Class 11 Practical Work In Geography Chapter 2 Ncert Extra Questions
Class 11 Practical Work in Geography Chapter 2 Multiple Choice Questions
Question 1.Which of the following methods of scale remain unaffected on reducing the size of the map proportionally? By Scale Statement By graphical or bar scale None of the aboveAnswer: By graphical or bar scale
Question 2.Which of the following is an example of representative fraction? Centimetre
What is the scale?Answer:The ratio between the distances of two points on the map, plan or photograph and the actual distance between the same two points on the ground is called scale.
Question 3.What is a representative fraction?Answer:Representative Fraction is a method of scale of a map or plan expressed as a fraction showing the ratio between a unit distance on the map or plan, and the distance measured in the same units on the ground.
Question 4.What are advantages of representative fraction?Answer:Representative fraction can be used in all countries whether we are acquainted with their unit system or not. Therefore, it is also called universal method of scale.
Question 5.Explain about the importance of scale.Answer:A map scale provides the relationship between the map and the whole or a part of the earthâs surface shown on it. We can also express this relationship as a ratio of distances between two points on the map and the corresponding distance between the same two points on the ground.
Class 11 Practical Work in Geography Chapter 2 Short Answer Type Questions
- 1 Foot = 12 Inches
By Step Instructions To Learn How To Read A Map
To understand how to read a map, we are going to look at different maps including this example of a USGS topo map. USGS topo maps are maps created for the entire United States that show topography along with information about roads, water features, , and grid lines.
Now that we have our example map, lets get started on learning how to read this USGS topo map.
After The Middle Ages
In Europe, the Renaissance period brought a number of significant changes which hugely affected mapping:
- the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 meant that monasteries no longer dominated map production
- the discovery of the Americas and expanded contact with the Orient resulted in greater interest in distant places and migration
- the growth of major publishing houses which produced maps that were accessible to all not just the wealthy elite
- the growth in public learning brought a thirst for knowledge this was aided by the establishment of institutions such as the French Academy of Science, which was established in 1666 to encourage scientific research including the improvement of mapping and navigation charting
All these led to a massive expansion in geographic knowledge and mapping. Earlier maps in this period tended to be simple black-and-white maps which showed coastlines, country borders, mountains, rivers, place names etc. In many cases these were then hand painted to add some colour to the finished product.
In the late-1700s maps which showed a theme started to emerge. These were used to record the spread of a particular event for instance, the location of people who had a contagious illness or the extent of a flood.
Through the ages maps have become more complex and more accurate particularly as understanding of the Earth, mathematics and geography has expanded.
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What Is Bolts In Geography And Map Making
Border, Orientation, Legend, Title, Scale.
Border- The border of the map can be described as the ‘frame’ that surrounds it.
Orientation- The orientation or direction indicator on a map shows the reader “True North”. This information is vital since once you know where true north is, you are then able to work out other cardinal points
Legend- The legend or key on a map contains all the symbols that are featured on the map and also illustrates what each symbols represents. There are four types of map symbols.
Title- A title tells us the purpose of a map, usually the title has two parts. These two parts are …
A. The name of the place that is being shown on the map
B. Features/information that is being shown on the map.
Scale- Every map is smaller than the real area it represents . The scale on a map shows how much smaller the map is than the actual area described. Using the map’s scale you can measure distances between features depicted on the map and use this information to calculate the distances they represent on the earth’s surfaces.
A scale map might be
A)A line scale
Read A Brief Summary Of This Topic
map, graphic representation, drawn to scale and usually on a flat surface, of featuresfor example, geographical, geological, or geopoliticalof an area of the Earth or of any other celestial body. Globes are maps represented on the surface of a sphere. Cartography is the art and science of making maps and charts.
In order to imply the elements of accurate relationships, and some formal method of projecting the spherical subject to a map plane, further qualifications might be applied to the definition. The tedious and somewhat abstract statements resulting from attempts to formulate precise definitions of maps and charts are more likely to confuse than to clarify. The words map, chart, and plat are used somewhat interchangeably. The connotations of use, however, are distinctive: charts for navigation purposes , plats for land-line references and ownership, and maps for general reference.
Cartography is allied with geography in its concern with the broader aspects of the Earth and its life. In early times cartographic efforts were more artistic than scientific and factual. As man explored and recorded his environment, the quality of his maps and charts improved. These lines of Jonathan Swift were inspired by early maps:
So geographers, in Afric maps,
With savage pictures fill their gaps,
And oer unhabitable downs
Place elephants for want of towns.
