What Is Geography According To Geographers
Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earths surface and the human societies spread across it. Geography seeks to understand where things are found why they are there and how they develop and change over time.
How Do Historical And Geographical Factors Influence The Diversity Of A Region
a. When we refer to historical factors we refer to how past of a particular region affects and impacts its culture. Such a factor influences diversity of a region. When we refer to geographical factors we refer to the location climatic conditions relief features of a particular area that again influences its culture.
What Is The Relationship Between History And The Past
The past is completed and can never be changed but history is the ongoing discussion of trying to explain the past and is open to change and revision. History relies upon what we know about the past and this is dependent on the evidence available. You cannot write a history that is not based upon evidence.
Read Also: What Is Kev In Physics
Critical Review: Historical Geographies Of Imperialisms
Historical geographies of imperialism emphasize the complexity of imperialism in space. By exploring colonial encounters, recent research reveals imperialism as a complex lived event and colonial authority as ambiguous. Diverse views about difference, superiority, belonging, and identity complicated encounters and relations among people. By increasing mobility and migration, and thus throwing peoples together in new ways, imperialisms developed hybrid identities, contested spaces, and network connectivity. Imperial projects generated new locales inscribed as expressions of power and domination but often these formed within localities where imperial authorities competed with other forms of governance so that their power was negotiated and challenged. Even the racist and sexist representations that imagined and sustained empires were themselves resisted and reworked, whether in the metropolitan centers or the imperial peripheries. By researching the contact zones, networks, traces, and surveys of imperial encounters historical geographers are remapping the bounds of empire and challenging synoptic views of empires as homogenous territories.
M. Tanskanen, in, 2009
~ Founding Of The Royal Geographical Society
The Geographical Society of London was founded in 1830 as an institution to promote the advancement of geographical science, gaining its Royal Charter in 1859.
The Societys purpose has not changed, but it has expanded its global interests to include publishing, the support of field research and expeditions, lectures, conferences, and developing its collections. More: RGS History
Recommended Reading: How To Get Answers On Delta Math
I Current Fields Of Work
1Within the German-speaking human geography three areas of work have been developed, which were explicitly designed to link the temporal and the spatial dimension :
2Historical Geography in the stricter sense is understood as a spatial science that deals with space-related processes of human activity and the resulting spatial structures of the past. Its purpose is to observe, describe and explain the quality especially of expansion, stagnation, regression or innovation and the quantity of relevant economic, social, political, demographic and natural processes in the spatiotemporal differentiation. This also includes the reconstruction of past landscapes and aims for the formulation of rules of spatial and temporal differentiations.
3The goal of genetic cultural landscape research is to explain present spatial structures and processes through time. It does so only as far back in history as there are still references to the present. Mankind as a designer of landscapes is the focus of attention, which can be seen most clearly in the settlements and their surroundings. Genetic settlement research has always been an important area of Historical Geography, especially in the context of regional studies .
Document 1. Tension between basic research and pratical orientation.
Why Are History And Geography Taught Together
Through the study of geography students can see the world of human connectedness. By teaching geography and history together we can help frame how geography impacted societies as well as how it helped shape human choices. Ideally students can then take those examples and apply it to their own lives.
Recommended Reading: Who Is The Father Of Biology
March 1879 ~ Establishment Of The United States Geological Survey
Originally called the Geological Survey, the United States Geological Survey was charged with classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
The USGS is a fact-finding federal organization that focuses on four main scientific areas: biology, geography, geology, and hydrology.
Th~18th Centuries In The West
Geography as a science experiences excitement and exerts influence during the Scientific Revolution and Religion Reformation. In the Victorian period, the oversea exploration gave it institutional identity and geography was “the science of imperialism par excellence.” Imperialism is a crucial concept for the Europeans, as the institution become involved in geographical exploration and colonial project. Authority was questioned, and utility gained its importance. In the era of Enlightenment, geography generated knowledge and made it intellectually and practically possible as a university discipline. The natural theology required geography to investigate the world as a grand machine from the Divine. Scientific voyages and travels constructed geopolitical power from geographical knowledge, partly sponsored by Royal Society. John Pinkerton appraised the eighteenth century had “the gigantic progress of every science, and in particular of geographical information” and “alteration has taken place in states and boundaries.”
Institutions such as the Royal Geographical Society indicate geography as an independent discipline. ‘s Physical Geography was the “conceptual culmination of … Baconian ideal of universal integration”. According to Francis Bacon, “No natural phenomenon can be adequately studied by itself alone but, to be understood, it must be considered as it stands connected with all nature.”
Read Also: How To Differentiate In Physics
Circa 194 Bce Eratosthenes Geography
Written at some point in the forty-year period after 245 BCE, Eratosthenes published his three-volume work entitled Geographika. Eratosthenes was the first to use the term geography and is considered the father of geography.
