Sunday, March 3, 2024

What Is Sunshine In Geography

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Notable Knolls In The World

Sun 101 | National Geographic

Although a knoll is a small geographical feature compared to a hill, mountain or a butte, it is still notable depending on an occurrence. For example, John F. Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States was assassinated near a knoll. The knoll, now known as the grassy knoll, is located on the north side of Elm Street. In some countries road sign a blind knoll is put on roads to warn motorists of a knoll ahead which might not be visible to a speeding driver.

What Is The Amount Of Sunlight In The Grasslands

The amount of sunlight that is available to grasslands depends on the latitude in which the grassland is located. Tropical savanna lies at lower latitudes than temperate prairies, so light from the sun strikes the ground there at a more-direct angle, delivering more energy per unit area than elsewhere.

In the tropics, each square meter of ground can receive as much as 6 kilowatt-hours of energy every day. Northern latitudes and areas where cloud cover is common, receive less. Above 40 degrees, which is approximately the latitude of Boston, the energy available per square meter drops to only 3.6 kilowatt-hours per day.

What Climate Zones Does Spain Have

Climate and weather Overall, the country has three main climate zones: the Mediterranean climate from the southern Atlantic coastal region to Andalusia, as well as the northern climate. The weather is mild and the days are long, making these places ideal for all-year-round travel. Located in the south-eastern quarter of the country, it is semi-arid.

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Resource Resistance And Neutral Stuff:

There is a total antagonistic relationship between resource and resistancelike light and shade. This inverse relationship is the key issue in the overall scheme of resource creation. Anything or any process that restricts substance becoming resource is called neutral stuff. Fertility of soil is resource but barrenness is resistance. Rain may be considered resource but flood is resistance. In the same manner, knowledge is a key resource while ignorance is the worst type of resistance.

In this connection, the concept of neutral stuff has been introduced by Prof. Zimmermann. Anything or substance, be it tangible or intangible, should be either resource or neutral stuff. If anything or substance does not contain function ability or utility value, it is termed neutral stuff.

A neutral stuff should not necessarily remain neutral forever. What is considered neutral stuff today may transform into resource tomorrow. Mans knowledge, wisdom and technological innovation may transform neutral stuff into precious resource, e.g., petroleum was not considered resource until 1859, because man was quite ignorant about its uses while, with the development of science and technology, it is now considered as a mainstay for harnessing energy.

The process of economic development is directly proportional with the rate of conversion of neutral stuff into resource. The advancement of modern civilization is synonymous with the transformation of neutral stuff into resource.

What Instrument Is Used To Measure Sunshine


A solar radiometer is a device that accurately measures the sunlights intensity, according to NASA. Simple mercury thermostats were used to measure sunlight many years ago, but these have been deemed untrustworthy.

NASA says that without sunlight, life could not exist on earth. Plants would not be able to photosynthesize and all the water on earth would be frozen solid without the energy of sunlight. A solar radiometer measures how the intensity of sunlight changes during a cloudy day or throughout the year. In the northern hemisphere, the sun becomes less intense during the winter months and is the most intense during the summer.

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What Considered Geography

Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earths surface and the human societies spread across it. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there, and how they develop and change over time.

Explore The Earth System

Click the icons and bolded terms on this page to learn more about these process and phenomena. Alternatively, explore the Understanding Global Change Infographic and find new topics that are of interest and/or locally relevant to you.

To learn more about teaching the absorption and reflection of sunlight, visit the Teaching Resources page.

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Weathering And Erosion Process

A knoll can be formed by either the process of weathering or erosion or a combination of both. Variation in hardness of different parts and types of rocks leads to the formation of a knoll. The less hard parts of the rock erode away leaving the harder part protruding. The part that is more resistant to weathering and erosion is left topographically higher than the surrounding. As the weathering process continues wearing out the protruding part, a rounded top forms. Resistant rocks include basalt, conglomerate, limestone, sills, lava flows, quartzite, and sandstone. An example of a weaker type of rock is shale which is easily eroded by agents of weathering.

What Are The Climates Like In Spain

Travel Guide: Florida’s Climate and Geography

Mediterranean climates are generally characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters, which are generally expected. Meseta, the vast central plateau, is characterized by hot, dry summers and cold winters, which are continental influences. There is often a cloudy sky and frequent rain in the area.

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Earth System Models About The Absorption And Reflection Of Sunlight

This Earth system model is one way to represent the essential processes and interactions related to the absorption and reflection of sunlight. Hover over the icons for brief explanations click on the icons to learn more about each topic. the Earth system models on this page.

This model shows some of the changes to Earths surface and atmosphere that can affect the amount of sunlight that is absorbed or reflected. These changes influence the amount of heat that is re-radiated, and can also greatly influence the biosphere by altering the amount of sunlight available for photosynthesis.

