Why Are Imf Loans Bad
The impact of IMF loans has been widely debated. Opponents of the IMF argue that the loans enable member countries to pursue reckless domestic economic policies knowing that, if needed, the IMF will bail them out. This safety net, critics charge, delays needed reforms and creates long-term dependency.
Example Of The Typical Exam Question
When it comes to the exam questions, youre typically going to have to rank the molecules according to their boiling points by looking at the molecular structure.
So, heres an example of a lineup like that.
The very first thing you want to check is the molecular masses for your compounds.
Generally, instructors will give you molecules with similar masses, so that they all have the same amount of the dispersion interactions. However, Ive seen a few exams where instructors threw a mean curved ball at students giving them a completely non-polar yet a massive molecule which ended up with the highest boiling point. So, always double check just in case.
As Ive mentioned a moment ago, all molecules will always have London dispersion. So, for as long as your molecular weights are close , the differences in the dispersion forces will be negligible.
Next, by checking for the polar bonds and the dipole vectors, we can see that we have a clearly non-polar molecule: cyclopentane.
Finally, we want to check for the hydrogen bonding. While THF and butanal can be acceptors of the hydrogen bonding, they cannot be the donors of it. So, we wont have any H-bonding in a pure sample of either of those. Thus, we have a clear leader in terms of the most intermolecular interactions. So, according to our analysis here, the molecule on the rightbutanolshould have the highest boiling point.
And by checking the values, we see that it is indeed correct.
Imf And Surface Tension
Intermolecular forces attract molecules in liquids to each other. The picture below illustrates the intermolecular forces in the body of the liquid and at the surface.
How many IMF attractions would a molecule on the surface feel?
How many does the molecule feel in the body of the liquid?
In what direction are the molecules at thesurfacebeing pulled in the figure shown?
Would this maximize or minimize the surface area?
Surface tension is the resistance of a liquid to spreading out and increasing its surface area.
- Complete the following statement: as the intermolecular forces in a liquid increase, the surface tension of the liquid_________________________.
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The Microscopic Structure Of Water
In many ways, water behaves very differently from other compounds. These properties are directly related to the microscopic structure of water, and more specifically to theshape of the molecule and its polar nature, and to theintermolecular forces that hold water molecules together.
There are about \ \ of water in \ \. This is equivalent to \ molecules of water. That’s a lot of water molecules!
In the previous chapter you learnt about molecular shape and polarity. Water has two hydrogen atoms around a central oxygen atom. The central oxygen atom also has two lone pairs of electrons. This gives water a bent shape. It also means that water is polar since the two hydrogen atoms are not parallel to each other and so do not cancel out the bond polarity . We can see this in the following image:
Water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are a much stronger type of intermolecular force than those found in many other substances, and this affects the properties of water.
Write The Final Answer
Water has a high specific heat, while the metal that the pot is made of does not. The metal pot needs less energy to heat it up and so it gets hotter faster. Water needs a lot of energy to change its temperature and so it takes longer to get hot.
An experiment for informal assessment is included in this chapter. This experiment is very similar to the one on intermolecular forces. In this experiment learners focus on the properties of water. This is a good experiment to do to guide learners in understanding the properties of water.
When working with Bunsen burners learners should ensure that loose clothing is tucked away and long hair is tied back. As always with chemistry experiments you should open all the windows to ensure a well ventilated room. At the end of the experiment check that all Bunsen burners are turned off.
If learners leave the beaker of water on the Bunsen burner for to long and the water starts to boil or steam is observed, then make sure the learners do not touch the beaker as they will be burn themselves.
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What Are The 6 Organs Of Uno
The United Nations has six main organs. Five of them the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat are based at UN Headquarters in New York. The sixth, the International Court of Justice, is located at The Hague in the Netherlands.
What Has The Imf Said About The Uk Economy
The IMF has warned that while the chancellor’s plans to slash taxes will boost growth in the short-term, it expects the benefits to sharply reduce in 2023 as rampant inflation and higher interest rates take their toll.
According to its latest assessment of the global economy, inflation in the UK is expected to peak at around 11.3% before the end of the year.
It expects prices to rise by an average of 9% over the next two years well above the Bank of England’s target of 2%.
The fund says Kwarteng’s tax measures an attempt to stimulate the economy are at odds with the BoE’s recent raising the base rate of interest, in an attempt to cool down the economy by making borrowing more expensive.
While the UK is set to grow the fastest of the major economies in the G7, this is expected to sharply decline next year, with the economy forecast to expand by just 0.3%.
Business secretary Jacob Rees-Mogg has questioned the IMF’s analysis, saying: I think the IMF is wrong on both counts. I think its particularly wrong on energy, and frankly doesnt know what its talking about
The IMF is not holy writ and the IMF likes having a pop at the UK for its own particular reasons. Im afraid I would never lose too much sleep about the IMF.
In response, the Fund’s deputy managing director Gita Gopinath flatly rejected the criticism.
