Thursday, June 13, 2024

How Do You Find Volume In Chemistry

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Calculating The Volume Of A Cylinder

How To Calculate Gas Volumes | Chemical Calculations | Chemistry | FuseSchool
  • 1Learn to identify a cylinder. A cylinder is a three-dimensional shape that has two identical flat ends that are circular in shape, and a single curved side that connects them.XResearch source
  • A can is a good example of a cylinder, so is a AA or AAA battery.
  • 2Memorize the formula for the volume of a cylinder. To calculate the volume of a cylinder, you must know its height and the radius of the circular base at the top and bottom. The formula is V = Ïr2h, where V is the Volume, r is the radius of the circular base, h is the height, and Ï is the constant pi.
  • In some geometry problems the answer will be given in terms of pi, but in most cases it is sufficient to round pi to 3.14. Check with your instructor to find out what she would prefer.
  • The formula for finding the volume of a cylinder is actually very similar to that for a rectangular solid: you are simply multiplying the height of the shape by the surface area of its base. In a rectangular solid, that surface area is l * w, for the cylinder it is Ïr2, the area of a circle with radius r.
  • 3
  • How To Calculate Mass Percent Concentration Of A Solution

    Mass percent composition is the easiest way to express the concentration of a solution because no unit conversions are required. Simply use a scale to measure the mass of the solute and the final solution and express the ratio as a percentage. Remember, the sum of all percentages of components in a solution must add up to 100%

    Mass percent is used for all sorts of solutions but is particularly useful when dealing with mixtures of solids or anytime physical properties of the solution are more important than chemical properties.

    Calculate Mass Percent: mass solute divided by mass final solution multiplied by 100%

    symbol: %

    Example: The alloy Nichrome consists of 75% nickel, 12% iron, 11% chromium, 2% manganese, by mass. If you have 250 grams of nichrome, how much iron do you have?

    Because the concentration is a percent, you know a 100-gram sample would contain 12 grams of iron. You can set this up as an equation and solve for the unknown “x”:

    12 g iron / 100 g sample = x g iron / 250 g sample

    Cross-multiply and divide:

    x= / 100 = 30 grams of iron

    Show Students Five Rods That Have The Same Mass But Different Volumes

    Show students the five rods and explain that they all have the same mass. Then hold up the longest, middle-sized, and shortest rods and remind students that they have the same mass.

    Ask students to make a prediction:

  • Which rod is the most dense? Least dense? In between?
  • Students may reason that since the mass of each rod is the same, the volume of each rod must have something to do with its density. Some may go so far as to say that the rod with the smallest volume must have the highest density, because the same mass is packed into the smallest volume. Or that the rod with the largest volume must have the lowest density, because the same mass is spread out over the largest volume.

    Tell students that like the cubes in the previous activity, they will need to know the volume and mass of each of the samples. They will also calculate the density of each sample and use this value to figure out which material each rod is made of.

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    Calculating The Volume Of A Rectangular Prism

  • 1Recognize a rectangular solid. A rectangular solid, also known as a rectangular prism, is a three-dimensional shape with six sides that are all rectangles.XResearch source In other words, a rectangular solid is simply a three-dimensional rectangle, or box shape.
  • A cube is really just a special rectangular solid in which the sides of all of the rectangles are equal.
  • 2Learn the formula for calculating the volume of a rectangular solid. The formula for the volume of a rectangular solid is Volume = length * width * height, or V = lwh.
  • 3Find the length of the rectangular solid. The length is the longest side of the rectangular solid that is parallel to the ground or surface it is resting on. The length may be given in a diagram, or you may need to measure it with a ruler or tape measure.
  • Example: The length of this rectangular solid is 4 inches, so l = 4 in.
  • Don’t worry too much about which side is the length, which is the width, etc. As long as you end up with three different measurements, the math will come out the same regardless of how your arrange the terms.
  • 4Find the width of the rectangular solid. The width of the rectangular solid is the measurement of the shorter side of the solid, parallel to the ground or surface the shape is resting on. Again, look for a label on the diagram indicating the width, or measure your shape with a ruler or tape measure.
  • Example: The width of this rectangular solid is 3 inches, so w = 3 in.
  • How To Calculate Molality Of A Solution

    Molality: Definition &  Formula

    Molality is used to express the concentration of a solution when you are performing experiments that involve temperature changes or are working with colligative properties. Note that with aqueous solutions at room temperature, the density of water is approximately 1 kg/L, so M and m are nearly the same.

