## Converting From Smaller To Larger Units

To convert from smaller to larger units, **divide by 1000 or move the decimal point three places to the left**.

- To convert 300 mg into g:

300mg/1000= 0.3 g

OR move decimal point three places to the left 300 mg 0.3 g

- To convert 1700 mL into L:

1700 mL/1000 = 1.7 L

OR move the decimal point three places to the left

1700 mL 1.7 L

## Calculate Fluid Rates In Ml/hr And Drop Rates

This activity will guide you through the process to calculate fluid rates in mL/hr and drop rates

**Q1. 500 mg of drug X is to be administered in 120 mL of Normal Saline over 90 minutes. At how many mL/hour should the pump be set?****Q1. 500 mg of drug X is to be administered in 120 mL of Normal Saline over 90 minutes. At how many mL/hour should the pump be set?**

The time is given in minutes. In this example, we will convert minutes into hours:

90 minutes = 90/60 = 1.5 hrs

**Q1. 500 mg of drug X is to be administered in 120 mL of Normal Saline over 90 minutes. At how many mL/hour should the pump be set?**

Using the formula:

## Dyscalculia Treatment And Accommodations

Like other learning disabilities, dyscalculia has no cure and cannot be treated with medication. By the time most individuals are diagnosed, they have a shaky math foundation. The goals of treatment, therefore, are to fill in as many gaps as possible and to develop coping mechanisms that can be used throughout life. This is typically done through special instruction, accommodations, and other interventions.

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act , students with dyscalculia are eligible for special services in the classroom. Dyscalculia accommodations in the classroom may include11:

- allowing more time on assignments and tests
- allowing the use of calculators
- adjusting the difficulty of the task
- using posters to remind students to basic math concepts
- tutoring to target core, foundational skills
- providing supplemental information via
- computer-based interactive lessons
- hands-on projects

If left untreated, dyscalculia persists into adulthood, leaving many at a disadvantage when it comes to higher education and workplace success.12Adults with dyscalculia, however, may be entitled to reasonable accommodations in their workplace under the Americans with Disabilities Act . They can also commit to brushing up on math skills on their own or with the help of a trained educational psychologist. Even the most basic improvements in math skills can have long-lasting impacts on day-to day life.

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## Pediatric Dose Calculation According To Weight In Kg

The first thing we must do is Calculate the total Dose to be administered of the Medication. Which we obtain by multiplying the Dose by the Weight of the Patient.

If for some reason it is not possible to weigh the patient, their weight can be determined using the Ideal Weight Formulas.

#### Calculate the Dose of Paracetamol.

For example the Dose of Paracetamol is 10-15 mg / Kg / dose. This means that we can use a dose of at least 10 and a maximum of 15 mg. In this example we will use a 15 mg dose in a child weighing 12 kg. Therefore, the total dose to be administered is:

**Total dose = x Total dose x = 180 mg**

In this example 180 mg is the total to be given. But NO is what we will give the patient. Before giving the indication we must know the presentation and concentration of the drug.

Paracetamol for example can be found in various presentations. As a tablet, as a suppository or as a Syrup. In Pediatrics, most of the medications that are administered orally are preferred in Syrup. Therefore, it is necessary to know the concentration in milliliters of the drug.

Depending on the brand and manufacture, concentrations may vary. **In the case of Paracetamol Syrup, the most common concentration is 120mg / 5ml.**

*So continuing with the example, How many mL should we give to our patient?*

For this we must apply a rule of three.

mL to be administered = / x **mL to be administered = / x x = 7.5ml every 4-6 hours**

## Calculate Pediatric Antibiotics Dose

The process is the same as with most Medications. We must know the patients Weight in Kg and calculate the total dose to be administered.

The majority of Antibiotics administered by Oral Route come in the form of Syrup. The classic example is Amoxicillin. Which has a dose of 80 mg / Kg / day divided into doses every 8 or 12 hours.

*The dose of Amoxicillin is expressed as a total to be administered every 24 hours. Therefore, this dose should be divided by 3 or by 2 *

If we put it into practice with the patient in the previous example. Which we remember that weighs 12 Kg, then we will have:

**Total dose = x = 960 mg.**

Now we must know the presentation and concentration of the drug. The most common presentations of Amoxicillin are 250mg / 5mL and 125mg / 5mL. In this example we will use the 250mg / 5mL presentation.

*mL to be administered = / x x = 19.2 mL*

Remember that 19.2 mL are equivalent to 960 mg of Amoxicillin. The dose to be administered each day. However this should be divided into 2 or 3 takes. So if we indicate it every 8 hours it would remain:

**mL to be administered every 8 hours = / 3 = 6.4 mL every 8 h.**

*Why between 3? the reason is simple. Since we want to administer this drug every 8 hours, we must divide the 24 hours a day by that interval. So 24/8 = 3. If it were every 12 hours it would be 24/12 = 2.*

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## Pediatric Dose Calculation In Special Situations

Certain Medications may seem a bit more complicated. Trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole is an antibiotic whose dose is 8mg / Kg / day divided into doses every 12 hours.