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Uses Of Map In Teaching Of Geography
Maps are perhaps the most important tools of a geographer. The value of maps sin geography teaching cannot be overestimated. They record definite facts of positions, relief, climate, vegetation, materials and their distribution broadly over the earth, in continents, countries, states.
In fact they are useful for the laymen too. For an intelligent student of geography maps are no less than mines of information. Intelligent and well-planned assignments are a key to this hidden treasure of information and knowledge for these pupils.
Physical wall-maps of each of the continent and those of India and Orissa are necessary to find place in the geography room. Political wall-maps may also be used when desirable. Wall-maps are helpful, be cause the whole class can look at them.
Wall maps in the geography laboratory should be exhibited by using a specially constructed wooden frame. Hanging of the maps in front of the black-board and throwing them over chairs or certain other similar frames may wear them out. The teacher must supplement the use of wall-maps by drawing sketch- maps on the blackboard, whenever a particular item has to be illustrated, viz. physical features, rainfall, seasonal temperatures, mineral products, vegetation, important towns, harbors, population areas, railway lines, air-routes etc.
In short, maps are the essential tools for the teacher. By these, the teacher can focus the attention of the whole class and can illustrate better than by oral description.
Explain The Importance Of Maps In Human Geography
Maps are crucial to research within Human Geography as they give context to demographic information, and through the use of both physical maps and Geographical Information Systems geographers can provide spatial grounding and evidence. Maps also enable human geographers to give visual evidence to support claims which can be manipulated into presentation techniques such as choropleth maps. In this story we will look at the importance of maps in these ways, as well as how maps are crucial to displaying change through time of demographics or landscape.
Perhaps the most obvious explanation of why maps are such a vital tool for human geographers is their uses in the contextualization of data, specifically for locating demographic data such as age structures and employment status. The key component of a map that is so important for this is scale, as by mapping to scale a study area demographic information can be localised and expressed in terms of distance relationships. These spatial relationships are critical to any study as human geography demands research based on spatial phenomenon. An example of how this could be used is in the mapping of census data, with the information grouped by locale and these groups displayed with maps to show proximity. Ordnance survey style maps are best suited for this purpose as they also display services and infrastructure which often complements the demographic data being studied.
The Major Elements Of Surveying
Surveying like other field of study has its own elements. There are four major elements of surveying. These elements are also known as methods of conducting surveying. In other
textbook, these elements are termed as types of surveying cartographers).
Chain or tape surveying Prismatic compass survey
Surveys can be classified into two main branches as Geodetic and Plane.
– GEODETIC SURVEYING
This is a branch of surveying which takes into account the theoretical shape of the earth . Generally has high in accuracy, and cover large areas . It is deal with large distances measurements on the earth surface. It aimed to establish a network of horizontal and vertical monuments that serves as a reference framework for initiating other surveys and research, always goes beyond the smaller horizontal and vertical measurements of distances, angles, sizes as well as latitude and longitude, it is carried out at National level and often involves international cooperation.
– PLANE SURVEYING
In practice manner, surveying is classified on a number of ways depending on uses and purposes of the expected results . Some authors/scholars classified surveying into three categories as follows:-
– Land /astronomical/marine/cadastral/and topographical surveys
– Engineering/military/route and geological survey
– Aerial/photogram metric survey
Some Basic Mapwork Concepts
Use the following mnemonic to remember the order of the compass points:N Never North
|Construction features: National, arterial and main roads, lighthouses and marine lights. Pink also shows international boundaries|
Table 5.2: Colours used on maps4. Contour lines on a map show the areas relief or altitude .The closer together the contour lines are, the steeper the slope is.The lines are labelled so that you read up the slope.
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Increased Interest In Maps
Over time, maps have become an important part of society at large. To paraphrase a common expression, maps are not just for geography anymore. Maps are more widely available than ever before. The new technology of geographic information systems has expanded the ease and ability by which maps are produced. We find maps in newspapers, television weather forecasts, automobile navigation devices, the internet, and handheld PDAs. Mapping systems are being used to track repair technicians, to share information about environmental issues, to sell houses, to manage 911 services, and for homeland security. Animated maps and other visualizations have become a key tool in studying a range of scientific phenomena. Because of the widespread use of maps today, learning how to read, interpret, and produce them has become a new essential skill.
Geographers, psychologists, and cognitive scientists are becoming interested in the kind of thinking, termed spatial thinking, that underlies map reading and interpretation as well as forms of analysis in geography, other social and physical sciences, and mathematics. Spatial thinking is defined as the knowledge, skills, and habits of mind to use concepts of space, tools of representation like maps and graphs, and processes of reasoning to organize and solve problems .
