Tuesday, August 9, 2022

What Is Distribution In Biology

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The Many Branches Of Biology

AS biology Statistics 1: Normal distribution

Although there are only four unifying principles, biology covers a broad range of topics that are broken into many disciplines and subdisciplines.

On a high level, the different fields of biology can each be thought of as the study of one type of organism, according to “Blackie’s Dictionary of Biology” . For example, zoology is the study of animals, botany is the study of plants and microbiology is the study of microorganisms.

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Within those broader fields, many biologists specialize in researching a specific topic or problem. For example, a scientist may study behavior of a certain fish species, while another scientist may research the neurological and chemical mechanisms behind the behavior.

There are numerous branches and subdisciplines of biology, but here is a short list of some of the more broad fields that fall under the umbrella of biology:

Distribution And Biology Of The Invasive Weed Parthenium Hysterophorus L In Israel

  • 1Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya’ar Research Center, Ramat Yishay, Israel
  • 2The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

Ecology: Population Distribution And Abundance

  • Ecology: Population Distribution and Abundance
  • Habitat Suitability

    • Abiotic features: Moisture, temperature, pH, sunlight, nutrients, etc.
    • Some species can tolerate broad ranges of physical conditions, others have narrow ranges.

    Biotic features: Organisms are affected by herbivores, predators, competitors, parasites, and pathogens

    • Abiotic and biotic features can interact to determine distribution and abundance.
    • The real range is never as large as the potential range due to abiotic and biotic factors species are often the weakest at the edge/ transition of their ranges
    • Some species distributions depend on disturbanceevents that kill or damage some individuals, creating opportunities for other individuals to grow and reproduce.
    • Example: Some species persist only where there are periodic fires.

    Historical Factors

    • Evolutionary history and geologic events affect modern distribution of species.
    • Example: Polar bears evolved from brown bears in the Arctic. They are not found in Antarctica because of an inability to disperse through tropical regions.

    Dispersal

    In high quality territories, cooperative breeding occursyoung birds postpone breeding and instead help their parents raise more offspring. The high quality sites attract more birds and can result in clumped dispersions.

    Population abundances and distributions can be estimated with area-based counts, distance methods, markrecapture studies, and niche modeling.

    Area-based counts

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    Wind Intensity And Direction

    The strength of the wind and its direction has a huge impact on where organisms are found within ecosystems. Many organisms prefer more sheltered locations. Plant seeds are more likely to settle and germinate there, and animals which depend upon these are more likely to live close to where they grow. The strength of the wind can also affect the growth of individual organisms.

    Population Size And Density

    PPT

    Population size and density are the two most important statistics scientists use to describe and understand populations. A populations size refers to the number of individuals it comprises. Its density is the number of individuals within a given area or volume. These data allow scientists to model the fluctuations of a population over time. For example, a larger population may be more stable than a smaller population. With less genetic variation, a smaller population will have reduced capacity to adapt to environmental changes. Individuals in a low-density population are thinly dispersed hence, they may have more difficulty finding a mate compared to individuals in a higher-density population. On the other hand, high-density populations often result in increased competition for food. Many factors influence density, but, as a rule-of-thumb, smaller organisms have higher population densities than do larger organisms.

    Population density is negatively correlated with body size: Australian mammals show a typical inverse relationship between population density and body size.

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    What Is The Physical Distribution

    Physical distribution is the set of activities concerned with efficient movement of finished goods from the end of the production operation to the consumer. … Physical distribution is part of a larger process called “distribution,” which includes wholesale and retail marketing, as well the physical movement of products.

    What Do Biologists Do

    Biologists can work in many different fields, including research, healthcare, environmental conservation and art, according to the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Here are a few examples:

    Additional resources:

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    Frequency Table / Frequency Distribution

    In the previous post, we have discussed the concept of Tables and Tabulation of Variables in Statistics. Here we will discuss the concept of Statistical Tables better known as Frequency Distributions of Frequency Tables.

    Statistical Tables

    Ø There are different types of tables in statistics.

    Ø The most common type of table in the statistics is Frequency Table or Frequency Distribution.

    How To Choose The Right Distribution Channel

    Ecology – Species Distribution Fieldwork – GCSE Biology (9-1)

    There is no one specific distribution that will work for all kinds of every kind of business, so it is essential to analyze the type of products or services that a company offers before choosing the distribution channel.

    The channel must be chosen in such a way that it aligns with the companys goals and achieving its sales targets.

    While choosing the channel of Distribution, businesses or manufacturers need to pay attention upon the specific requirements of their products, the kind of branding company enjoys in the market, their , customer demands, supply and demand gaps, sorts of features, and then accordingly they need to choose the right distributor for them.

    Let us have a look upon some of the tips that will you about the right ways of choosing the best distribution channel for your business-

    Distribution Wrap Up!

    Before deciding on a distribution channel, it is crucial to study the market and understand its nuances so that the company can earn profits.