    Calculate Molality: moles solute per kilogram solvent

    symbol: m

    m = moles / kilogram

    Example: What is the molality of a solution of 3 grams of KCl in 250 ml of water?

    First, determine how many moles are present in 3 grams of KCl. Start by looking up the number of grams per mole of potassium and chlorine on a periodic table. Then add them together to get the grams per mole for KCl.

    • K = 39.1 g/mol
    • KCl = 39.1 + 35.5 = 74.6 g/mol

    For 3 grams of KCl, the number of moles is:

    * 3 grams = 3 / 74.6 = 0.040 moles

    Express this as moles per kilogram solution. Now, you have 250 ml of water, which is about 250 g of water , but you also have 3 grams of solute, so the total mass of the solution is closer to 253 grams than 250. Using 2 significant figures, it’s the same thing. If you have more precise measurements, don’t forget to include the mass of solute in your calculation!

    • 250 g = 0.25 kg
    • m = 0.040 moles / 0.25 kg = 0.16 m KCl

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    How To Calculate Molarity Of A Chemical Solution

    Molarity is one of the most common units of concentration. It is used when the temperature of an experiment won’t change. It’s one of the easiest units to calculate.

    Calculate Molarity: moles solute per liter of solution

    symbol: M

    M = moles / liter

    Example: What is the molarity of a solution of 6 grams of NaCl dissolved in 500 milliliters of water?

    First, convert grams of NaCl to moles of NaCl.

    From the periodic table:

    • NaCl = 23.0 g/mol + 35.5 g/mol = 58.5 g/mol
    • Total number of moles = * 6 g = 0.62 moles

    Now determine moles per liter of solution:

    M = 0.62 moles NaCl / 0.50 liter solution = 1.2 M solution

    Note that I assumed dissolving the 6 grams of salt did not appreciably affect the volume of the solution. When you prepare a molar solution, avoid this problem by adding solvent to your solute to reach a specific volume.

    Calculating The Volume Of A Sphere

  • 1Spot a sphere. A sphere is a perfectly round three-dimensional object, in which every point on the surface is an equal distance from the center. In other words, a sphere is a ball-shaped object.XResearch source
  • 2Learn the formula for the volume of a sphere. The formula for the volume of a sphere is V = 4/3Ïr3 where r is the radius of the sphere, and Ï is the constant pi .XResearch source
  • 3Find the radius of the sphere. If the radius is given in the diagram, then finding r is simply a matter of locating it. If the diameter is given, you must divide this number by 2 to find the radius. For example, the radius of the sphere in the diagram is 3 inches.
  • 4Measure the sphere if the radius is not given. If you need to measure a spherical object to find the radius, first find a piece of string large enough to wrap around the object. Then wrap the string around the object at its widest point and mark the points where the string overlaps itself. Then measure the string with a ruler to find the circumference. Divide that value by 2Ï, or 6.28, and that will give you the radius of the sphere.
  • For example, if you measure a ball and find its circumference is 18 inches, divide that number by 6.28 and you will find that the radius is 2.87in.
  • Measuring a spherical object can be a little tricky, so you might want to take 3 different measurements, and then average them together to make sure you have the most accurate value possible.
  • In our example, 36 * 3.14 = 113.09.
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    Key Concepts And Summary

    The behavior of gases can be described by several laws based on experimental observations of their properties. The pressure of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature, provided that the volume does not change . The volume of a given gas sample is directly proportional to its absolute temperature at constant pressure . The volume of a given amount of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure when temperature is held constant . Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules .

    The equations describing these laws are special cases of the ideal gas law, PV = nRT, where P is the pressure of the gas, V is its volume, n is the number of moles of the gas, T is its kelvin temperature, and R is the ideal gas constant.

    How To Find The Formula For Specific Volume

    How To Calculate Gas Volumes | Chemical Calculations | Chemistry | FuseSchool

    Specific volume is then calculated as volume divided by mass. Notice that since density is mass over volume, specific volume can also be defined as the inverse of density. So you can also calculate specific volume by using the formula for inverse density: To better imagine this, let’s say you have a container with a certain amount of air inside.

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    How To Calculate Normality Of A Chemical Solution

    Normality is similar to molarity, except it expresses the number of active grams of a solute per liter of solution. This is the gram equivalent weight of solute per liter of solution.

    Normality is often used in acid-base reactions or when dealing with acids or bases.

    Calculate Normality: grams active solute per liter of solution

    symbol: N

    Example: For acid-base reactions, what would be the normality of 1 M solution of sulfuric acid in water?

    Sulfuric acid is a strong acid that completely dissociates into its ions, H+ and SO42-, in aqueous solution. You know there are 2 moles of H+ ions for every 1 mole of sulfuric acid because of the subscript in the chemical formula. So, a 1 M solution of sulfuric acid would be a 2 N solution.

    How To Find Volume Chemistry Calculator

    Find the volume of the cylinder using the formula r²h. Find the surface area of the cylinder using the formula 2rh + 2r2. Make a ratio out of the two formulas, i.e. r 2 h : 2rh + 2r 2. Alternatively, simplify it to rh : 2 . Divide both sides by one of the sides to get the ratio in its simplest form.

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    Breathing And Boyles Law

    What do you do about 20 times per minute for your whole life, without break, and often without even being aware of it? The answer, of course, is respiration, or breathing. How does it work? It turns out that the gas laws apply here. Your lungs take in gas that your body needs and get rid of waste gas . Lungs are made of spongy, stretchy tissue that expands and contracts while you breathe. When you inhale, your diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, expanding your chest cavity and making your lung volume larger. The increase in volume leads to a decrease in pressure . This causes air to flow into the lungs . When you exhale, the process reverses: Your diaphragm and rib muscles relax, your chest cavity contracts, and your lung volume decreases, causing the pressure to increase , and air flows out of the lungs . You then breathe in and out again, and again, repeating this Boyles law cycle for the rest of your life .

    Figure 7.

    Finding Concentration In Percentage Or Parts Per Million

  • 1Find the mass of the solute in grams. Measure out the mass of the solute that you plan on mixing with your solution. Be sure to subtract the weight of the container youre using to measure the solute or else your concentration will be inaccurate.XResearch source
  • If your solute is a liquid, you may need to calculate the mass using the formula D = m/V, where D is the liquids density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. Look up the density of the liquid in a textbook or online and then solve the equation for the mass.
  • 2Determine the total mass of the solution in grams. The total mass of the solution is the mass of the solvent plus the mass of the solute. Weight the masses using a lab scale or convert the volume of the solvent to mass by using the density formula D = m/V. Add the mass of the solute to the mass of the solvent to find your final volume.XResearch source
  • For example, if you want to find the concentration of 10 g of cocoa powder mixed with 1.2 L of water, you would find the mass of the water using the density formula. The density of water is 1,000 g/L, so your equation would read 1,000 g/L = m/. Multiply each side by 1.2 L to solve the mass in grams, so m = = 1,200 g. Add the mass of the cocoa powder to get 1,210 g.
  • In our example, C = / = 0.00826.
  • In this example, the percent concentration is = 0.826%.
  • In our example, the ppm = = 8,260 ppm.
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    How Can I Estimate The Volume Of A Molecule

