Scn As A Controller Of Endocrine Homeostasis
SCN directly interacts with the pineal gland through the sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion in turn, the rhythmic activity of the SCN determines the release of melatonin, which directly correlates with day length. In both nocturnal and diurnal animals, melatonin production peaks in the middle of the night, between 24:00 and 03:00, inducing activity in the former and rest/sleep in the latter.
Melatonin plays several key roles, and can be considered the central relayer which conveys information about lightdark cycles. In mammals, melatonin is also essential in the regulation of reproductive behaviour and sleep.
Melatonin functions as a feedback regulator on SCN. Melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 are expressed at high densities in SCN . In rats kept in the dark and in blind humans, melatonin entrained the free-running rhythm . in vitro, melatonin also regulated the phase and amplitude of the electric circadian activity of SCN explants . MT2 receptor was shown to mediate the phase-synchronising effect of melatonin on SCN .
3.1.2. Vasopressin, Acetylcholine, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Among all glucocorticoid hormones, cortisol is one of the best characterised from a circadian point of view. In humans, cortisol production usually increases during the night and shows a peak of secretion in the morning, around 07:0008:00, in this way setting the endocrine balance for the stress associated with waking .
Structure Of Dmt And Serotonin
The chemical structure of DMT is similar to serotonin, a neurotransmitter found in the pineal gland.
There is a critical difference between serotonin and DMT. Serotonin is not transported across the blood-brain barrier . There are very few substances that contain this ability. Its the most tightly regulated barrier in the human body.
However, in the 1970s, Japanese scientists discovered that DMT travels across the blood-brain barrier into the brain.
The transport doesnt happen passively. Its now known DMT is actively transported across the blood-brain barrier. That means there are transporter cells designed specially to let DMT into the brain.
What Is The Pineal Gland Responsible For
The pineal gland is responsible for hormone release from the two lobes of the pituitary gland.
As the master conductor of the body, the pineal gland is responsible for hormone release from the pituitary gland.
The pituitary in turns signals the rest of the endocrine system. These organs then release hormones based on the signal from the pituitary.
If the pineal gland is removed via pinealectomy, the anterior pituitary gland swells or becomes larger.
Endocrine glands signaled by the pituitary:
- Thyroid gland
- Adrenal gland
- Ovaries and testicles
- Some non-endocrine organs inthe body
The pineal gland signals the hypothalamus, pituitary glands, and all other glands in the body.
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The Importance Of The Sirtuin1 Gene
The key gene activated during calorie restriction is the Sirtuin1 survival gene.
Blockage of Sirtuin1 gene activity impairs day-night control in young mice to act like what happens in aged mice.
The sirtuin1 gene controls so-called clock genes in the central biological clock of the human body the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
An overlooked fact is that sleep activates the Sirtuin1 gene by virtue of the fact food is not ingested during sleep. In laboratory animals, calorie restriction doubles healthspan and lifespan. So limitation of food confers longevity.
Sirtuin1 gene activity declines with advancing age. It behooves humans to eat less as they age in order to retard aging in the central clock in the brain.
Sirtuin1 is the rheotstat for aging. Premature decline of Sirtuin1 gene activity results in premature aging of laboratory animals. Young mice with normal sirtuin1 gene protein levels readjust their 12-hour light/dark cycle more easily than older mice. With advancing age comes the decline in Sirtuin1 gene activity and sleep disturbance. A deficiency of sirtuin1 gene protein results in impaired wakefulness in brain cells. Excessive daytime sleepiness or impaired alertness occurs with increased obesity and aging. Eating shuts off the sirtuin1 gene.
It is evident that maintenance of sirtuin1 gene activity is beneficial in adjustment to changes in the day/night daily cycle. Low calorie diets would accomplish this.
Which Gland Controls Sleep
The pineal gland was described as the Seat of the Soul by Renee Descartes and it is located in the center of the brain. The main function of the pineal gland is to receive information about the state of the light-dark cycle from the environment and convey this information to produce and secrete the hormone melatonin.
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How To Rebalance Your Biological Clock
Getting your biological clock back on track has to do with creating a recovery plan that flows with your natural 24-hour circadian rhythm. This 24-hour cycle is divided into seven parts. Each of these parts calls for specific supplements and strategies that suit it.
This is an example of such a protocol.
However, we do NOT recommend you attempt to use it yourself. Chronic biological clock dysregulation requires an experienced health professional to adapt this protocol to your specific condition and needs. Otherwise, you are at risk of making things worse.
What Is The Biological Clock
The body runs a variety of biological processes, each according to its particular internal biological clock. These are known as biochronometers .
The body has 4 biochronometers, the most well-known is the circadian rhythm which oversees our wake/sleep pattern:
Our hormones and endocrine system are finely tuned to these biochronometers and any disruption in these cycles can have an impact on our health.