From Wikipedia: In his three-volume work Geographika, he described and mapped his entire known world, even dividing the Earth into five climate zones: two freezing zones around the pole, two temperate zones, and a zone encompassing the equator and the tropics.
He had invented geography. He created terminology that is still used today. He placed grids of overlapping lines over the surface of the Earth. He used parallels and meridians to link together every place in the world.
It was now possible to estimate ones distance from remote locations with this network over the surface of the Earth. In Geographika the names of over 400 cities and their locations were shown: this had never been achieved before. Unfortunately Geographika has been lost to history, but fragments of the work can be pieced together from other historians like Pliny, Polybius, Strabo, and Marcianus.
Read A Brief Summary Of This Topic
geography, the study of the diverseenvironments, places, and spaces of Earths surface and their interactions. It seeks to answer the questions of why things are as they are, where they are. The modern academic discipline of geography is rooted in ancient practice, concerned with the characteristics of places, in particular their natural environments and peoples, as well as the relations between the two. Its separate identity was first formulated and named some 2,000 years ago by the Greeks, whose geo and graphein were combined to mean earth writing or earth description. However, what is now understood as geography was elaborated before then, in the Arab world and elsewhere. Ptolemy, author of one of the disciplines first books, Guide to Geography , defined geography as a representation in pictures of the whole known world together with the phenomena which are contained therein. This expresses what many still consider geographys essencea description of the world using maps but, as more was learned about the world, less could be mapped, and words were added to the pictures.
To most people, geography means knowing where places are and what they are like. Discussion of an areas geography usually refers to its topographyits relief and drainage patterns and predominant vegetation, along with climate and weather patternstogether with human responses to that environment, as in agricultural, industrial, and other land uses and in settlement and urbanization patterns.
You May Like: What Are The Different Levels Of Biological Organization
September 1769 ~ Birth Of Alexander Von Humboldt
Widely acknowledged as one of the founders of modern geography, Alexander von Humboldt was born in Berlin, Germany in 1769. Von Humboldt traveled extensively through South America where he studied the flora, fauna, and topography of the continent.
His Essay on the Geography of Plants was based on the then novel idea of studying the distribution of organic life as affected by varying physical conditions.
Related: GeoQuiz: Pioneering Geographers
Why Is Geography Important To History
Geography is important to history because it affects where a person chooses to live, it affects the way battles are fought and the way that people can interact with those living outside of their home region. Geography is the study of the Earths landscapes, environments and the people who live in those landscapes and environments.
Geography connects the social sciences with the natural sciences through human geography and physical geography. Human geography looks at the dynamics present in cultures, societies and economies while physical geography looks at the dynamics present in the environment and the physical geographic landscapes.
There are many other reasons to study geography apart from its influence and importance in regards to historical study. Geography helps people to understand the basic physical systems such as water cycles and ocean currents that affect peoples everyday lives. It can help people develop a map of their community and the world so that they understand where events are taking place. It can help people to make sensible judgments about relationships between society and the physical environment as well as to develop an appreciation for the Earth. Geography can also help a person understand global interdependence, which leads to better global citizens that can make responsible decisions about people and places.
Recommended Reading: What Does Both Mean In Math
~ Geographical Association Founded
The Geographical Association is founded at a meeting at Christ Church, Oxford, led by Sir Halford Mackinder, Douglas Freshfield and ten others, mainly Masters from public schools. A subscription of five shillings is set.
A main objective of the GA was to share lantern slide teaching resources. More: Geographic Association
Using The Geographic Perspective To Enrich History
Geography and history are complementary subjects best taught together within the social studies curriculum. It is part of the collected wisdom of teachers that one cannot teach history without geography or geography without history. But what exactly is the nature of the relationship? What are the key concepts in geography that contribute to the teaching of history? And, what strategies can teachers use most effectively to link them together?
This article uses two standards from Geography for Life:National Geography Standards 19941 to examine the relationship between geography and history. It presents a framework of four questions that focus on using geography to interpret the past. And it explores one strategy for developing history lessons that are well-grounded in geography in order to create memorable learning experiences.
The geographic perspective is not strongly represented in the modern social studies curriculum. This is because most social studies teachers receive their training in history, and have little or no background in geography. Geography is typically defined as the physical environment and viewed as the backdrop before which history unfolds. Yet, more often than not, geography intrudes into the drama of historical change, rather than merely providing an arena for history.3
Linking Geography and HistoryWhat are the links between geography and history? The answer involves three assumptions:
Some interesting questions to examine further are:
Read Also: What Is An Ion In Chemistry
What Is The Relationship Between History And Geography
According to NationalGeographic.com, the relationship between history and geography stems from geographical factors having impacted the course of history in many ways. Every historical event has taken place in a geographic location. Because of this connection, history and geography are forever linked.
