World
Food is a fundamental part of culture. The way we eat and how we prepare food reflects our values, beliefs, and the history of our region.
The What cultural factors do you believe contributes to food choices around the world? is a question that has been asked many times. There are many socio-cultural factors that influence food acceptance, such as religion and culture.
Ethnicity, religion, social class, reference group, family, and demographics such as age, sex, education, profession, income, marital status, and location are among the sociocultural elements that influence food choices and eating habits, influencing individual buying behaviors.
With this in mind, how does culture influence food preferences?
This is due to the negative effects that this drink has. Foods and nutrition may also be influenced by culture, depending on various cultural ideas. In certain cultures, religion has a significant impact on the dietary choices made and the foods eaten as a result.
What are the environmental variables that affect your dietary choices, as well? Our dietary choices may also be influenced by environmental variables. These are characteristics of an environment, ambiance, or place that affect a persons decision-making. Environmental variables include layout, marketing, climate, weather, pricing, and availability.
Also, what are the six factors that affect appetite?
What role does religion have in dietary choices?
Answers to Related Questions
Taste And Place: How Cuisine Affects Geographical Identity
Junfan Lin is a postdoctoral researcher at the Sun Yat-sen University, China. His research interests lie in Chinese cuisine and culinary tourism, where he has helped to rethink Chinese food through a geographical lens. In his research paper, Taste and place of Nanxiong cuisine in South China, he specifically explores the identity of the city, Nanxiong. Through interviews and observation, he explores the role that spicy food has in the culinary traditions of this city, using a regional framework to explore the true connection between taste and place.
The research of Junfan Lin, Sun Yat-sen University, revolves around the phrase we are where we eat. Lin explores the idea that cuisines have different geographical and human implications. Different regions around the world experience taste differently and construct different cultural conceptions of taste. In this age of mass tourism, the appeal of local, authentic food is only increasing in popularity. Lin is interested in exploring the connections between taste and place identity. To do this, he uses a regional analytical framework, a method he views as being under-utilised in cuisine research.
Lin argues that taste is not just an abstract concept but rather a way of creating ones own geographical identity.
Consumer Attitudes And Beliefs
In both the areas of food safety and nutrition, our understanding of consumers attitudes are poorly researched26. A better understanding of how the public perceive their diets would help in the design and implementation of healthy eating initiatives.
The Pan-European Survey of Consumer Attitudes to Food, Nutrition and Health found that the top five influences on food choice in 15 European member states are quality/freshness , price , taste , trying to eat healthy and what my family wants to eat . These are average figures obtained by grouping 15 European member states results, which differed significantly from country to country. In the USA the following order of factors affecting food choices has been reported: taste, cost, nutrition, convenience and weight concerns27.
In the Pan-European study, females, older subjects, and more educated subjects considered health aspects to be particularly important. Males more frequently selected ‘taste’ and ‘habit’ as main determinants of their food choice. Price seemed to be most important in unemployed and retired subjects. Interventions targeted at these groups should consider their perceived determinants of food choice.
Attitudes and beliefs can and do change our attitude to dietary fat has changed in the last 50 years with a corresponding decrease in the absolute amount of fat eaten and a change in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fat.
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The Geography Of Taste: How Our Food Preferences Are Formed
Italian, then Indian, followed by Vietnamese? I’ve never been any good at picking favourites. I’m a mood-driven soul and having my diet restricted to one regional cuisine would feel as though the world were suddenly stripped of colour . However, despite a national love of food from far-flung lands Turkish to Thai, Sicilian to Sri Lankan, Polish to Punjabi most restaurants here are tailored to suit British tastes. Humans may be omnivores, but we’re damned picky omnivores. One nation’s succulent horse fillet is another’s scandalous counterfeit beef.
Economic And Physical Determinants Of Food Choice
Cost and accessibility
There is no doubt that the cost of food is a primary determinant of food choice. Whether cost is prohibitive depends fundamentally on a person’s income and socio-economic status. Low-income groups have a greater tendency to consume unbalanced diets and in particular have low intakes of fruit and vegetables14. However, access to more money does not automatically equate to a better quality diet but the range of foods from which one can choose should increase.
Accessibility to shops is another important physical factor influencing food choice, which is dependent on resources such as transport and geographical location. Healthy food tends to be more expensive when available within towns and cities compared to supermarkets on the outskirts19. However, improving access alone does not increase purchase of additional fruit and vegetables, which are still regarded as prohibitively expensive18.