Map Projection And Distortion
Depending on the purpose of a map, the cartographer will attempt to eliminate distortion in one or several aspects of the map. Remember that not all aspects can be accurate so the map maker must choose which distortions are less important than the others. The mapmaker may also choose to allow a little distortion in all four of these aspects to produce the right type of map.
- Conformality: The shapes of places are accurate
- Distance: Measured distances are accurate
- Area/Equivalence: The areas represented on the map are proportional to their area on the earth
- Direction: Angles of direction are portrayed accurately
Map Work Where History And Geography Meet
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I have been teaching history for the past 5 years. I am amazed at the amount of Geography that my son has accumulated since then. It does help a great deal that he is a lover of maps. History and geography are very closely related. History happens in space and time. Specific locations are essential and often catalysts to the course of history or turn of events. . Hence the study of maps and geography should be an integral part of the learning history endeavor.
Reasons you should be doing map work :
- Map work helps the kids to see where events take/took place.
- Map work gives the kids a geographical and spatial picture of the world around them.
- Map work teaches them to find and place countries, cities and important landmarks on a map, and it also shows them their place in relation to other landmarks.
- Map work helps them see the relationship between the actual events and the influence of the surrounding geography on them.
- Map work is a great way to include hands-on activities.
- Through map work kids can learn various geography terms as they study the land forms of the different places they encounter since these often play a role in the reasons why things develop the way they do.
If you do have to use an external geography curriculum , doing map work as part of your history studies will help your child cement the concepts he is already learning.
What Is A Map
They are large in size. These have a scale of 6″ = 1 mile. These show the details of buildings and property.
These, maps are of following four types on the basis of scale :
1. Cadastral maps : These maps show full details of buildings and properties and are known as plans.
2. Topographical maps : Survey of India prepares these maps on a scale of 1:50,000 or inch : 1 mile. These are large scale maps showing the natural and man-made features of an area.
3. Wall maps : These are small scale maps used for educational purposes.
4. Atlas maps : These are small scale maps, bound together in the form of an Atlas. These are best suited for eduational purposes.
1. The whole earth cannot be studied from a globe.
2. Globe do not show a large number of details. These can be shown on map.
3. Distance cannot be measured on a globe because it is a curved surface.
4. Maps can be easily handled.
5. A comparative study of two areas is not possible on a globe.
6. Maps can be easily incorporated in books or bounded in Atlas.
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Spatial Thinking And Maps Skills In Young Children
Spatial thinking allows students to comprehend and analyze phenomena related to the places and spaces around themand at scales from what they can touch and see in a room or their neighborhood to a world map or globe. Spatial thinking is one of the most important skills that students can develop as they learn geography, Earth, and environmental sciences. It also deepens and gives a more complete understanding of history and is linked to success in math and science. Young students also enhance their language skills as they collaborate and communicate about spatial relationships. Students who develop robust spatial thinking skills will be at an advantage in our increasingly global and technological society. This collection can help you teach an assortment of map skills through activities that address the spatial thinking abilities of young children and developmental appropriateness. The collection is not intended to be a complete map skill program, and the activities can be adapted for higher or lower grades. for a downloadable summary of all activities and the learning objectives and spatial thinking concepts targeted in each activity.
The Role Of Gps In Modern Map
Although we certainly wonder how we ever lived without GPS, the fact is that everyone did so just fine until not too long ago. However, the availability of this technology has transformed map-making into an even more precise enterprise than it already was. Known fully as the Global Positioning System , it is composed of dozens of satellites, which provide geographic coordinates for various earthly features. Originally put into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense, they’ve been available for civilian benefit since the 1980s, and since then the technology has revolutionized everything from aircraft navigation to land surveying and beyond. It even plays a role in gaming.
Since these satellites continuously orbit Earth , data acquisition and application has dramatically sped up. This allows map-makers to create the most up-to-the-minute maps, especially important as land planning and environmental impact have become such hot-button issues in recent years.
GPS technology also led to the expansion of personal navigation tools, such as Waze and Google Maps. Previously, only military and transportation grade organizations were privy to this data. Today, anyone can use these real-time maps to get where they need to go using turn-by-turn instructions. No one really needs to know how to “read” a map to get directions. Now updated on a rolling basis, GPS maps have come a long way from even just a few years ago when there were plenty of “dead spots” to be found.
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