Many times, geography and history are relatively synonymous, because several locations have a resounding place in history. For example, the Vietnam War took place in the country of Vietnam. The war itself is titled because of the location. The Vietnamese people are identified by their country, and the events leading up to that war are partly due to its strategic location. In this way, the war cannot be separated from the location in which it took place. Therefore, the relationship between history and geography could be viewed as one in the same. According to NationalGeographic.com, when learning about historical topics, it can be very helpful to simultaneously study a regions geography. This works the same with geography as well. Certain locations, such as Africa, are historically known for their vast diamond market. Australias wildlife is also well-known. Instances like these are geographically focused however, at the same time, they are historical because no timeframe is associated with them.
May 2003 ~ Australian Curriculum: Geography Endorsed
Ministers of Education representing the States and Territories of Australia endorsed the Australian Curriculum: Geography from Foundation to Year 10 .
The first time Australia had a national approach to teaching the discipline of Geography. In August 2013 it became the first of all subjects to be published from Foundation to Year 12.
You May Like: What Does Nee Mean In Geography
The Relationship Between History And Geography Education Essay
|Paper Type: Free Essay
Whilst geography and history are two discrete subjects within the National Curriculum , Martin believes that it is possible to identify areas of similarity between them from looking at the importance of history and geography statements. Moreover, she points out that there are links between history and geography through the knowledge and understanding, skills, concepts and values and attitudes and therefore it is possible to incorporate cross-curricular links when teaching the subjects. However, before these links are explored it is important to provide an overview of both subjects in their own right.
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Cooper et al state that geography is fundamental to childrens understanding of the world they live in. They highlight that geography allows children to study people and develop a sense of place. Furthermore, they point out that geography fosters childrens appreciation of the environment and helps them to understand why sustainability is important. Similarly, Catling and Willy suggest that primary geography allows children to develop a curiosity about the world through exploring people and the environment.
Geography And History At The Crossroads
Printed in Practical Homeschooling #75, 2007.
Students sometimes wonder why they have to know all manner of things about the geography of the planet they inhabit. They don’t really understand why they should have to be able to differentiate between the Alps and the Rockies. After all, they are both just mountain ranges. Well… sort of.
An Artificial Division
Geography and history tend to be taught as two distinct subjects with little common ground. But if students are taught the many ways in which geography interacts with history, both disciplines become more relevant.
History is as much shaped by geography as it is by almost any other factor. The more easily that students can see the interdependence of history and geography, the more understandable and interesting both subjects become.
How Geography Affects Early History
When you study ancient civilizations almost anywhere in the world, one simple fact jumps out to meet you. Most civilizations initially formed around major rivers, especially those that led to oceans. We can point to the early civilizations that formed along the Nile River in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the Middle East, the Yangtze River in China, or the Ganges River of India. Each development had a lasting influence on history.
Weather and Geography
Guiding Our Learning
Maps and Atlases
|Free Email Newsletter!
You May Like: How Do I Learn Physics
Why Is Geography An Environmental Geography
Environmental geography represents a critically important set of analytical tools for assessing the impact of human presence on the environment by measuring the result of human activity on natural landforms and cycles. By its very nature geography is a discipline that seeks to integrate and synthesize knowledge.
May 2000 ~ End Of Selective Availability
On May 1, 2000, the White House announced the end of Selective Availability. Selective Availability was the practice of distorting GPS signal locations which reduced the spatial accuracy for civilizations using GPS units. In order to correct the GPS signal locations, users had to differentially correct the GPS data separately. The end of SA opened up GPS use to the commercial market.
Also Check: What Does Convenience Mean In Math
Ii Disciplinary Classification Of Historical Geograhy
6In the decades before the First World War numerous publications, both by Historical Geographers and Historians were made on Historical Geography, accompanied by a vivid discussion about the positions and functions of Historical Geography . A contribution titled Sources and basic concepts of the historical geography of Germany and its neighboring countries written by the doyen of the countrys history, Rudolf Kötzschke, in 1906 lead the way. His earlier efforts to establish a discipline called Historical Geography and a historical geographical institute in Leipzig in the same year resulted in the foundation of a department for regional history and urban studies so that he left the field of Historical Geography. However, he did not abandon its teaching completely.
7Before 1945 leading scholars of geography and history pursued the idea of Historical Geography as an autonomous subject. However, it was turned into an auxiliary science of the present geography and historical studies. On the one hand, it has become an approach in cultural geography and expressed itself in genetic research of the cultural landscape and settlement on the other hand, it has been repeatedly equated with historical cartography . In 1954 Hans Overbeck described this dilemma aptly :
In order toavoid being mistaken for members of a branch of history, many geographers up to the late 1950s forbade themselves to talk about Historical Geography .