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How To Solve Normality Problems In Chemistry

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How To Calculate Normality

Normality & Volume Solution Stoichiometry Practice Problem

There are certain tips that students can follow to calculate normality.

  • The first tip that students can follow is to gather information about the equivalent weight of the reacting substance or the solute. Look up the textbook or reference books to learn about the molecular weight and the valence.
  • The second step involves calculating the no. of gram equivalent of solute.
  • Students should remember that the volume is to be calculated in litres.
  • Finally, normality is calculated using the formula and replacing the values.
  • Re: Dilution Problem With Normality

    sq1009 wrote:

    A 1N solution of NaOH is diluted 4/20, then rediluted 1:50. What is the final normality? How many grams of NaOH are present in 100 ml of the final solution?

    I don’t know how to do normality problems

    maybe this could help, read here,

    It helped me solve this problem but what about say CaCl2 . In this case will the N=M since there is no H or OH ion?

    Submitted by shengoc on Sun, 05/23/2010 – 15:02

    When To Use Normality

    There are specific circumstances when it’s preferable to use normality rather than molarity or other unit of concentration of a chemical solution.

    • Normality is used in acid-base chemistry to describe the concentration of hydronium and hydroxide . In this situation, 1/feq is an integer.
    • The equivalence factor or normality is used in precipitation reactions to indicate the number of ions that will precipitate. Here, 1/feq is once again and integer value.
    • In redox reactions, the equivalence factor indicates how many electrons can be donated or accepted by an oxidizing or reducing agent. For redox reactions, 1/feq may be a fraction.

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    Normality Problems And Examples

    Question 1. In the following reaction calculate and find the normality when it is 1.0 M H3PO4

    H3AsO4 + 2NaOH Na2HAsO4 + 2H2O


    If we look at the given reaction we can identify that only two of the H+ ions of H3AsO4 react with NaOH to form the product. Therefore, the two ions are 2 equivalents. In order to find the normality, we will apply the given formula.

    N = Molarity × number of equivalents

    N = 1.0 × 2

    Therefore, normality of the solution = 2.0.

    Question 2. Calculate the normality of the solution obtained by dissolving 0.321 g of the salt sodium carbonate in 250 mL water.


    Question 3. What is the normality of the following?

    • 0.1381 M NaOH

    a. N = 0.1381 mol/L × = 0.1381 eq/L = 0.1381 N

    b. N = 0.0521 mol/L × = 0.156 eq/L = 0.156 N

    Question 4. What will the concentration of citric acid be if 25.00 ml of the citric acid solution is titrated with 28.12 mL of 0.1718 N KOH?


    Na × =

    Therefore, the concentration of citric acid = 0.1932 N.

    Question 5. Find the normality of the base if 31.87 mL of the base is used in the standardization of 0.4258 g of KHP ?


    0.4258 g KHP × × :

    = 2.085 × 10-3 eq base/0.03187 L = 0.6542 N

    Normality of the base is = 0.6542 N.

    Question 6. Calculate the normality of acid if 21.18 mL is used to titrate 0.1369 g Na2CO3?


    0.1369 g Na2CO3 × × × :

    = 2.583 × 10-3 eq acid/0.02118 L = 0.1212 N

    Normality of the acid = 0.1212 N.

    Try this:

    Answer: 6.0 M Al3+.

    Normality Calculator For Concentrated Liquid Chemical

    normality problems

    This is very handy tool for science student to make reagents for analysis. You can easily calculate normality of any concentrated acid or base liquid solution by using this normality calculator.

    In conclusion, Normality or equivalent concentration of the solution indicates how many equivalent are present per liter of solution.

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    How Is Concentration Measured In Chemistry

    First, it is necessary to understand how atoms and molecules combine in chemical reactions, which is not quite like the “ingredients” in, say a cooking recipe or a construction project. Ordinarily, you would keep track of different objects by measuring their masses or perhaps their volumes.

    So, if you know that 1 kg of flour and 0.5 kg of sugar is enough to make 10 servings of a particular dessert product, you know that 100 kg of flour and 50 kg of sugar are enough for 1,000 servings. And in mixing drinks, if 50 mL of your own homemade fitness water needs 5 mL of vinegar, then 1,000 mL of the product needs 20 times this amount of of the vinegar reagent is 100 mL.

    With reactions, it’s whole particles you need to count. These are measured in moles, and translating them into this “language” from mass only requires you to know the molar masses of the constituent atoms.

    S Per Million And Parts Per Billion

    Parts per million and parts per billion are ratios that give the grams of solute in, respectively, one million or one billion grams of sample. For example, a sample of steel that is 450 ppm in Mn contains 450 g of Mn for every gram of steel. If we approximate the density of an aqueous solution as 1.00 g/mL, then we can express solution concentrations in ppm or ppb using the following relationships.