Resource: Meaning Concept And Its Classification

After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Resource 2. Resource and Wealth 3. Some Discarded Ideas and Popular Misconceptions about Resources 4. Resource, Resistance and Neutral Stuff 5. Functional Theory of Resources 6. Dynamic Concept of Resource 7. Classification of Resources.

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How We Measure Radiation

Four different components of radiation in the atmosphere are measured routinely at some synoptic land stations:

  • Global radiation – total downwelling short-wave radiation , measured on a horizontal surface
  • Diffuse radiation – global radiation minus the direct component from the sun, also measured on a horizontal surface
  • Direct radiation – radiation coming from the sun and not the rest of the sky, measured at normal incidence
  • Long wave radiation – downwelling infra-red wavelengths from 4 µm upwards

Global radiation is measured by a pyranometer. Measurement of the diffuse components requires a tracking device that ensures that the sun is obscured by a ring or a tracking shading device and is only undertaken at a few principal radiation stations. All instruments operate by directing incoming radiation onto the black-painted upper surface of a thermopile. This generates a temperature gradient across the thermopile which in turn produces a voltage proportional to the intensity of the radiation.

The correct exposure of any radiation or sunshine instrument at the observing site is very important.

Ideally the horizon should be level in all directions, although the poleward arc is less important for sunshine and direct radiation measurements. In practice this is rarely the case and sites need to be assessed and graded according to the distribution of obstacles around the horizon.

Cbse Notes Class 8 Geography Chapter 4


The word agriculture is derived from the Latin words ager or agri meaning soil and culture meaning, cultivation. Agriculture is a primary activity that includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. In the world, 50% of persons are engaged in agricultural activity. Two-thirds of Indias population is still dependent on agriculture. Further details about this concept can be drawn from Chapter 4 of CBSE Class 8 Geography. We have also provided CBSE Notes Class 8 Geography Chapter 4-Agriculture for the students to prepare most competently for the exam.

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What Is The Climate In Australia Like

Australias northern region is more tropical, with hot summers and humid winters, while its southern region is cooler, with mild summers and cool, sometimes rainy winters, in contrast to the northern region. Australias hottest months are December and January, while its coldest months are July and August.

How Does Energy Flow Through An Ecosystem

Organisms within an ecosystem are classed as producers, consumers or decomposers. Energy flows through these organisms within the ecosystem.

Producers, such as trees, produce food and begin this cycle. Then, using energy from the sun, they produce food. They do this by photosynthesis. Most producers are plants, but some small organisms produce food through photosynthesis as well.

Producers are eaten by primary consumers that cannot produce food themselves, such as a giraffe. Primary consumers are herbivores which means they only eat plants. Secondary consumers are carnivores such as lions. In a simple food chain, secondary consumers eat primary consumers.

A food chain shows the relationships between feeding groups, illustrating energy flow from producer to tertiary consumer. The image below illustrates this.

A food chain

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What Is The Absorption And Reflection Of Sunlight

The Sun provides the Earth with most of its energy. Today, about 71% of the sunlight that reaches the Earth is absorbed by its surface and atmosphere. Absorption of sunlight causes the molecules of the object or surface it strikes to vibrate faster, increasing its temperature. This energy is then re-radiated by the Earth as longwave, infrared radiation, also known as heat. The more sunlight a surface absorbs, the warmer it gets, and the more energy it re-radiates as heat. This re-radiated heat is then absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases and clouds, and warm the atmosphere through the greenhouse effect.

Earths surfaces are better at absorbing solar radiation than air, especially surfaces that are dark in color. You can feel this on a cold winter day when the sunshine warms your face and the air around you remains cold. Your skin and your clothes also absorb solar radiation and convert it to heat. If you wear a black jacket, it will absorb more radiation and make you feel warmer than if you wear a white or light-colored jacket. Similarly, Earths different surfaces and parts of the atmosphere absorb solar radiation at different rates.

The Earth is unevenly heated because it is a sphere.

Snow and ice, airborne particles, and certain gases have high albedos and reflect different amounts of sunlight back into space. Low, thick clouds are reflective and can block sunlight from reaching the Earths surface, while high, thin clouds can contribute to the greenhouse effect.

What Is A Knoll In Geography

Renewable Energy 101 | National Geographic

A knoll is a British name that refers to a small natural hill. A knoll is tiny in size compared to an ordinary hill and is characterized by a round top. In some regions, it is also referred to as a hillock. Such mounds are found either individually or in clusters. Knoll formation is common in Great Britain and China although the feature can be found in other parts of the world such as America and Africa.

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The Basics Of Isolines And Contour Lines

Isolines, also referred to as contour lines, can be used to represent elevation on a map by connecting points of equal elevation, for instance. These imaginary lines provide a good visual representation of the terrain. As with all isolines, when contour lines lie close together, they represent a steep slope lines far apart represent a gradual slope.

