What Is The Chemical Name For No3
The chemical name of NO3 is nitrate. A nitrate is a compound that contains the NO3- ion and carries a net charge of 1. The nitrate ion is a polyatomic ion, and its molecular mass is 62 grams per mole.
Compounds such as potassium nitrate , sodium nitrate and ammonium nitrate are nitrates. Compounds containing nitrates are used as fertilizers as they are highly soluble in water and contain nitrogen, which is needed by plants. Nitrates are used in the manufacture of explosives such as nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose. Sodium nitrate is used in the glass and ceramics industry. Nitrates are found naturally in the earths crust in the form of nitrate salts.
What Is The Formal Charge Of No3
The Lewis representation of NO3 is aligned in a way where the nitrogen atom is in the center and orbited by three oxygen atoms. The nitrogen has a positive charge because it has 4 bonding electrons 2 from the oxygen double bond and 1 from each of the N O bonds. The inner core of the electrons is associated with just 6 electrons instead of the 7 that are needed for electrical neutrality, meaning it has a positive charge overall.
Since the nitrogen atom has only 6 electrons total, it, therefore, has a formal positive charge. The oxygens which have double-bonds have a shared or owned eight electrons, so they are considered neutral. Finally, the single bound oxygen atoms have nine electrons linked with them, and they have a negative charge overall. This means the nitrate ion has an overall charge of -1.
To put this another way, each oxygen atom has 2 electrons within their inner shell, and 6 electrons within the second shell of the atom. Oxygen has room for up to eight electrons in its second shell. The three oxygen atoms want to have 6 electrons. Meanwhile, nitrogen has 7 electrons total, five in the second shell and two electrons in its inner shell. Like oxygen, nitrogen has room for more electrons in a second shell, specifically, there is room for three more.
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Formulas For Ionic Compounds
- Write the chemical formula for a simple ionic compound.
- Recognize polyatomic ions in chemical formulas.
We have already encountered some chemical formulas for simple ionic compounds. A chemical formula is a concise list of the elements in a compound and the ratios of these elements. To better understand what a chemical formula means, we must consider how an ionic compound is constructed from its ions.
Ionic compounds exist as alternating positive and negative ions in regular, three-dimensional arrays called crystals ). As you can see, there are no individual \ âparticlesâ in the array instead, there is a continuous lattice of alternating sodium and chloride ions. However, we can use the ratio of sodium ions to chloride ions, expressed in the lowest possible whole numbers, as a way of describing the compound. In the case of sodium chloride, the ratio of sodium ions to chloride ions, expressed in lowest whole numbers, is 1:1, so we use \ symbol and one \ symbol) to represent the compound. Thus, \ is the chemical formula for sodium chloride, which is a concise way of describing the relative number of different ions in the compound. A macroscopic sample is composed of myriads of NaCl pairs each individual pair called a formula unit. Although it is convenient to think that \ crystals are composed of individual \ units, Figure \ shows that no single ion is exclusively associated with any other single ion. Each ion is surrounded by ions of opposite charge.
Summing Up Formal Charge:
A formal charge can be defined as the electrical charge of an atom within a molecule, and calculated by determining the total number of valence electrons minus half the total electrons located in a shared bond minus the number of electrons not in the molecule. You can use a formal charge to estimate the distribution of electrical charges in a molecule.
The meeting of two personalities is like the contact of two chemical substances: if there is any reaction, both are transformed. Carl Jung
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What Is A Formal Charge
A formal charge, or chemical charge, is the charge that an atom possesses in a molecule, assuming that the electrons found within the chemical bonds are all equally shared amongst the atoms that make up the molecule. This means that relative electronegativityis not a factor.
In order to calculate a formal charge, electrons are assigned to individual atoms within the molecule based on two different rules: bonding electrons must be divided equally across the different bonded atoms, and non-bonding electrons are considered part of the atom they are located at.
The equation for determining the formal charge can be described as follows:
Formal Charge = eV eN eB/2
- eV = The total number of valence electrons the atom possesses as if the atom were isolated from the rest of the molecule.
- eN = The total number of unbound valence electrons the atom has when positioned within the molecule.
- eB = The total number of electrons that are shared by the bonds that connect atoms to other atoms within the molecule.
Nitrate In Drinking Water: Health Effects
Nitrate is one of the most frequent groundwater pollutants in rural areas. It needs to be regulated in drinking water basically because excess levels can cause methaemoglobinaemia, or “blue baby” disease. Although nitrate levels that affect babies are not dangerous for older children and adults, they do indicate the possible presence of other more serious residential or agricultural pollutants, such as bacteria or pesticides.
The origin of nitrate in groundwater is primarily from fertilizers, septic systems, and manure storage or spreading operations. Fertilizer nitrogen not taken up by plants, volatilized, or carried away by surface runoff ends up in the groundwater in the form of nitrate. This makes the nitrogen unavailable to the plants, and can also raise the concentration in groundwater above the admissible levels for drinking water quality. Nitrogen from manure can be similarly lost from fields, barnyards, or storage locations. Septic systems remove only half of the nitrogen in wastewater, leaving the other half to leach to groundwater, this way raising groundwater nitrate concentrations.