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How Your Biological Clock Affects Your Circadian Rhythm
The bodys biological clock is connected to the circadian rhythm, and the circadian rhythm is affected by things like light and darkness. This means that one way the clock can get out of sync is due to the light in your environment, which affects sleep. Temperature also plays a role, as do hormones. They all affect each other.
Different clocks are responsible for different things. For example, some are responsible for alertness, mood, sleep, metabolism, and fertility. All these clocks are involved in physical, mental, and behavioral responses. And this is why, if theyre chronically dysregulated, you can end up with serious issues, ranging from anxiety to insomnia to Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome to metabolic dysfunction.
External Factors That Direct The Biological Clock And Role In Treatment Of Disease
Faculty of Medicine, Goce Delcev University, Macedonia, Balkans
- *Corresponding Author:
- Faculty of Medicine, Goce Delcev University Macedonia, Balkans E-mail:
Received date: April 23, 2018 Accepted date: April 29, 2018 May 03, 2018
Citation: Alemdar E External Factors that Direct the Biological Clock and Role in Treatment of Disease. Arch Med Vol No:10 Iss No:3:3 doi: 10.21767/1989-5216.1000272
Copyright:© 2018 Alemdar E. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Does Sleep Drive Change As We Age
For most people, circadian rhythm changes at three key points in our lives during infancy, adolescence, and old age.
When babies are born, they havent developed a circadian rhythm yet. A newborn babys sleep cycle requires up to 18 hours of sleep, broken up into multiple short periods. Babies develop a circadian rhythm around four to six months of age, at which point they tend to sleep in larger blocks of time.
In adolescence, up to 16% of teenagers experience a sleep phase delay. Due to this circadian shift, their melatonin levels dont begin to rise until later in the evening. As a result, they naturally feel more alert at night, making it harder for them to fall asleep before 11:00 p.m. This wouldnt be a problem if school start times werent so early, which makes it tough for teens to get the recommended 8 to 9 hours of sleep per night. With less sleep, teenagers may experience trouble staying focused during school.
Our sleep drive changes again as we age into our senior years. As aging occurs, the internal sleep clock begins to lose its consistency. Older adults tend to become tired earlier in the evening and wake up earlier in the morning, resulting in less sleep overall and increasing the risk of cognitive decline. Seniors experiencing Alzheimers, dementia, or other neurodegenerative diseases experience even more severe changes in sleep drive.
Where Is The Pineal Gland
The pineal gland is located deep in the brain in an area called the epithalamus, where the two halves of the brain join. In humans, this is situated in the middle of the brain it sits in a groove just above the thalamus, which is an area that co-ordinates a variety of functions related to our senses. The pineal gland contains high levels of calcium and can be used by radiographers to mark the middle of the brain in X-ray images.
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How Do I Set My Biological Clock
Get daily exercise One way to reset your internal clock is getregular exercise. Most of your tissues including skeletal muscle are linked to your biological clock. So, when you work out, muscle responds by aligning your circadian rhythm. Exercise also helps you sleep better by promoting melatonin production.
Influence Of Chronotype On Obesity Development
Previous epidemiological studies have described some evidence to suggest that an alteration of biological rhythms, such as those that occur in shift workers, people with bad sleeping habits, or those with changes in schedules due to long trips , etc., may be associated with the increase of various metabolic disorders and other diseases, including obesity and metabolic syndrome.18 Taking into account these observations, the concept of chronodisruption emerged to describe an alteration of the normal physiological and biochemical rhythms that increase the risk of health impairment.1
A study conducted in 2008 by our group revealed the expression of core clock genes in human adipose tissue and its relationship with both obesity and metabolic syndrome.2 Soon after, the rhythmicity of the adipose tissue was established, showing the existence of an internal biological clock in the human adipose tissue.19 From these reports, numerous studies have been carried out confirming the relationship between the alteration of biological rhythms and obesity.
Today, the influence of chronobiology on the development of obesity is undeniable, and it is well known that both advancing or delaying these rhythms produces an alteration of glucoseinsulin metabolism and a reduction of substrate oxidation levels , so that eating outside our biological rhythms chronically favors the development of obesity.20
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Who Is At Risk For Biological Rhythm Disorders
An estimated 15 percent of full-time workers in the United States work shifts. Shift workers are usually in service-related jobs that are vital to the health and movement of society. Theyre also more likely to sleep fewer than six hours a night.
Those who do shift work, or work outside the typical 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. workday schedule, are especially at risk for biological rhythm disorders. Examples of professions that involve shift work include:
- healthcare workers
- police officers
An NSF survey found that 63 percent of workers felt that their work allowed them to get enough sleep. The same survey also found 25 to 30 percent of shift workers have episodes of excessive sleepiness or insomnia.
Other groups of people who are at risk for a biological rhythm disorder include people who travel across time zones often or live in places that do not have as many hours of daylight, like Alaska.