But isolines can also be used to show other variables on a map besides terrain, and in other themes of study. For example, the first map of Paris used isolines to depict population distribution in that city, rather than physical geography. Maps using isolines and their variations have been used by astronomer Edmond Halley and by doctor John Snow to better understand an 1854 cholera epidemic in England.

This is a list of some common types of isolines used on maps to represent different features of the terrain, such as elevation and atmosphere, distances, magnetism and other visual representations not easily shown on a two-dimensional depiction. The prefix “iso-” means “equal.”

Is France Warm Or Cold

France generally enjoys cool winters and mild summers except along the Mediterranean where mild winters and hot summers are the norm. Average winter temperatures range from 32° F to 46° F and average summer temperatures from 61° F to 75° F. For the most warmth and sunshine go to the south of the country.

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Class 12 Practical Work In Geography Chapter 3 Ncert Textbook Questions Solved

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

Question1.Which one of the following map shows the population distribution? Choropleth maps

Which one of the following is best suited to represent the decadal growth of population? Line graph

Polygraph is constructed to represent: Only one variable More than two variables None of the aboveAnswer: More than two variables

Question1.Which one of the following maps is known as Dynamic Map? Dot map

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

Question 2.What is a thematic map?Answer:Maps drawn to study a particular theme like rainfall, temperature, soil type, etc. is called a thematic map. Thematic maps, graphs and diagrams serve a useful purpose in providing a comparison between the internal variations within the data of different characteristics represented.

Question 2.Differentiate between multiple bar diagram and compound bar diagram.Answer:Multiple Bar Diagram: Multiple bar diagrams are constructed to represent two or more than two variables for the purpose of comparison.For example, we can draw two bars one indicating literacy rate of males and other literacy rate of females.

Question 2.What are the requirements to construct a dot map?Answer:The dot maps are drawn to show the distribution of phenomena such as population, cattle, types of crops, etc. The dots of same size as per the chosen scale are marked over the given administrative units to highlight the patterns of distribution.


How Do Climate And Geography Vary Throughout The State

Sun And Stars

The climate of California varies widely from hot desert to alpine tundra, depending on latitude, elevation, and proximity to the coast. Californias coastal regions, the Sierra Nevada foothills, and much of the Central Valley have a Mediterranean climate, with warmer, drier weather in summer and cooler, wetter weather

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What Defines Climate

Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area. Weather can change from hour-to-hour, day-to-day, month-to-month or even year-to-year. A regions weather patterns, usually tracked for at least 30 years, are considered its climate.

Studying the climate helps us predict how much rain the next winter might bring, or how far sea levels will rise due to warmer sea temperatures. We can also see which regions are most likely to be affected by extreme weather, or which wildlife species are threatened by climate change.

How Is It Measured

Sunshine is measured with A device known as a Campbell – Stokes Sunshine Recorder. This device has a glass globe that focuses the Sun’s rays onto a piece of paper at the back that has hourly markings, . If there is sunshine then the concentrated rays of sunlight from the globe will leave burn marks on the paper thusly showing how many hours of sunshine there was.

Example of Campbell – Stokes Sunshine Recorder:

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Examples Of Sunshine In A Sentence

sunshinesunshinesunshinesunshineVoguesunshine Travel + Leisuresunshine clevelandsunshine WSJsunshine Los Angeles Timessunshine Detroit Free Presssunshine USA TODAYsunshine The Indianapolis Starsunshine courant.comsunshineTravel + LeisureLos Angeles Timessunshine San Diego Union-Tribunesunshine CBS Newssunshine EW.comsunshine Time

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘sunshine.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

What Is Climate In Geography

Solar System 101 | National Geographic

Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area. Weather can change from hour-to-hour, day-to-day, month-to-month or even year-to-year. A regions weather patterns, usually tracked for at least 30 years, are considered its climate. Photograph by Walter Meayers Edwards, National Geographic. Image.

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Some Discarded Ideas And Popular Misconceptions About Resources:

Since time immemorial, consciousness about resource is a part of both individual and society. In fact, when human beings began community life to attain security and opulence- individuals started to gather wealth and power for future resource creation. For the three basic necessities of survival food, shelter and clothingman had no other option but to be aware about the resources.

Ever since Industrial Revolution , the values, ethics, culture, community life, agrarian economy all received severe blow. New concepts of social welfare state, ultra-capitalism, economic colonialism affected human life. The increasing gap between haves and have-nots enhanced internal social tensions. To combat this, emergence of socialism, communism again increased the differences between different schools of thought.

According to the prevailing changes in society in different era, the concept of resources had also gone through changes in harmony with space and time.

The major popular misconceptions about resource in earlier periods were:

1. Substances or tangible things like coal, copper, petroleum etc. are resources.

2. Invisible or intangible aspects peace, culture, wisdom, policy, decisions, knowhow, knowledge, freedomcannot be considered as resource.

3. Only natural things or substances, freely bestowed by mother earth, can be considered resource. Resource cannot be created.

4. Human populations were not considered as resource.

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