    I would like to know the size of one molecule of methyl orange? Udit Saxena 3/16/99

    If the volume of empty space in a solid is negligible compared to the volume occupied by molecules,a quick and dirty estimate of the molecular volume can be obtained by dividing the volume of one mole of the material by Avogadro’s number. To compute the molar volume, you need the material’s density and its molecular weight. For methyl orange, the density of the solid is approximately 1.00 g/mL,and the molecular weight is 327.34, so the molar volume is

    × = 327 mL/mol

    327 mL/mol & times = 5.43 & times 10-22 mL/molecule

    These aren’t really actual molecular volumes they’re the average contribution each molecule makes to the total volume of the crystal. When the molecules are packed in a regular way , these average molecular volumes are easy to relate to the average center-to-center distance between molecules. The relationships are sometimes used to explain volume changes that accompany phase changes.

    How To Use Our Volume To Mass Calculator

  • First, you need density. Check if the material is on our list or input known density.

  • Second, input volume or mass in the correct unit. Change the unit first before you enter a number.

  • That’s it! The volume to mass calculator will find the result in less than a second!

  • Here are the products and their densities available in our calculator:

    • Food:
    • Walnuts, hazelnuts, grounded – 520 kg/m3
    • Sesame – 640 kg/m3
    • Cream 38% fat – 984 kg/m3
    • Cream 13% fat – 1,013 kg/m3
    • Air – 1.205 kg/m3
    • Carbon dioxide – 1.977 kg/m3
    • Carbon dioxide – 1.842 kg/m3
    • Carbon monoxide – 1.250 kg/m3
    • Carbon monoxide – 1.165 kg/m3
    • Hydrogen – 0.0898 kg/m3
    • Methane – 0.717 kg/m3
    • Methane – 0.688 kg/m3
    • Nitrogen – 1.2506 kg/m3
    • Nitrogen – 1.165 kg/m3
    • Oxygen – 1.4290 kg/m3
    • Oxygen – 1.331 kg/m3
    • Propane – 1.882 kg/m3
    • Water vapor – 0.804 kg/m3
    • Liquid hydrogen – 70 kg/m3
    • Liquid oxygen – 1,141 kg/m3
    • Water – 1,000 kg/m3
    • Water – 1,030 kg/m3
    • Astronomy:
    • The Universe – 5·10-27 kg/m3
    • Interstellar medium – 1*10-19 kg/m3
    • Earth’s inner core – 13,000 kg/m3
    • Sun’s core – 33,000 kg/m3
    • Sun’s core – 160,000 kg/m3

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    Chemistry End Of Chapter Exercises

  • Sometimes leaving a bicycle in the sun on a hot day will cause a blowout. Why?
  • Explain how the volume of the bubbles exhausted by a scuba diver change as they rise to the surface, assuming that they remain intact.
  • One way to state Boyles law is All other things being equal, the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume. What is the meaning of the term inversely proportional? What are the other things that must be equal?
  • An alternate way to state Avogadros law is All other things being equal, the number of molecules in a gas is directly proportional to the volume of the gas. What is the meaning of the term directly proportional? What are the other things that must be equal?
  • How would the graph in Figure 4 change if the number of moles of gas in the sample used to determine the curve were doubled?
  • How would the graph in Figure 5 change if the number of moles of gas in the sample used to determine the curve were doubled?
  • In addition to the data found in Figure 5, what other information do we need to find the mass of the sample of air used to determine the graph?
  • Determine the volume of 1 mol of CH4 gas at 150 K and 1 atm, using Figure 4.
  • Determine the pressure of the gas in the syringe shown in Figure 5 when its volume is 12.5 mL, using:

    the appropriate graph

    Boyles law

  • What is the temperature of an 11.2-L sample of carbon monoxide, CO, at 744 torr if it occupies 13.3 L at 55 °C and 744 torr?
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