But its presentation in syrup is which essentially says that it has 40 mg of Trimethoprim and 200 mg of sulfamethoxazole every 5 mL. But when calculating the Pediatric Dose, it is based on Trimethoprim.

If we use the same patient from the previous example, then the calculation would be:

**Total dose = x = 96 mg.mL to be administered = / x x = 12mLmL to be administered every 12 hours = / 2 = 6mL every 12 hours.**

## How Do Pediatricians Use Stem

Like all doctors, pediatricians are STEM professionals who make **heavy use of science, technology, engineering, and math** in their jobs. … Pediatricians plan treatments for patients with different body sizes, from premature infants to growing teens, so they must have strong math skills to properly dose medications.

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## Do Pediatricians Use Math

Pediatricians regularly check the growth and development of patients. They develop growth charts, measure children’s height and weight, and assess their overall development over time. They also **use math to calculate how much medicine to administer in shots**, measured in cubic centimeters or milliliters.

## Collecting And Organizing Information

This component includes gathering, sorting, classifying, and analyzing information to help make sense of what is happening in the environment.

- Point out how objects are the same and different. Draw children’s attention to characteristics such as color, shape, texture, size, and function .
- Organize the environment to help young children know where toys and materials belong for instance, put labels with pictures and words on shelves and containers, or put children’s photos and names on their cubbies. This helps young children practice sorting and categorizing.
- Provide collections of small toys and other safe objects such as shells and plastic bottle tops that older toddlers can sort and organize in different ways. Pay attention to any safety concerns with toys and objects if toddlers are in mixed-age groups with younger children.
- Use math talk as you describe what children see and do. For example:
- “You put the big lid on the big pot and the small lid on the small pot.”
- “You always smile when your mom sings to you!”
- “Let’s put the dolls in the basket and the balls in the box.”

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## Is Travel Involved For A Pediatrician

Pediatricians **may travel between their offices and hospitals to care for their patients**. While on call, they may need to address a patient’s concerns over the phone or make an emergency visit to a hospital or nursing home. Some of the things a pediatrician might do: Take a patient’s medical history.

## Does Being A Pediatrician Require Math

**Asked by: Domingo Kreiger**

**Calculus is** the most widely spread math course required for admittance into the specialized medical program of pediatrics. … Calculus is often offered as calculus I and II. In addition to medical school requirements, calculus is a prerequisite for more advanced math courses, such as mathematical analysis.

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## Adolescents: Impacts On Development And Mental Health

Screen ** time **remains a defining factor in the research of healthy media use. If high school students nationwide are like their peers in Ontario and Alberta, they spend more than 7.5 hours per day on various screens, with 20% of high-schoolers spending 5 hours or more per day on social media alone . However, research suggests that teens are less susceptible to the negative effects of high screen time levels than younger children . In adolescents, zero screen use

**excessive use are associated with negative effects, while moderate use is associated with some cognitive and psychosocial benefits . The type and timing of screen use determined different effects on mental well-being in a non-linear fashion . Content, context, and individual traits are other defining factors when assessing screen use effects. Evidence is not clear whether increased technology use may cause lower well-being or whether lower well-being results in increased technology use. There are likely unaccounted factors affecting both technology use and adolescent well-being .**

*or*## General Aspects For The Calculation Of Pediatric Dose

To calculate the Pediatric Dose of a drug, you need to know 3 essential data:

- Patient weight .
- Drug dosage.
- Presentation of the drug.

It is preferred to work with the Weight in Kilograms. Most of the literature and doses are expressed in Kg. Therefore, if the patients weight is in pounds, it will be necessary to convert it into Kg.

It is also important to pay attention to the Dosage of the medicine. Some medications bring their dose expressed in a total to be administered during the day. While others express it in doses to be administered every certain number of hours.

*For example: the Paracetamol Dose is 10-15 mg / Kg / dose every 6h. This means that this dose can be repeated every 6 hours. But the Cefixime Dose is 8mg / Kg / Day.*

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## What Kind Of Math Is Used In Nursing

Nurses often use basic arithmetic and algebra on the job. Some nurses, particularly those who work in the public health and epidemiology fields, also use statistics.

Nurses must be able to perform basic calculations to ensure each patient receives the correct amount of medication. If a doctor writes a prescription for 1 milligram of medication per kilogram of body weight, the nurse must be able to convert the patient’s weight from pounds to kilograms and determine how many milligrams of medication to administer.

Nurses use addition, subtraction, multiplication and division on a daily basis. A nurse must also be comfortable working with fractions and decimals, using ratios and proportions and converting one unit of measurement to another. Geometry is not used as often as algebra or basic arithmetic, but is helpful when working with orthopedic patients or when using some medical equipment. If a nurse is inserting an IV line, for example, he must insert it at the correct angle to ensure it pierces the vein and delivers medication to the bloodstream. An orthopedic nurse may have to position his patient’s limbs at certain angles to ensure they heal properly after joint replacement surgery.