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How Is The Imf Funded
IMF funds come from three sources: member quotas, credit arrangements, and bilateral borrowing agreements.
Member quotas are the primary source of IMF funding. A member countrys quota reflects its size and position in the world economy. Read more on the IMF regularly reviews quotas.
NEW ARRANGEMENTS TO BORROW
New Arrangements to Borrow between the IMF and a group of members and institutions are the main backstop for quotas. In January 2020, the IMF Executive Board agreed to double the size of the NAB to SDR 365 billion, or $504 billion.
BILATERAL BORROWING AGREEMENTS
Member countries also have committed resources through bilateral borrowingagreements . In 2020, the IMF Executive Board approved a new round of BBAs, totaling SDR 138 billion, or $190 billion.
What Is The Meaning Of Imf
The meaning of the IMF is also explained earlier. So far, you might have gotten some idea about the acronym, abbreviation, or meaning of IMF. What does IMF mean? is explained earlier. You might also like some similar terms related to IMF to know more about it. This site contains various terms related to Research, Geography, IEEE, British Degree, Meteorology, Optics, Colleges, Societies, Hydrology, Academic Degrees, Trade Associations, Finance, Auditing, Agencies, Career, Institutes, Environmental, Governmental, Fire Departments, Commerce, Geriatric, Nursing, Veterinary, Disability, Cancer, Surgical, Transplantation, Prevention, Hospitals, Prescription and other terms.
What is IMF?
The acronym ACF could stand for more than one thing. To find out what it means, look up all of its possible meanings one by one.
Acronyms finder: Look at IMF related acronym, abbreviation or shorthand.
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Data Analysis: Text Responses
|Hydrogen Bonding||Tracey||When the hydrogen atom from a molecule that has a large difference in electronegativity is attracted to a negative portion of another molecule.||Between|
|Lindsay||The strongest types of intermolecular forces and a hydrogen atom must be bonded to another hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen or floride .||Ambiguous|
|Stronger than London dispersion forces and occurs between two polar molecules||Between|
|Laura||Intermolecular force in which dipoles within the molecule are attracted to each other and hold the molecule together…stronger than LDFs||Within|
|Exhibited when the compound it polar, Its the second strongest||Ambiguous|
|Forces between all molecules that get stronger with increasing molecule size.||Between|
|Are present in all molecules. Small attractive forces.||Ambiguous|
|The weakest that are found in every molecular bond||Within|
What Are The Initials Imf
International Monetary and Financial Committee
How does the IMF work?
The IMF lends money to nurture the economies of member countries with balance of payments problems instead of lending to fund individual projects. This assistance can replenish international reserves, stabilize currencies, and strengthen conditions for economic growth.
What does IMF stand for in chemistry?
Intermolecular forces are forces of attraction between neighboring particles . Coulombs Law: Partial or whole positive charges are attracted to partial or whole _______________ charges.
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What Are Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular forces, often abbreviated to IMF, are the attractive and repulsive forces that arise between the molecules of a substance. These forces mediate the interactions between individual molecules of a substance.
Intermolecular forces are responsible for most of the physical and chemical properties of matter.
Forces also exist between the molecules themselves and these are collectively referred to as intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are mainly responsible for the physical characteristics of the substance. Intermolecular forces are responsible for the condensed states of matter. The particles making up solids and liquids are held together by intermolecular forces and these forces affect a number of the physical properties of matter in these two states.
Iondipole And Ioninduced Dipole Forces
Iondipole and ioninduced dipole forces are similar to dipoledipole and dipoleinduced dipole interactions but involve ions, instead of only polar and non-polar molecules. Iondipole and ioninduced dipole forces are stronger than dipoledipole interactions because the charge of any ion is much greater than the charge of a dipole moment. Iondipole bonding is stronger than hydrogen bonding.
An iondipole force consists of an ion and a polar molecule interacting. They align so that the positive and negative groups are next to one another, allowing maximum attraction. An important example of this interaction is hydration of ions in water which give rise to hydration enthalpy. The polar water molecules surround themselves around ions in water and the energy released during the process is known as hydration enthalpy. The interaction has its immense importance in justifying the stability of various ions in water.
An ioninduced dipole force consists of an ion and a non-polar molecule interacting. Like a dipoleinduced dipole force, the charge of the ion causes distortion of the electron cloud on the non-polar molecule.
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What Does The Imf Do
- Oversee the fixed exchange rate arrangements between countries.
- Provide short-term capital to aid the balance of payments.
- Promote and implement policy that reduces the frequency of crises among the emerging market countries.
- Negotiates conditions on lending and loans under their policy of conditionality.
- Provides emergency assistance to members facing urgent balance-of-payment needs.
What Is The Imf Growth Forecast
The IMF has said 2023 will be a difficult year for the world, with the institution’s World Economic Outlook report saying: “The worst is yet to come. For many people 2023 will feel like a recession.”