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Facts About No3 Nitrate
Nitrate is a salt comprised of nitric acid, and different alcohols, as well as esters, are sometimes referred to as nitric acid. Nitrate ions have a molecular mass of 63, and they are comprised of one nitrogen atom linked with three exactly the same oxygen atoms. Take note that nitrates are different from nitrites, which are salts made from nitrous acids, not nitric acid. Organic compounds that contain the nitro functional group are referred to as nitro compounds. Nitrate ions can be quite dangerous and toxic, and it affects humans through the process of nitrate toxicosis a condition where iron atoms found in the bloods hemoglobin are oxidized and become unable to carry oxygen.
A sample of sodium nitrate, or Chilean saltpeater. Photo: By Ondej Mangl Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2899599
Nitrates are rather commonly found in large deposits, especially deposits of nitratine. These nitratine deposits act as major fonts of sodium nitrate, also known as Chile Saltpeter. Nitrites are made by bacteria, and the nitrate compounds that this bacteria produces were historically used for gunpowder and produced by fermentation. Nitrates are also used in fertilizer because of their biodegradable properties and their high solubility. The primary nitrate fertilizers include calcium salts, potassium, ammonium, and sodium. Nitric acid is also produced during lightning strikes, owing to the interactions between water vapor and nitrogen dioxide.
What Does No3 Stand For In Chemistry
In inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of nitric acid . In organic chemistry the esters of nitric acid and various alcohols are called nitrates. The nitrate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula NO3- and a molecular mass of 62.
What is the common name of NO3?
In organic chemistry the esters of nitric acid and various alcohols are called nitrates . The nitrate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula NO3- and a molecular mass of 62.
Is NO3 ionic or molecular?
Answer: NaNO3 is an ionic bond. What is chemical bond, ionic bond, Molecular bond? Chemical bond. A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
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Construction Of No3 Lewis Dot Structure
1. In the ion NO3, there is 1 atom of nitrogen and 3 atoms of oxygen. It also has one negative charge.
2. Nitrogen and oxygen belong to periods 5A and 6A groups respectively in the periodic table. Hence, oxygen has 6 and nitrogen has 5 valence electrons in their outer shell.
3. Notice the number of valence electrons.
Oxygen with 3 atoms- 6 * 3 = 18
Due to a negative charge, one more valence electron gets added: 1
5 + 18 + 1 = 24 are total valence electrons
4. To occupy the central position, the atom needs to be less electronegative. After reading the periodic table, nitrogen is least electronegative than oxygen, and therefore, it becomes the central atom of the structure.
5. Begin the framing dot structure of nitrate by making 3 single bonds between 3 atoms of oxygen and nitrogen. 6 valence electrons are used.
6. From the above information, the structure has
- bond pairs 3 pairs
- lone pairs 9 pairs
7. Firstly, complete the octet of the terminal atoms. From the remaining 18 valence electrons, arrange them in such a way that each oxygen atom receives 6 valence electrons and form 3 lone pairs.
8. After noticing nitrogen, it has only 6 valence electrons. To complete its octet, remove two electrons from one of the oxygen atoms and make one more bond from a single to a double bond.
9. The structure results in 2 single bonds and 1 double bond between nitrogen and oxygen atoms as shown in below image.
Nitrate Nitrogen Or Nitrate Know The Difference
I just got the forage test results back from the lab and the nitrate score was 3,000. Am I in trouble?
Every year I get multiple questions similar to this one. Unfortunately, with just this information Im unable to give a useful answer. So the first question I ask is Was this reported as nitrates or as nitrate nitrogen?
Why is it important to know the difference between nitrate nitrogen and nitrates? Well, using the example above, if the score was 3,000 parts per million of nitrate nitrogen, then the forage may have a nitrate concentration that is almost 50 percent higher than what we often consider to be the potentially toxic level for nitrate nitrogen. It would be risky for cattle to eat this forage without taking some precautions.
However, if the score was 3,000 parts per million of nitrate there should be no worries since this is less than one-third the danger level for nitrates. So the same score or value can range from quite dangerous to perfectly safe depending on how it is reported.
Nitrate = Nitrate Nitrogen x 4.43
Nitrate Nitrogen = Nitrate x 0.226
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What Is The Hybridization Of Nitrate
The easiest way to determine the hybridization of nitrate is by drawing the Lewis structure. After drawing the diagram, we need to count the number of electron pairs and the bonds present in the central nitrogen atom. In NO3 we can see that the central atom is bonded with three oxygen atoms and there are no lone pairs. If we check the Lewis structure further then one of the nitrogen-oxygen bonds is a double bond and two are single bonds.
During bonding, nitrogens three sp2 orbitals overlap with one s orbital of the oxygen atom. As for the p orbital of nitrogen, it forms a double bond with three oxygen atoms where three pairs of electrons are shared between the p orbital of the nitrogen and one p orbital of each oxygen atoms. The oxygen atoms will also have two p orbitals which will accommodate lone pair of electrons.
