The Founding Of Modern Biology
The study of living matter lagged far behind physics and chemistry, largely because organisms are so much more complex than inanimate bodies or forces. Harvey had shown that living matter could be studied experimentally, but his achievement stood alone for two centuries. For the time being, most students of living nature had to be content to classify living forms as best they could and to attempt to isolate and study aspects of living systems.
As has been seen, an avalanche of new specimens in both botany and zoology put severe pressure on taxonomy. A giant step forward was taken in the 18th century by the Swedish naturalist Carl von Linnéknown by his Latinized name, Linnaeuswho introduced a rational, if somewhat artificial, system of binomial nomenclature. The very artificiality of Linnaeuss system, focusing as it did on only a few key structures, encouraged criticism and attempts at more natural systems. The attention thus called to the organism as a whole reinforced a growing intuition that species are linked in some kind of genetic relationship, an idea first made scientifically explicit by Jean-Baptiste, chevalier de Lamarck.
Flies And Spontaneous Generation
One of Redi’s most famous experiments investigated spontaneous generation. At the time, scientists believed in the Aristotelian idea of abiogenesis, in which living organisms arose from non-living matter. People believed rotting meat spontaneously produced maggots over time. However, Redi read a book by William Harvey on generation in which Harvey speculated that insects, worms, and frogs might arise from eggs or seeds too tiny to be seen. Redi devised and performed the now-famous experiment in which six jars, half left in open air and half covered with fine gauze that permitted air circulation but kept out flies, were filled with either an unknown object, a dead fish, or raw veal. The fish and veal rotted in both groups, but maggots only formed in the jars open to air. No maggots developed in the jar with the unknown object.
He performed other experiments with maggots, including one where he placed dead flies or maggots in sealed jars with meat and observed living maggots did not appear. However, when he placed living flies were placed in a jar with meat, maggots did appear. Redi concluded maggots came from living flies, not from rotting meat or from dead flies or maggots.
The experiments with maggots and flies were important not only because they refuted spontaneous generation, but also because they used control groups, applying the scientific method to test a hypothesis.
The First Systematic Classification In The History Of Biology
Whilst earlier philosophers had tried to place animals into groups, the classifications were broad and sweeping, revealing little about the animals other than whether they flew, walked or swam. Aristotle’s zoology included systematically observing and studying a wide range of animals, noting the similarities and trying to connect like with like. He studied animals from all around Greece, and it is likely that he received exotic specimens from his sponsor and ex-pupil, Alexander the Great.
Aristotle’s’ zoology and the classification of species was his greatest contribution to the history of biology, the first known attempt to classify animals into groups according to their behavior and, most importantly, by the similarities and differences between their physiologies. Using observation and dissection, he categorized species. Although his broad classifications seem strange to modern zoologists, considering the limited equipment and store of knowledge he had access to, Aristotle’s zoology stands as a tribute to his systematic methods and empirical approach to acquiring knowledge.
Amongst land animals there were divisions, with some animals having lungs and breathing air in the same way as humans and also collecting food in much the same way. Aristotle’s zoology proposed that bees and insects did not breathe air, based upon their lack of lungs; he was incorrect in this but, considering that he had no access to microscopy, Aristotle can be forgiven this inaccuracy.
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Use Of The Term Biology
The term biology in its modern sense appears to have been introduced independently by Thomas Beddoes ,Karl Friedrich Burdach , Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck . The word itself appears in the title of Volume 3 of Michael Christoph Hanow‘s Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae dogmaticae: Geologia, biologia, phytologia generalis et dendrologia, published in 1766.
Before biology, there were several terms used for the study of animals and plants. Natural history referred to the descriptive aspects of biology, though it also included mineralogy and other non-biological fields; from the Middle Ages through the Renaissance, the unifying framework of natural history was the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being. Natural philosophy and natural theology encompassed the conceptual and metaphysical basis of plant and animal life, dealing with problems of why organisms exist and behave the way they do, though these subjects also included what is now geology, physics, chemistry, and astronomy. Physiology and pharmacology were the province of medicine. Botany, zoology, and geology replaced natural history and natural philosophy in the 18th and 19th centuries before biology was widely adopted. To this day, “botany” and “zoology” are widely used, although they have been joined by other sub-disciplines of biology.
A Brief Biological Overview Of Cannabis
Part of the reason we know so little of cannabis now is due to the social stigmas attached to the drug due to tensions between racial and political groups during and after the Mexican Revolution. When you look at the plant objectively, however, apart from the negativity of human use and legislative restriction, it is quite an interesting species. First, there is the fact that the species is able to flourish globally.