    For gases a part per million usually is expressed as a volume ratio for example, a helium concentration of 6.3 ppm means that one liter of air contains 6.3 L of He.

    You should be careful when using parts per million and parts per billion to express the concentration of an aqueous solute. The difference between a solutes concentration in mg/L and ng/g, for example, is significant if the solutions density is not 1.00 g/mL. For this reason many organizations advise against using the abbreviation ppm and ppb . If in doubt, include the exact units, such as 0.53 g Pb2+/L for the concentration of lead in a sample of seawater.

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    What Is A Mole

    A mole of anything, such as atoms, molecules, marbles or giraffes, is equal to 6.022 × 1023 individual instances of that thing. This happens to be the number of particles in exactly 12 grams of the most common form of the element carbon, number 6 on the periodic table of elements. The number of grams in 1 mole of a given element is under its symbol in its personalized “box” on the table.

    To get the molar mass of a molecule, or the mass of 1 mol of those molecules, simply add the individual masses of the atoms, being sure to account for subscripts. So for a water molecule, H2O, you would add the mass of 1 mol O to the mass of 2 mol H to get about 18.015 g.

    Empirical And Molecular Formulas

    How To Calculate Normality & Equivalent Weight For Acid Base Reactions In Chemistry

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    How To Calculate Normality Of Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid

    First, note down three things form packing label of solution:

    Use below formula to calculate normality of any commercially available liquid solution:

    Normality = Specific gravity × Percentage of purity in decimal × 1000 ÷ Equivalent weight

    If you see label of reagent bottle of hydrochloric acid you will get below three values:

  • Specific gravity 1.18
  • Assay 35.4
  • Molecular Weight 36.46 gm/mole
  • Put the above values in formula,

    Normality = 1.18 × 0.354 × 1000 ÷ 36.46 = 11.46 N

    How To Calculate Normality From Molarity

    The mole equivalents of an acid or base are calculated by determining the number of H+ or OH- ions per molecule: N = n × M

    For an acid solution, n is the number of H+ ions provided by a formula unit of acid.Example: A 3 M H2SO4 solution is the same as a 6 N H2SO4 solution.

    For a basic solution, n is the number of OH- ions provided by a formula unit of base.Example: A 1 M Ca2 solution is the same as a 2 N Ca2 solution.

    Note:The normality of a solution is NEVER less than its molarity!

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    How To Calculate Normality Of A Solution

    Normality is a unit of the concentration of a chemical solution defined as the gram equivalent weight of solute per liter of solution. Normality is also called equivalent concentration. It is indicated by the symbol N or eq/L . To find the gram equivalent weight, you need to know how many hydrogen ions , hydroxide ions , or electrons are transferred in a reaction or you need to know the valence of the chemical species.

    The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry discourages the use of this unit, but you may encounter it in chemistry classes or the lab, particularly with acid-base titrations and redox reactions. Here is a look at the different ways to calculate normality of solution, along with examples.

    What Is Valency In Chemistry

    How To Calculate Normality &  Equivalent Weight For Acid ...

    The valency or valence of an atom or molecule described as how may hydrogen atoms it can bond with. In our example,

    Hydrochloric Acid HCl have a one hydrogen atom so, the equivalents of Hydrochloric Acid is 36.46/1 = 36.46

    Sulphuric Acid H2SO4 have two hydrogen atoms so, the equivalents of Sulphuric Acid is 98/2 = 49

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    Is There Any Way To Solve Normality Problem In R

    I am trying to do multiple regression test in R.I have made a model but I have found some problems.I have done homogeneity of variance test and the variance was not found to be heterogeneous.But I have done normality test and p-value was very low. It was about 2e-16.Here’s the data and my script.

    Should I convert my data? Should I use boxcox?Any help should be appreciated.

    S For Solving Normality Problems

  • Get information to determine the number of equivalents formed or the equivalent weight of the solute or reactants. Usually, you need to know the valence, molecular weight, and whether or not a substance fully dissociates or dissolves.
  • Calculate the gram equivalent of the solute.
  • Remember the volume of the solution is in liters.
  • Also Check: What Is The Molecular Geometry Of Ccl4

    Normality Definition And Formula

    MolarityMole FractionMolalityEquivalent Weight Definition and Gram Equivalent WeightMolar MassFew more important things about Normaility

    • Normality unit is N or eq/L .It depends on the chemical reaction being studied and depends on temperature too. So ,it is meaning with respect to the chemical reaction
    • It is the reactive capacity of the solution and it is called equivalent concentration
    • This is used in acid-base reactions and redox reactions

    Converting Between Concentration Units


    The most common ways to express concentration in analytical chemistry are molarity, weight percent, volume percent, weight-to-volume percent, parts per million and parts per billion. The general definition of concentration in Equation \ref makes it is easy to convert between concentration units.