No3molecular Geometry And Bond Angles
In nitrate, there is one central atom which is surrounded by three identically-bonded oxygen atoms which lie at the corners of a triangle and at the same one-dimensional plane. In essence, nitrate has 3 electron domains and no lone pairs. Therefore, NO3molecular geometry is slightly bent and is trigonal planar. The bond angle is 120o.
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Nitrate Drinking Water Standards
Nitrate in drinking water is measured either in terms of the amount of nitrogen present or in terms of both nitrogen and oxygen. The federal standard for nitrate in drinking water is 10 mg/l nitrate-N, or 50 mg/l nitrate-NO3, when the oxygen is measured as well as the nitrogen. Unless otherwise specified, nitrate levels usually refer only to the amount of nitrogen present, and the usual standard, therefore, is 10 mg/l.
Short-term exposure to drinking water with a nitrate level above the health standard is a potential health problem especially for babies. Babies drink large quantities of water considering their body weight, especially if water is used to mix powdered or concentrated recipes or juices. Also, their digestive systems are inmature, and thus more likely to allow the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. The nitrite in the digestive tract of babies can cause methaenoglobinaemia.
Molecular Geometry Of No3
As per VSEPR theory, you conclude that NO3 is sp2 hybridized.
The model also states that the molecular geometry of the compound is trigonal planar with each orbital equidistant at 120 degrees shaped on a planar region.
The formula AX N says that A is the central atom, X is the atom attached to the central atom, is the number of atoms bonded, and N is the number of nonbonding electron pairs.
Ignoring N at the moment as there is no lone pair of electrons, the formula becomes AX .
Hence, the formula directs to the shape of the trigonal planar.
The trigonal planar shape of the NO3 molecule creates symmetry across the bonds NO bonds and as a result, the three dipoles created by NO bonds get canceled by each other, and the overall dipole of NO3 is zero.
Therefore, the NO3 is a non-polar molecule.
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Formal Charges And Lewis Structures
Examples of formal charges for ozone and a nitrate ion. Photo: By Jü Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=12017486
Lewisstructures are also called electron structures, and they are diagrams which show possible bonds between the atoms that make up a molecule, as well as any electron pairs which are unbonded. The lines in a Lewis structure are drawn between atoms, and they are used to indicate the presence of chemical bonds. Single bonds are represented with single lines, while naturally double bonds are represented with double lines. Dots are occasionally drawn next to atoms to indicate the presence of unbonded electrons, and a pair of dots are representative of excess electrons.
Resonance structures are all of the possible different Lewis structures that a molecule might have. Calculating the formal charge for a molecule allows you to determine which resonance structure is more likely to be the molecules correct structure, and the Lewis structure which is considered the most correct will be the structure that has formal charges distributed evenly all throughout the molecule. When determining a formal charge as it relates to resonance structures, the sum of every one of the formal charges must equal the molecules total charge.
How Do We Consume Nitrate: Nitrate In Our Diet
Nitrate occurs naturally in many vegetables, such as lettuce and spinach, and is produced by microbes in the human gut, with the result that only a small part of the nitrate in the body comes from drinking water. The intake of nitrate from vegetables is unlikely to cause health problems because very little of this nitrate is converted to nitrite. Meat products account for less than 10 percent of nitrate in the diet, but 60 to 90 percent of the nitrite consumed. This is basically because sodium nitrite is added to foods such as hot dogs, bacon, or ham. Fruits, grains, and dairy products contribute almost no nitrate or nitrite to people’s diets.
In the European standards for drinking water, 2nd edition, published by the WHO after the meeting in Geneva 1970, we find the following:
Constituents in water which, if present in excessive amounts, may give rise to trouble:
Nature of trouble which may arise
Approximate level above which trouble may arise
Danger of infantile methaemoglobinaemia if the water is consumed by infants.
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Examples Of Formal Charge
Lets look at an example of formal charge calculation:
Carbon dioxide, CO2, is a neutral molecule that possesses 16 electrons in its valence shell. Drawing the Lewis structure of the molecule reveals that it can be sketched out in three different ways. The carbon atom could potentially be joined to the oxygen atoms surrounding it with double bonds, or the carbon atom could be joined to one of the oxygen atoms with a double bond and to the other oxygen atom with a single bond. Finally, the carbon atom could be joined to both oxygen atoms with single bonds.
Example of calculations for formal charge of carbon dioxide. Photo: By Bkwan740 at English Wikipedia Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Ronhjones using CommonsHelper., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=16247065
Notice that in the case of carbon dioxide, every possible formation of the molecule has a formal charge of zero. In the first case carbon and oxygen both have a charge of zero, resulting in zero overall charges. In the second case, carbon has a positive 1 charge while the oxygen double bond has a charge of zero and oxygen single bond has a charge of -1 resulting in the net formal charge of zero. Carbon has a charge of +2 while the oxygens have a -1 charge each, again resulting in a formal charge of zero.
The beauty of chemistry is that I can design my own molecular world. Ben L. Feringa
Lets examine another example of a formal charge.