Like grasses, cannabis is one of the most widely distributed plants in the world due to its adaptability and ability to grow quite rapidly. Naturally, the species is known to grow in open habitats that experience periodic environmental disturbances . The generalist species are capable of growing in any mild climates great for a cultivated crop, not so great when the plants escape, in a sense, and become an invasive species.
All Cannabis species have been determined to be both in the nettle and mulberry family in the past, however, it was ultimately found that they belong in their own family, Cannabaceae. This family also includes hops and hackberries . These annual plants rely on the wind for seed dispersal and are primarily dioecious , however, they can be monoecious .
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The Journey Of Cannabis Into The Americas
After its movement throughout these continents, the plant was taken to Africa, then Europe, and eventually made its way to the Americas. Its primary use during trade and expansion was its form of hemp, which was then used by merchants to make clothing, rope, sails, and paper. From the seeds, many people would make food as well.
Its versatility helped the plant to gain popularity quickly as a staple crop . In the early 1600s, colonial farmers in Virginia, Massachusetts, and Connecticut were required to grow hemp for the aforementioned applications, helping to form the foundation of trade in that time. The plant was grown throughout the original colonies and later at Spanish missions in the Southwest, and it became a standard part of colonial life. Even George Washington expressed an interest in farming hemp during the 1700s, emphasizing the fact that the plant was not considered taboo at the time, even to governmental authority figures.
In the early days, Cannabis plants did not have high levels of tetrahydrocannabinol at all, even with the evidence that ancient cultures did use the plant ceremonially to take advantage of the psychoactive effects caused by the compound.
Because of the low concentrations, researchers believe that people may have been inspired to cultivate strains of Cannabis to produce higher levels of THC to use in these ceremonies and as medicine.
Alfred Russel Wallace: Co
Special issue of the journal Theory in Biosciences commemorates the British naturalist, often overshadowed by Charles Darwin
Springer Science+Business MediaThe special Alfred Russel Wallace issue of Theory in Biosciences is available online free of charge:
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Origin Of The Term Biology
Before the term biology was adapted, other terms existed which described the study of plants and animals. For instance, the term Natural History was used to explain animals, plants fungi and other lifeforms in their natural environment.
Furthermore, it was observational rather than an experimental field of study. Hence, a person who would study natural history is termed as a natural historian or a naturalist. Other terms that came before biology included Natural Theology and Natural philosophy.
The term Biology, in the modern sense, was introduced through the works of Michael Christoph Hanow in 1766. However, it was introduced independently four more times through the works of Thomas Beddoes , Karl Friedrich Burdach , Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck .
Father Of Biology : Father Of Branches Of Biology
The study of living beings for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena is called Biology. It is divided into various branches like Botony, Zoology, etc. The Father of different branches of Biology is discussed in the table below. Questions are asked in many competitive exams from the father of some discipline, Biology and its branches are one of them.
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Opposition To Evolutionary Ideas
Ray saw no conflict between his Christian beliefs and his scientific work.
Ray adamantly believed that all thingsthe heavens, the earth, and living organismswere created by an infinitely wise and loving God. He believed that the infinite detail of the structure and function of living organisms was clear evidence of Divine wisdom. He expressed this in two widely read books. The second of these, entitled The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation, became a classic. He also wrote a theological book entitled Persuasive to a Holy Life.
Ray wrote a paper for the Royal Society completely opposing spontaneous generationthe idea that life can arise spontaneously from non-living matter.10Ray quoted experiments by Francesco Redi which contradicted spontaneous generation. Ray said that My observation and affirmation is that there is no such thing in nature11 and he referred to spontaneous generation as the atheists fictitious and ridiculous account of the first production of mankind and other animals.12
Why Is Biology Important
As a field of science, biology helps us understand the living world and the ways its many species function, evolve, and interact. Advances in medicine, agriculture, biotechnology, and many other areas of biology have brought improvements in the quality of life. Fields such as genetics and evolution give insight into the past and can help shape the future, and research in ecology and conservation inform how we can protect this planets precious biodiversity.
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The Significance Of Thc
People are quite familiar with what THC does for those who consume it as a concentrate or by smoking the flower, but few know for sure what it does to benefit the plant itself.