Education and Knowledge
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Major Determinants Of Food Choice
The key driver for eating is of course hunger but what we choose to eat is not determined solely by physiological or nutritional needs. Some of the other factors that influence food choice include:
- Biological determinants such as hunger, appetite, and taste
- Economic determinants such as cost, income, availability
- Physical determinants such as access, education, skills and time
- Social determinants such as culture, family, peers and meal patterns
- Psychological determinants such as mood, stress and guilt
- Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge about food
The complexity of food choice is obvious from the list above, which is in itself not exhaustive. Food choice factors also vary according to life stage and the power of one factor will vary from one individual or group of people to the next. Thus, one type of intervention to modify food choice behaviour will not suit all population groups. Rather, interventions need to be geared towards different groups of the population with consideration to the many factors influencing their decisions on food choice.
Changing From Fast Food Dinners Five Nights A Week To Homecooked Meals Is A Major Challenge If You Only Know How To Prepare Two Meals
An issue that is faced in food tundras and swamps is the buying habits of impoverished people. Changing from fast food dinners five nights a week to homecooked meals is a major challenge if you only know how to prepare two meals. In these areas, education is going to be just as important as access. If you find rhubarb at a farmers market and do not know what it is or how to cook it, then you are not going to purchase it regardless of price.
While giving away free food will not be possible in all cases, when it is, it must be matched with education. Many improvised people simply do not have the information to make the nutritionally healthy decision. A good example is Bucks County Opportunity Council: weekly they provide a service to the food insecure from 3 sites in Bucks County. By partnering with Philabundance, a regional food bank, and other facilities, they can provide a wide range of healthy option free of charge to areas with the most at-risk populations. At each event, a representative from Rolling Harvest Food Rescue is on-site to provide dietary information, as well as recipes and advice on preparing the less common forms of produce.
Hales, C. M., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Ogden, C. L. . Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 20152016.
Levine, J. A. . Poverty and obesity in the US.
Morland, K. B., & Evenson, K. R. . Obesity prevalence and the local food environment. Health & place, 15, 491-495.
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How Does Climate Affect The Food Habits
In some regions, warmer temperatures may increase crop yields. The overall impact of climate change on agriculture, however, is expected to be negativereducing food supplies and raising food prices. Higher temperatures increase crops water needs, making them even more vulnerable during dry periods.
Geographical Factors Affecting Food Habits
While irrigation, land development and other modern cultivation techniques are used to enhance existing geographical factors, local food habits are still largely influenced by regional resources. Our ancestors cultivated their crops according to local, natural resources, which greatly affected their eating habits. We tend to carry on the traditions that were passed down through generations, and that tradition, along with growing awareness of the fragility and importance of our natural environment, continues to influence food habits around the world
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Due To The Temporary State Of Farmers Markets Availability Is Not Synonymous With Accessibility
For instance, in Buffalo, New York, an urban area where swamps are most prevalent, Widener observed, the average distance to markets with produce groups with poverty levels in the top 10th percentile is greater than that across all groups during winter and spring months. However, during the farmers’ market season, the same impoverished groups are on average closer to markets when compared to all groups . Although, due to the temporary state of farmers markets, availability is not synonymous with accessibility. There are many factors that influence if the poverty-stricken can capitalize on these opportunities, and low-income neighborhoods are not always the most fertile grounds for fostering good nutritional habits even when available.
Low income neighborhoods are areas where more than 40 percent of the population has income less than or equal to 200 percent of the Federal poverty threshold . Since supermarkets compete for profits, it is no wonder they tend to establish in areas that have populations that are wealthy enough to support them. Oddly enough, in wealthier areas you may find several major grocery stores within 10 miles and at least one within a mile. Ownership of a reliable vehicle allows the poor that are fortunate enough to be living in these wealthier areas to take advantage of sales, which is something that the poor living in less affluent areas are unable to do.
Overlapping Areas Of Study
Food has received attention from both the physical sciences and the social sciences because it is a bridge between the natural and social worlds. Some of the earliest numerical data about food production come from bureaucratic sources linked to the ancient civilizations of Ancient Egypt and the Roman Empire. Traders have also been influential in documenting food networks. Early Indian merchants and traders mapped the location of trading posts associated with food production nodes.
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