    Example 2.2.1

    A concentrated solution of ammonia is 28.0% w/w NH3 and has a density of 0.899 g/mL. What is the molar concentration of NH3 in this solution?


    Example 2.2.2

    The maximum permissible concentration of chloride ion in a municipal drinking water supply is \ ppm Cl. When the supply of water exceeds this limit it often has a distinctive salty taste. What is the equivalent molar concentration of Cl?


    Exercise 2.2.1

    Which solution0.50 M NaCl or 0.25 M SrCl2has the larger concentration when expressed in mg/mL?


    The concentrations of the two solutions are

    The solution of SrCl2 has the larger concentration when it is expressed in g/mL instead of in mol/L.

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    How To Calculate Normality In Chemistry

    When you hear the word “normality,” science may not be the first thing that comes to mind. “Normal,” to most people, means “ordinary” or “typical,” and doesn’t seem to have a whole lot of scientific weight. But in chemistry, the term normality is closely related to a few core chemistry concepts, and in particular, it is vital in the area of solutions chemistry.

    If you see “normal” as “expected,” even in the chemical sense this is more or less on target: A normalized preparation is one that has been created in proportion or relation to an established standard. To discover how to calculate the normality of NaOH, or how to convert from normality to molarity , read on!

    Relationship Between Normality And Molarity

    I found this formula for calculating the normality from the molarity:$$\text = n \cdot \text$$

    with$$n = \frac}}$$

    But in one book I found that if equivalent weight is equal to half of the molecular weight then$$2N = M$$

    Under the given condition, I am confused if the above statement is true.

    Am I following a factually correct book for solving problems on volumetric analysis?

    The normality of a solution is the molarity of the solution multiplied by the number of equivalents per mole:

    $$\mathrm = \mathrm}\cdot\mathrm= \mathrm}\cdot\mathrm}=\mathrm}$$

    Example: Calculate the normality of a 1 $\mathrm$ solution of $\ce$. There are 2 equivalents per mole, from the reaction


    which yields 2 moles of $\ce$ for every 1 mole of $\ce$.

    Using the relation given above, we find that a 1 $\mathrm$ solution of $\ce$ is 2 $\mathrm$:

    $$\mathrm}\cdot\mathrm=2\ \mathrm$$

    One resource you might find useful in order to check your math is Sigma-Aldrich’s Normality & Molarity Calculator. Additionally, there are details relevant to the definitions of molarity and normality that you might find clearer that the ones you’ve conveyed in your question.

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    Limitations In Using Normality

    1A 1.8 Solving Chemical Problems

    Many chemists use normality in acid-base chemistry to avoid the mole ratios in the calculations or simply to get more accurate results. While normality is used commonly in precipitation and redox reactions there are some limitations to it. These limitations are as follows:

    • It is not a proper unit of concentration in situations apart from the ones that are mentioned above. It is an ambiguous measure and molarity or molality are better options for units.
    • Normality requires a defined equivalence factor.
    • It is not a specified value for a particular chemical solution. The value can significantly change depending on the chemical reaction. To elucidate further, one solution can actually contain different normalities for different reactions.

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    Number Of Gram Equivalent

    So, lets get forward with understanding the concept of gram equivalence.

    We know that no of moles =\

    Number of gram equivalent = \, and equivalent weight = \

    Well understand these two formulas with an example.

    Lets find out Gram Equivalent

    For example, Find the number of gram equivalents present in 0.5 g of HCl.

    HCl releases one H+ ion in the solution, so its valence factor = 1.

    The molecular weight of HCl = 36.46 g.

    So, equivalent weight = \ = 36.46/1 = 36.46 g, and

    Number of gram equivalent = \ = 0.5/36.46 = 0.0137

    So, we get the number of gram equivalent = 0.0137

    Let us take another example of 1.06 g of Na2CO3 to understand this concept clearly

    We are given the mass of Na2CO3 = 1.06 g.

    Firstly, Find the equivalent weight of Na2CO3.

    Since Na2CO3 is a salt, so the number of positive charges on the cation gives X = 2

    Molecular weight = 106 g

    So, Equivalent Weight = \ = 106/2 = 53 g, and number of gram equivalent is:

    = \ = 1.06/53 = 0.02

    In a chemical equation, the number of gram equivalent of both reactions always remains the same.

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    Differences Between Normality And Molarity

    Here are some key differences between normality and molarity.

    It is defined as the number of gram equivalent per litre of solution. It is defined as the number of moles per litre of solution.
    It is used in measuring the gram equivalent in relation to the total volume of the solution. It is used in measuring the ratio between the number of moles in the total volume of the solution.
    The units of normality are N or eq L-1 The unit of molarity is M or Moles L-1

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