THC is a secondary metabolite this means that it does not play a direct role in the plants growth or reproductive capabilities. So then, what does it do? So far, research suggests that THC has multiple roles in the plants biology:
· Protects the plant from dangerous fungal infections
· Provides defenses against microbial infections
· Deters herbivores
· Shields the plant from sun exposure due to high UV-B absorption rates
Research is still being conducted to allow us to further expand our knowledge on THC, cannabis, and all of its evolutionary significance. Whether you partake of the herb or not, unfolding objective, scientific information on the species is the best way to overcome the stigmas attached to this plant that has been a staple of ancient cultures worldwide.
The History Of Animals As A Report Of The Results Of A Hoti
As we saw earlier, Aristotle introduces his systematic study of thedifferences and attributes of animals as ahoti-investigation, a factual investigation preliminary tothe search for causal demonstrations. By studying it, then, we oughtto be able to develop a rich picture of what this theoreticallymotivated, preliminary stage of investigation aims to achieve, andperhaps a glimpse of what such an investigation entails.
As many studies, following up on the pioneering work of David Balme have now established, the History of Animals is a work that from first to last displays and buildsupon multi-differentiae division of animal differences . It is organizedas a study of four kinds of animal differences first mentioned inHAs first chapter as the principal objects of studydifferences in parts , in modes of activity and ways of life and in characters . These in turnare sub-divided; for example, discussion of the non-uniformparts of animals with blood isfollowed by that of their uniform parts . A discussion of the parts of animals without blood thenconcludes the discussion of differences in parts . BookIV concludes with a discussion of differences in sensory faculties,voice, and differences related to sex.
As many as are P all have Y; As many as areQ all have Y .
Generally, all and only those that are X have Y.
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History Of The Cell: Discovering The Cell
Initially discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, the cell has a rich and interesting history that has ultimately given way to many of todays scientific advancements.
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Although they are externally very different, internally, an elephant, a sunflower, and an amoeba are all made of the same building blocks. From the single cells that make up the most basic organisms to the trillions of cells that constitute the complex structure of the human body, each and every living being on Earth is comprised of cells. This idea, part of the cell theory, is one of the central tenants of biology. Cell theory also states that cells are the basic functional unit of living organisms and that all cells come from other cells. Although this knowledge is foundational today, scientists did not always know about cells.
In observing the corks cells, Hooke noted in Micrographia that, I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous, much like a Honey-comb, but that the pores of it were not regular these pores, or cells,were indeed the first microscopical pores I ever saw, and perhaps, that were ever seen, for I had not met with any Writer or Person, that had made any mention of them before this
Who Is The Father Of Biology
The Fathers of Biology is Aristotle. In the 4th century BC the Greek philosopher Aristotle traveled to Lesvos, an island in the Aegean teeming, then as now, with wildlife. His fascination with what he found there, and his painstaking study of it, led to the birth of a new science i.e., Biology. Biology is one of the three major branches of natural science. Biology is the study of life, living things and evolution of life. Living things like animals, plants, fungi, microorganisms, etc.
This branch of science is related to the study of life and its processes. Biology is further divided into many branches, the father of most of the biology branches are discussed below.
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The Rise Of Systematic Biology
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“The Rise of Systematic Biology” is a tentative serial nomination of thirteen sites in eight countries , suggested by Sweden, representing the foundation of the science of systematic biology. The sites together form the arena where the science developed strongly due to the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus and his international scientific network. The Swedish sites are described in short. The authenticity in the sites is to a large extent present in remnant organism populations once used to develop the science.
Herbationes Upsalienses, Hågadalen-Nåsten Nature Reserve
59° 49′ 7″ N;; 17° 34′ 25″ E
Herbationes Upsalienses, Fäbodmossen Nature Reserve
The science of systematic biology
Overview Of Ancient Greek And Roman Biological Sciences
We wont speculate here as to what gave rise to the development of what we call science or to attempts to provide rational accounts of natural phenomena in ancient Greece.
In our look at the history of biology in ancient times, the first period, known as the pre-Socratic period, is of little interest to us. Though Pythagoras and Empedocles attempted to provide overarching explanations of the world, their contributions to biology were limited. The influence of outlying Greek colonies that were in contact with Middle Eastern and Indian civilizations was important in these early stages of the development a scientific worldview. In the field of life sciences, two names are worth mentioning: Anaximander and Alcmaeon of Croton, who, around 500 BCE, carried out dissections and vivisections, described optical nerves and the Eustachian tube, and made the connection between the formation of thoughts and the brain. Conceptual frameworks were developed, which, while not providing a great deal of substance to add to our biological knowledge, would be drawn upon by later authors and shape the way they thought about the world. These included the nature and number of elements and essential qualities, and the notion that souls animated living beings.
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