Diagnosing biological rhythm disorders is usually a matter of a careful health history review. A doctor will ask you questions that may include:
- When did you first notice your symptoms?
- Are there activities that make your symptoms worse? Better?
- How do your symptoms affect you?
- What medications are you taking?
A doctor may also wish to rule out other conditions, like blood sugar disorders, that can cause similar mood disorder symptoms.
Cool Facts About Your Biological Clock
Circadian rhythms are physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organisms environment.
Our biological clocks drive our circadian rhythms. These internal clocks are groupings of interacting molecules in cells throughout the body. A master clock in the brain coordinates all the body clocks so that they are in synch.
At the National Institute of General Medical Sciences , Mike Sesma tracks circadian rhythm research being conducted in labs across the country, and he four timely details about our internal clocks:
Theyre incredibly intricate.
Biological clocks are composed of genes and proteins that operate in a feedback loop. Clock genes contain instructions for making clock proteins, whose levels rise and fall in a regular cyclic pattern. This pattern in turn regulates the activity of the genes. Many of the results from circadian rhythm research this year have uncovered more parts of the molecular machinery that fine-tune the clock.
Every organism has them from algae to zebras.
Many of the clock genes and proteins are similar across species, allowing researchers to make important findings about human circadian processes by studying the clock components of organisms like fruit flies, bread mold and plants.
Whether were awake or asleep, our clocks keep ticking.While they might get temporarily thrown off by changes in light or temperature, our clocks usually can reset themselves.
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Metabolism And Weight Gain
Melatonin binds to receptors in the pancreas to suppress insulin secretion. Its thought the main reason is to keep blood glucose levels steady during an overnight fast .
Insulin plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism, weight gain, and insulin resistance is the mechanism in type-II diabetes. . Diabetes insipidus has been noted to occur with pineal tumors. Melatonin is also known to reduce levels of leptin, the hormone that shifts the body to store fat.
People who eat diets high in simple sugars and carbohydrates may affect their melatonin levels. Insulin allows clearance of all amino acids except one, tryptophan.
Ii: The Pineal Gland As The Master Hormone Regulator In The Body
Previously, researchers thought the hypothalamus was the master conductor of the endocrine system. There are many reasons for the confusion regarding the function of the pineal gland.
The main reason was that the pineal and pituitary gland relationship was poorly known. Pituitary function was understood by diseases. If a disease caused reduced levels of hormone release from the gland, the endocrine pathway was established.
However, because pineal cysts or disorders dont produce hormone deficiency, it was assumed it didnt affect the endocrine system.
Today we now know the pineal gland sits above the hypothalamus to control endocrine hormones.
The pineal gland is the master gland of the endocrine system.
Pineal -> Hypothalamus -> Pituitary -> Endocrine glands
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How Does The Biological Clock Work
Your biological clock is a network of different natural rhythms throughout your body. They are controlled by a master clock in the brain that responds to things like light/darkness, temperature, and hormone levels. Hacking it can help you improve your health many times over.
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Circadian Rhythms And Menopause
Many people are most likely familiar with the fact that women going through menopause often experience insomnia. This is partially due to reduced levels of hormones like estrogen and progesterone, both of which have sleep protective benefits. However, insomnia associated with menopause may be additionally influenced by reduced levels of melatonin that have been shown to decrease with age, specifically as women approach menopause. As our circadian rhythms greatly influence the production of melatonin, as mentioned above, experts have proposed that the disturbance of the circadian system is of substantial relevance, both in regard to the sleep-disturbing symptoms and to the direct impairment of sleep regulation in menopausal and postmenopausal women.
It has been additionally observed that a reduction in melatonin is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Night shift work reportedly increases this risk, possibly due to melatonin suppression. Attempting to realign circadian rhythms may be an effective way to naturally boost melatonin secretion. This is supported by evidence showing that supplementation of melatonin may be helpful in treating menopausal symptoms, depending on the individual.
What can we do then, to realign our circadian clocks and harvest the benefits of being in sync with our natural circadian cycles?
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The Biological Clock Is Based On Three Synchronizers :
1. Melatonin, also called the sleep hormone, which is secreted by the pituitary gland and resets the body with its environment.
2. Light if it is received by the eye receptors in a sufficient quantity and if it is made up of good wave lengths
3. Lastly, social factors also serve as synchronizers.
The main circadian rhythm is the alternation of wake/sleep but other rhythms exist which vary from day to day : body temperature, our cortisol level, melatonin secretion, etc…
The body also searches for a temporal balance between itself and the outside world. When our internal clock is no longer synchronized with the actual time, a pathological situation follows, of which the principal symptoms are trouble sleeping, waking up and temperament.
Discover how circadian rhythms work
with Roland Pec – Sleep specialist and chrono-therapist
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