Functions Of Social Media Misinformation
Existing research suggests that SMM is not a direct cause of severe instability or mass atrocities but it can be an enabler,Matthew L Williams et al., Hate in the Machine: Anti-Black and Anti-Muslim Social Media Posts as Predictors of Offline Racially and Religiously Aggravated Crime, The British Journal of Criminology, July 23, 2019, azz049, https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azz049. legitimizing and accelerating violence in a variety of ways. Below, we frame these within three broad categories concerning the primary functions of misinformation. SMM contributes to:
Cognitive Approach To Treatment Of Psychological Disorders
The cognitive approach to the treatment of psychological disorders is based on the assumption that negative or distorted thoughts cause psychological disorders. Cognitive therapy, therefore, focuses on managing and changing these thoughts.
One technique used in the cognitive approach to treating psychological disorders is psychoeducation, in which the therapist educates the patient about their condition. Psychoeducation can provide a helpful perspective to patients, allowing them to begin uncovering and understanding their distorted thoughts causing psychological distress. Once these beliefs are revealed, they can be tested and finally changed.
An effective type of cognitive therapy is cognitive-behavioral therapy which combines the cognitive approach with the behavioral approach to treating psychological disorders. Cognitive Behavior Therapy is based on the core belief that patients can improve their symptoms if they change how they think and behave. CBT strives to promote healthy coping mechanisms and problem-solving skills.
Factors Increasing Misinformation Resonance
SMM can elevate the risk of atrocities across various political conditions,James Waller, Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing, 2nd ed. . ranging from repressive/authoritarian to semi-democratic .Bradshaw, Bailey, and Howard, Industrialized Disinformation. SMM has also taken hold in countries that have historically had strong democratic institutions, including the United States and the United Kingdom, partly due to a lack of trust in institutions and domestic political influences. Contextual differences play a significant role, as these differences correlate with other mitigating institutional and societal factors that help lower the salience of violent SMM as civil liberties increase. This section discusses three key clusters of factors that affect SMM resonance: 1) socio-political cleavages, 2) individual and group psychological dynamics, and 3) the social media ecosystem.The research on general conditions is extensive and broadly focuses on these three clusters. For an overview see: Lisa Schirch, ed., Social Media Impacts on Conflict and Democracy: The Techtonic Shift, Routledge Advances in International Relations and Global Politics .
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History Of Psychological Disorders Treatment
The study and understanding of psychological disorders have come a long way, and so has the treatment. When physicians first began finding treatments for psychological disorders, they often used a technique dating back to the ancient Greeks called bloodletting. The belief was that certain ailments could be treated by draining the body’s fluids.
The history of the treatment of psychological disorders is a dark one. Many people with mental illnesses were treated inhumanely and were often accused of having a demonic possession.
For example, in the Middle Ages, women with psychological disorders were accused of being witches. Instead of being treated, many were killed.
Abandoned asylum, Freepik.com
In response to the horrible treatment people with mental disorders had to endure, churches started something called an asylum. Originally, asylums were meant to be a safe haven for people with psychological disorders. But over time, they became overcrowded, and rather than focusing on the treatment of psychological disorders, they became more like a place to send some of the most dangerous criminals.
Causes Of Psychological Disorders
Psychologists have several theories regarding the causes of psychological disorders. By the 1800s, these theories began to follow a medical model, meaning that mental disorders were now thought of as diseases that could be diagnosed, treated, and cured in a hospital. This prompted the mental health movement.
The medical model set the foundation to explain the causes of psychological disorders. One approach to explaining these causes is called the biopsychosocial approach.
The biopsychosocial approach: considers three possible influences – biological, psychological, and social – and observes how they can interact to cause psychological disorders.
Some psychological disorders that impact a person’s life include major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.
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How To Treat Psychological Disorders
Psychological disorders can be treated using medicine or therapy, depending on the severity of a patient’s disorder. For example, a person suffering from schizophrenia will need medications to manage their psychosis however, they may also need therapy depending on their level of function while on medications.
Morbidity And Infant Development: A Hypothesis
- Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science2005
- Health Psychology in Global Perspective1998
- The SAGE Encyclopedia of Contemporary Early Childhood Education2016
- Infant Cognition: Predicting Later Intellectual Functioning1993
- The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development2018
- The SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology2017
- The SAGE Encyclopedia of Intellectual and DevelopmentalDisorders2018
- The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation2018
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Erosion Of Civil Trust And The Spread Of Epistemic Insecurity By:
- Introducing unrelated narratives or counterattacks. Misinformation can be part of a larger diversionary effort to draw attention from damaging criticisms or counterarguments.Hook, Hybrid Warfare Is Here to Stay. Now What?
- Spreading doubt on a specific issue, such as electoral fairness, candidate integrity, or opposing party intentions.
- Creating what we term epistemic insecurity, where charges of bias, dissimulation, and conspiracies undermine truth claims, evaluative standards, and evidence, and which are replaced by alternative, unsubstantiated narratives. Sustained misinformation campaigns can have a cumulative effect of sabotaging factual reporting and narratives while lowering social and epistemological barriers to far-fetched conspiratorial thinking.Daniel Allington, Conspiracy Theories, Radicalisation and Digital Media . Several experts in disinformation response units of tech companies noted that foreign-supported SMD campaigns often are directed at spreading epistemic insecurity, or what they termed perception hacking.Interviews, tech company experts .