Nursing administrators also use math daily. A unit manager, for example, uses math to determine if she has enough money in the budget to hire a new nurse or pay current staff members overtime to fill in for sick employees.

## Preschool Math Lessons: A Developmental Guide For The Science

Preschool math lessons dont have to be tedious. They dont even have to focus on counting.

Here I review the highlights of research about early mathematics education, along with specific tips for creating mathematical experiences that are playful and stimulating. I also present some opens in a new windowresearch-inspired number activities and opens in a new windowmath games designed to help preschoolers hone their opens in a new window*number sense.*

The payoff? By sharing these experiences, you get to watch your childs mind at work. And your child gets to learn about numbers through play and exploration.

Its approach that works. When researchers used opens in a new windowfun board games to teach preschool math concepts, children made lasting improvements in their mathematical ability .

Such improvements may bode well for future achievement. An analysis tracking thousands of English-speaking students found that kids who entered kindergarten with a strong grasp of

- counting
- ordinality

achieved better math scores in the later years.

Moreover, these preschool math skills were *more *predictive of general scholastic achievement than were language, attention, or social skills .

That doesnt mean that preschool math lessons * cause *better scholastic achievement. But it suggests that preschool math ability is an important bellwether of a childs scholastic preparation.

**Understand that number sense is distinct from a knowledge of counting **

Which tree bears more fruit?

The implications?

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## Math Requirements For Becoming A Pediatrician

#### DIONNA HARDING

When deciding to become a doctor, it is understood that there are many years worth of education and training involved in that decision. Even before a specialization–such as that of pediatric medicine–is selected, there are still a myriad of prerequisite course areas that must be completed beforehand. For instance, medicine is a field that is heavily influenced by calculations therefore, there are several math classes that must be completed before becoming a pediatrician.

#### Explore this article

## First And Second Graders

Predict what comes next in a pattern and create own patterns

Know the difference between two- and three-dimensional shapes and name the basic ones

Count to 100 by ones, twos, fives, and tens

Write and recognize the numerals 0 to 100, and the words for numbers from one to twenty

Do basic addition and subtraction up to 20

Read and create a simple bar graph

Recognize and know the value of coins

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## Shapes And Spatial Relationships

This component includes recognizing, naming, comparing, and contrasting objects based on their shape and understanding the physical relationship between oneself and objects or between two or more objects in the environment.

- Play simple body games such as “This Little Piggy,” “Open, Shut Them,” and “Pat-a-Cake.” Games like these help infants and toddlers develop a physical sense of where they are in space.
- Provide materials and equipment such as simple puzzles, different-sized boxes, tunnels, and age-appropriate climbing structures. These materials and equipment allow young children to physically explore spatial relationships such as in, out, over, under, inside, and outside.
- Provide toys and blocks with different shapes for infants and toddlers to explore. In addition to learning the names of shapes, this helps them discover characteristics of shapes such as sides, corners, and curves.
- Use math talk as you describe what children see and do. For example:
- “Look, Jason went under the climber and Aliyah is on top!”
- “You’re sitting next to Carlos.”
- “Some of the crackers we have for snack today are square, and some are round.”

## Drug Calculation With Reconstitution

Certain medications essentially only require the calculation of the Total Dose. An example of this is usually Benzathine Penicillin. Which usually has a dose of 50,000 units in a single dose. So to indicate it, it would be enough to calculate the total dose.

For example, in a child who weighs 14 kg and has Acute Pharyngotonsillitis, the dose would be:

**Total dose = x = 700,000 u / single dose.**

The indication could be as: Benzathine Penicillin 700,000 units I.M # 1.

However, it is vital to remember that Penicillin is usually presented in powder and requires Reconstitution before it can be administered.

Reconstitution is a process that is essentially delegated to the Nursing staff. However, it is imperative that all health professionals have full knowledge of how it is done and also be able to explain it to parents if required.

#### What is the Reconstitution of a Medication?

It is the process of adding a solvent to a drug in the form and quantity necessary for proper administration by the indicated route.

In simple terms it is to convert a drug, usually in powdered form in a mixture which can be administered orally, intravenous or intramuscular.

#### Reconstitution of the Drug.

The Presentation of Penicillin is usually 1.2 or 2.4 million units with 5 mL of sterile water. **So how many mL should be given to the patient?**

In the case of Benzathine Penicillin whose presentation is 1.2 million units when diluted in 5 mL we obtain a Concentration of 240,000 units / 1 mL

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## Longitudinal Study Of Working Memory/inhibitory Control In Infants And Mathematical Outcomes In Preschoolers And School

Latent growth curve modeling was used to assess change in infant executive functions and to determine whether initial level and growth in these early executive functions predicted later developing preschool and school-age math skills. LGM is a flexible technique that offers various benefits compared to more traditional statistical techniques such as repeated-measures ANOVA. LGM can retain missing data by computing maximum likelihood estimates. LGM can also simultaneously evaluate growth in a construct as a dependent variable and as a predictor of subsequent outcomes. Two change parameters are evaluated in a growth curve model: intercept and slope. Intercept is the mean performance on a task and slope is the mean rate of change in a construct over time.