    Even if the product or service is innovative and one of its kind, it is essential to have the right type of distribution channel so that it can reach the right target audience.

    The selection of the distribution channel is as important as the product itself.

    So, how important do you consider the distribution channels in optimizing the market presence and sustainable existence of a business?

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    What Is Population Distribution In Biology

    Population DistributionPopulationpopulationPopulation distribution

    Distribution: Geographic area where individuals of a species occur. Abundance: Number of individuals in a given area. Ecologists try to understand what factors determine the distribution and abundance of species. Population: Group of interacting individuals of the same species living in a particular area.

    Also, what are the 3 types of population distribution? Three basic types of population distribution within a regional range are uniform, random, and clumped.

    Accordingly, what is population distribution?

    Population distribution means the pattern of where people live. World population distribution is uneven. Places which are sparsely populated contain few people. Places which are densely populated contain many people. Population density is usually shown as the number of people per square kilometer.

    What is an example of population distribution?

    Population distribution: the way in which a population is spread over an area. Population density: the number of people per specified area, for example, population per kilometre squared. This will be a figure, for example, 78 people/km2.

    Oxygen Levels For Aquatic Animals

    Oxygen from the air and oxygen produced by aquatic plants dissolves in water. Without this, aquatic animals would suffocate and die. Healthy lakes and rivers have high levels of oxygen, and polluted waters often have low levels of oxygen. This pollution means that only certain species can survive there such as sludgeworms. These are bioindicator species because their presence or absence informs us about the condition of the habitat.

    These are bioindicators of oxygen levels within water.

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    Population Size Density And Distribution

    Communities are made up of populations of different species. In biology, a population is a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area. The population is the unit of natural selection and evolution. How large a population is and how fast it is growing are often used as measures of its health.

    Effect Of Burial Depth On Seed Emergence

    The comparison of biological function distribution of ...

    Following seed germination, emergence from different burial depths was tested. This experiment was conducted in a net-house during a natural season for P. hysterophorus emergence, using the same soil used for seed germination studies. Seeds were sown at different burial depths in 250 ml pots experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five seeds sown in each pot with five replicates for each treatment. Emergence was recorded for 30 days A data logger was used to collect temperature data during the course of the experiment. Emergence was recorded for each pot every day, and the emergence rate was calculated as a percentage of the total for each treatment.

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    Effect Of Temperature On Seed Germination

    Seed germination was tested under constant and alternating temperatures. For this purpose, seeds were placed in a 9 cm Petri dish on a thin layer of Newe-Ya’ar soil collected at the same site as the seeds . Petri dishes were randomly placed in an incubator . To determine the effect of temperature on seed germination, 20 seeds were incubated in Petri dishes under eight different constant temperatures , 12 h photoperiod and watered as needed. Seed germination was recorded every day for 60 days. Experiments were replicated four times and arranged in a randomized complete block design.

    What Is Distribution In Biology

    biologydistribution

    Distribution: Geographic area where individuals of a species occur. Abundance: Number of individuals in a given area. Ecologists try to understand what factors determine the distribution and abundance of species. Population: Group of interacting individuals of the same species living in a particular area.

    Also Know, what is random distribution in biology? In a random distribution, individuals are spaced at unpredictable distances from each other, as seen among plants that have wind-dispersed seeds. In a clumped distribution, individuals are grouped together, as seen among elephants at a watering hole.

    Similarly one may ask, what is distribution in science?

    The specific location or arrangement of continuing or successive objects or events in space or time. 2. The extent of a ramifying structure such as an artery or nerve and its branches. 3. The geographical range of an organism or disease.

    What is abundance in biology?

    In ecology, local abundance is the relative representation of a species in a particular ecosystem. It is usually measured as the number of individuals found per sample. Relative species abundance is calculated by dividing the number of species from one group by the total number of species from all groups.

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    Systematics Variation Distribution And Biology Of Rockfishes Of The Subgenus Sebastomus

    Following Matsubara, Sebastodes is synonymized with Sebastes.

    The form known as S. helvomaculatits found in southern California is distinguished from that species and described as S. simulator, n. sp. S. rhodochloris is synonymized with S. helvomaculatus Ayres, and the form called S. rhodochloris by Phillips is described as S. ensifer, n. sp. S. eos of authors is a complex and a new species, S. rosenblatti, is described. In addition, three other new species, S. noting, S. lentiginossus and S. exsul, are described. Full description is given to each of the seven remaining species of the subgenus Sebastomus. Forms occurring in the southern hemisphere are all referred to as S. capensis. On the basis of similarities in meristics, body configuration, and color patterns, relationships among species of Sebastomus are discussed.

    Meristic numbers in species of Sebastomus are found to be constant ontogenetically and geographically. Vertebral counts tend to be higher in northern species of Sebastes than in southern ones. Variability of meristic numbers is discussed, using the coefficient of variation as a criterion.