The points above underscore misinformations varied and self-reinforcing effects in fragile political contexts. These effects raise profound challenges for the atrocity prevention community, as discussed in the following section.
Freud’s Approach To The Treatment Of Psychological Disorders
Freud’s approach to treating psychological disorders is the basis of the psychoanalytic approach to therapy. Psychoanalytic therapy is a form of talk therapy that explores how the unconscious mind influences our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Psychodynamic therapy, a branch of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, also seeks to uncover how past childhood events or trauma are causing psychological disorders.
This form of therapy relies heavily on the communication of the patient’s feelings, thoughts, and past experiences. One of the main techniques Freud liked to use in psychoanalysis was dream interpretation because he believed dreams are a map to a person’s subconscious. Other techniques include free association and transference.
Free association involves the patient sharing their thoughts as they appear in their minds, while transference occurs when a patient projects their feelings about other people onto the psychoanalysis.
Transference is the phenomenon in which a person projects their feelings and desires related to someone important in their life onto someone else .
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Activism In The Not For Profit Sector
He committed his life to promote children’s rights both at a national and international level. Since an early age, he put serious efforts in tackling child abuse and its ramifications both from a policy and medical-related perspective. He has carried out several projects for children and adolescents, including the development of hotlines and helplines on issues of child abuse, emergency and missing children.
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Treatment Of Psychological Disorders
- The history of the treatment of psychological disorders is a dark one. Many people with mental illnesses were treated inhumanely and were often accused of having a demonic possession.
- Biomedical therapy in treating psychological disorders seeks to make physiological changes to reduce psychological symptoms.
- Freud’s approach to the treatment of psychological disorders is the basis of the psychoanalytic approach to therapy. Psychoanalytic therapy is a form of talk therapy that explores how the unconscious mind influences our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.
- The cognitive approach to the treatment of psychological disorders is based on the assumption that negative or distorted thoughts cause psychological disorders.
- Typically, the most common form of psychological treatment for mental illness is psychotherapy, including group therapy, cognitive therapy, and behavior therapy.
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Studies In The Psychology Of Dwarfism Iintelligence Quotient And School Achievement**
Though human growth hormone has been used in the treatment of dwarfed children since 1956, no detailed studies of the psychologic aspects of such treatment have been published. The intelligence quotients and school achievement of 15 dwarfed children determined prior to treatment with growth hormone are recorded here and will serve as a comparative baseline for further studies to be made on these same children. In these children physical retardation was not paralleled by mental retardation. Their school achievement, however, was unsatisfactory and did not correlate with their intellectual ability. In most of these children, a search for approval from their peers and teachers seems to interfere with their school work. The question is raised as to whether physical benefits from growth treatment will motivate improved school achievement.
Smm Challenges For Instability And Atrocity Prevention
Social media misinformation presents various practical challenges to atrocity-focused work, affecting the full spectrum of efforts from early warning, deterrence and response, to prosecution. Any instability and atrocity prevention program across these categories needs to consider the following challenges to craft viable, effective policies and strategies:
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We are affiliated with some of Floridas top behavioral health hospitals to provide acute care. You can count on our team for treatment options that work for you and help you reach your goals.
The Role Of Religious Education In Adolescent Mental Health
Religion and its effect on health and well-being has been the subject of many previous studies . Although the definitions for both religiosity and spirituality remains a point of debate among researchers, the two concepts are considered as related and include several dimensions such as beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, to name a few . A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials which investigated the effects of religious and spiritual interventions showed positive effects on mental health outcomes such as significant decrease in stress, alcoholism, and depression . However, the importance of religious education in the promotion of both physical and mental health in the school has not been given emphasis despite several religions teaching about overall health and well-being. For example, Islam teaches the importance of personal hygiene, stress management, and eating healthy Buddhism teaches avoidance of any drink or drug which can cloud the mind the Catholic Christian spiritual perspective puts emphasis on confession of sins for forgiveness by God to provide relief to a troubled mind and Jewish beliefs emphasize that their bodies belong to God and should therefore take care of it by maintaining a proper diet, getting adequate exercise and sleep, maintaining good hygiene, and having a healthy mind .
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Speech Rights: Balancing Civil Liberties And Civilian Protection
Long-standing debates and global differences surrounding the balance between national security, civil liberties, and civilian protection have sharpened in the face of SMM. Some states like New ZealandClassification Office , The Edge of the Infodemic: Challenging Misinformation in Aotearoa, 2021, https://apo.org.au/node/312981. and intergovernmental organizations like the EUThe Digital Services Act Package: Shaping Europes Digital Future, European Commission, n.d., https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/policies/digital-services-act-package. have strengthened oversight, standards, and penalties for misinformation and disinformation content on social media. Other states, such as Myanmar, China, or RussiaBradshaw, Bailey, and Howard, Industrialized Disinformation. , use national security as a pretext for limiting free speech and civil liberties. Different global contexts have diverse norms, ethical standards, and values around the blend of civil liberties, national security, and civilian protection.Cheryl Rivers and Anne Louise Lytle, Lying, Cheating Foreigners!! Negotiation Ethics across Cultures, International Negotiation 12, no. 1 : 128.
Psychological Treatment For Mental Illness
A patient can be a part of many forms of therapy. Typically, the most common form of psychological treatment for mental illness is psychotherapy, including group therapy, cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and client-centered therapy. The form of therapy a patient is referred to depends on their personal preference and presenting symptoms. Let’s take a look at some of these forms of therapy more closely.
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