Global growth is expected to hit 2.7% next year, the institution says, down from 6% last year and the 3.2 forecast for 2022.
It is the weakest growth profile since 2001, with the exception of the start of the Covid pandemic and the aftermath of the 2008 financial crash.
“The world is in a volatile period: economic, geopolitical, and ecological changes all impact the global outlook,” the report says.
The IMF’s economic counsellor Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas said: As storm clouds gather, policymakers need to keep a steady hand.
Increasing price pressures remain the most immediate threat to current and future prosperity by squeezing real incomes and undermining macroeconomic stability.
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Properties Of Matter That Depend On Imfs
- boiling point, melting point, stable phases
- enthalpies of phase transitions
- solubility and miscibility of different substances
There are many physical properties of matter that are strongly influenced by IMFs, and over the next few chapters we will look at many of these. Lets ask a simple question
At a given temperature, would it be easier to vaporize a light molecule or a heavy molecule?
So why at ambient conditions is Carbon Dioxide a gas, but water is a liquid?
- That is, shouldn’t it be easier to vaporize the lighter molecule than the heavier one? The answer lies within the Intermolecular Forces, and if you review molecular shapes and polarity you will see that water is a polar molecule while carbon dioxide is non-polar, and this leads to different physical properties like the boiling and melting points. That is, in this chapter you will learn that water has stronger intermolecular forces than carbon dioxide, and that is why it is a liquid, while carbon dioxide is a gas. But to answer that question you first had to determine the Lewis Dot Structure, then determine the geometry, and then determine the polarity of the molecule, and so you should have a basic understanding of that pre-requisite material before proceeding.
How Does The Imf Give Policy Advice
To maintain stability and prevent crises in the international monetary system, the IMF keeps a regular policy dialogue with the governments of its member countries. It assesses economic conditions and recommends policies that enable sustainable growth. The IMF also monitors regional and global economic and financial developments.
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Imf And Vapor Pressure
When a substance boils, small bubbles rise to the surface and leave the liquid. These bubbles contain vaporized liquid molecules that have acquired enough energy to enter the vapor phase.
- Draw a cartoon of this process in the beaker.
The vapor pressure of a liquid is the pressure created by any molecules that leave the liquid phase and enter the gas phase.
If the external pressure is greater than the vapor pressure, it will push molecules back into the liquid phase.
If the pressure inside the bubbles is the same or greater than the external pressure, boiling will occur.
A high vapor pressure means:
Lots of the molecules are in the vapor phase
Not many of the molecules are in the vapor phase
Molecules with low boiling points typically have:
high vapor pressures
low vapor pressures
Explain what happens to vapor pressure as a liquid is heated.
Assume that a liquid has a very high vapor pressure. Would you expect the intermolecular forces between the molecules between the liquid molecules to be strong or weak? Explain.
Dipoledipole And Similar Interactions
Dipoledipole interactions are electrostatic interactions between molecules which have permanent dipoles. This interaction is stronger than the London forces but is weaker than ion-ion interaction because only partial charges are involved. These interactions tend to align the molecules to increase attraction . An example of a dipoledipole interaction can be seen in hydrogen chloride : the positive end of a polar molecule will attract the negative end of the other molecule and influence its position. Polar molecules have a net attraction between them. Examples of polar molecules include hydrogen chloride and chloroform .
- H \delta +}}}}-\delta -}}}}\cdots \delta +}}}}-\delta -}}}}}
Often molecules contain dipolar groups of atoms, but have no overall dipole moment on the molecule as a whole. This occurs if there is symmetry within the molecule that causes the dipoles to cancel each other out. This occurs in molecules such as tetrachloromethane and carbon dioxide. The dipoledipole interaction between two individual atoms is usually zero, since atoms rarely carry a permanent dipole.
The Keesom interaction is a van der Waals force. It is discussed further in the section “Van der Waals forces”.
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The Unique Properties Of Water
We will now look at a few of the properties of water.
- Specific heat
Specific heat is the amount of heat energy that is needed to increase the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree.
Water has a high specific heat, meaning that a lot of energy must be absorbed by water before its temperature changes.
You have probably observed this phenomenon if you have boiled water in a pot on the stove. The metal of the pot heats up very quickly, and can burn your fingers if you touch it, while the water may take several minutes before its temperature increases even slightly. How can we explain this in terms of hydrogen bonding? Remember that increasing the temperature of a substance means that its particles will move more quickly. However, before they can move faster, the intermolecular forces between them must be disrupted. In the case of water, these forces are strong hydrogen bonds, and so a lot of energy is needed just to break these, before the particles can start moving further apart.
Absorption of infra-red radiation
Water is able to absorb infra-red radiation from the sun. As a result of this, the oceans and other water bodies act as heat reservoirs, and are able to help moderate the Earth’s climate.
It is the high specific heat of water and its ability to absorb infra-red radiation that allows water to regulate the climate. Towns close to the sea often have less extreme temperatures than inland towns due to the oceans ability to absorb the heat.