    Allometry and its significance in taxonomy is discussed. Morphometric characters in speciea of Sebastomus are found to vary geographically. Both slopes and intercepts of the allometric regressions are equally susceptible to variation. There seems to be a correlation between growth rate and body form within a population.

    Notes On Frequency Distribution

    N5 Biology – 3.2 Distribution of Organisms

    The below mentioned article provides a note on frequency distribution.

    For any statistical analysis, the handling with raw data requires some treatment, i.e., the classification of data to organise the available values in a more compact way. The frequency distribution presents the data very concisely indicating how frequently a variable occurs in a group of study.

    Construction of Frequency Distribution Table:

    If there are repetitions in individual values or items of any investigation, suitable frequency table can be formed. These frequency tables may be discrete or may be continuous in nature. The available raw data at first should be converted into arrayed data. For biostatistics the raw data are arranged in ascending order to make it arrayed data .

    Example 1:

    Following raw data is obtained in an investigation. 100 pea plants bore pods ranging from 15 to 41 in a garden of pea plants :

    Then for discrete frequency distribution table, the values of variables are written in one column and the repetition of that value is written against it which is the frequency .

    But for continuous frequency distribution table, the values are grouped in fixed interval and then the frequency within that interval is observed and noted.

    The size of class interval also depends on the range of data and the number of classes, it is equal to the difference between highest and lowest value divided by the number of classes,

    i H-L/K

    where i = class interval K.

    Relative Frequency:

    Class Limit:

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    What Factors Influence How You Distribute A Product

    Affordability and visibility are critical factors because if a store isn’t noticed, your products will not be successful. The population of the area matters as well. People like going to stores that are closer to home, and if you manage to land a store in a densely packed area, your products are likelier to sell.

    Which Dispersion Pattern Is It

    Humans are not always very good at distinguishing among the different patterns of dispersion, so statistical methods are usually used to tell the difference between them.

    The distances between individuals can also be used to determine dispersion patterns. Several indices exist, but all operate using similar principles. If individuals are aggregated or clumped , their nearest neighbor will be much closer than you would expect if individuals were randomly distributed in space . If they were uniformly distributed , on average, you would predict individuals to be further apart than would be expected if they were randomly distributed.

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    Factors Affecting Species Distribution

    Distribution patterns may change by season, distribution by humans, in response to the availability of resources, and other abiotic and biotic factors.

    There are three main types of abiotic factors:

  • climatic factors consist of sunlight, atmosphere, humidity, temperature, and salinity
  • edaphic factors are abiotic factors regarding soil, such as the coarseness of soil, local geology, soil pH, and aeration and
  • social factors include land use and water availability.
  • An example of the effects of abiotic factors on species distribution can be seen in drier areas, where most individuals of a species will gather around water sources, forming a clumped distribution.

    Researchers from the Arctic Ocean Diversity project have documented rising numbers of warm-water crustaceans in the seas around Norway’s Svalbard Islands. Arcod is part of the Census of Marine Life, a huge 10-year project involving researchers in more than 80 nations that aims to chart the diversity, distribution and abundance of life in the oceans. Marine Life has become largely affected by increasing effects of global climate change. This study shows that as the ocean temperatures rise species are beginning to travel into the cold and harsh Arctic waters. Even the snow crab has extended its range 500 km north.

    The Effect Of Shading On Vegetative And Reproductive Growth

    sketchnotes normal distribution

    To assess the effect of different shading levels on plant productivity, plant vegetative and reproductive parameters were tested under different shading levels 0 , 30, 60, and 90% shading. Experiments were performed in a net house during the natural growing season for P. hysterophorus in Israel . Pre-germinated seedlings at the stage of 23 true leaves were sown in 2.5 L pots filled with the soil of Newe-Ya’ar. Different shading levels were achieved using a black-shading net. For each treatment, 50 plants were used. Plant height, number of flowers, and aboveground biomass were recorded each week using five plants. Plants were irrigated and fertilized as needed. A data logger was used for temperature recording during the course of the experiment.

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    Statistical Determination Of Distribution Patterns

    There are various ways to determine the distribution pattern of species. The ClarkâEvans nearest neighbor method can be used to determine if a distribution is clumped, uniform, or random.To utilize the ClarkâEvans nearest neighbor method, researchers examine a population of a single species. The distance of an individual to its nearest neighbor is recorded for each individual in the sample. For two individuals that are each other’s nearest neighbor, the distance is recorded twice, once for each individual. To receive accurate results, it is suggested that the number of distance measurements is at least 50. The average distance between nearest neighbors is compared to the expected distance in the case of random distribution to give the ratio:

    R density })\times 2}}}

    If this ratio R is equal to 1, then the population is randomly dispersed. If R is significantly greater than 1, the population is evenly dispersed. Lastly, if R is significantly less than 1, the population is clumped. Statistical tests can then be used to determine whether R is significantly different from 1.

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