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What Is Geography Of Pakistan

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Geography: The Borders Of Pakistan

Geography Now! PAKISTAN

Pakistan is located in South Asia and is at the junction of Central Asia and Middle East, which gives its location great significance. Pakistan’s total land border is 6,774 kilometres long and it borders four countries. Pakistan borders India in the east, Afghanistan and Iran in the west and China is situated at the northeast. While surrounded by land from three sides, the Arabian Sea lies in the south. Here we will focus on Pakistan’s international borders and some interesting facts about them.

Pakistan-ChinaThe border between Pakistan and China is nearly 523 kilometres long and is situated in the northeast of Pakistan. A number of agreements took place between 1961 and 1965 in which the borderline was determined between the two countries. The famous agreement called the Sino-Pakistan Agreement or the Sino-Pakistan Frontier Agreement, was passed in 1963 between Pakistan and China, according to which both countries agreed on the border between them.

Pakistan-IndiaThe Radcliffe Line became the official border between Pakistan and India on August 17, 1947. As the border was established by Sir Cyril Radcliffe the chairman of the Indo-Pakistan Boundary Commission therefore it was named after him. The Pakistan-India border is almost 2,912 kilometres long. When discussing Indo-Pak border, Wagah is an important place for both countries. It is the only road border crossing between India and Pakistan, and lies on the Grand Trunk Road between the cities of Amritsar and Lahore.

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Labeled Pakistan Map With Cities

Karachi is although the largest city of Pakistan, however, there are tons of other cities in the country. It includes the names such as Islamabad, Lahore, Multan, Peshawar, and the list goes on.

We are here compiling this specific cities map of Pakistan where the geographical enthusiasts can find all the cities of this country. Subsequently, they can pick the desired city and explore the specific geography of such a city. Scholars can also share the map with the other scholars in the community learning of Pakistans geography.

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Geography: Mountains Of Pakistan

Pakistan is blessed with a long range of mountains that are an attraction for geologists and mountain climbers from all over the world. Pakistan has more than a hundred peaks that are above 7,000 metres. Out of the world’s 14 highest peaks, four are in Pakistan. These highest peaks are situated mainly in the Karakoram range. This article discusses some of the famous mountains found in Pakistan.

Hindu Kush

In the north-west there is a mountain range called Hindu Kush. Most parts of the high Hindu Kush range , are located in northern Pakistan and Afghanistan. This range is also present in Ghizar, Yasin Valley, and Ishkoman in Pakistans Northern Areas. Tirich Mir, located in Chitral is the highest point in the Hindu Kush range.

Hindu Raj

The Hindu Raj is located in the northern region of Pakistan, between the Hindu Kush and the Karakoram ranges. Koyo Zom is its highest peak.


The Karakoram is a mountain range present in India, Pakistan, and China. The Karakoram range has more than 60 peaks which are above 7,000 metres . This range includes K2, which is the second highest peak of the world standing at 8,611 metres .

This is the second highest mountain in the world, and a part of the Karakoram range extending from the Himalayan range. It is located on the bordering parts of Northern areas of Pakistan and China. Due to the difficult ascend of this mountain, K2 is also called Savage Mountain.

Nanga Parbat

Safed Koh


Salt Range


Barrages Bridges Levees And Dams

Pakistan Maps

In Pakistan currently there are six on the Indus: , , , , and . Another new barrage called “” is planned as a terminal barrage on the Indus River. There are some bridges on river Indus, such as, Dadu Moro Bridge, Larkana Khairpur Indus River Bridge, Thatta-Sujawal bridge, Jhirk-Mula Katiar bridge and recently planned Kandhkot-Ghotki bridge.

The entire left bank of Indus river in Sind province is protected from river flooding by constructing around 600 km long . The right bank side is also leveed from to . In response to the levees construction, the river has been rapidly over the last 20 years leading to breaches upstream of barrages and inundation of large areas.

in Pakistan is constructed on the Indus River, while the controversial is also being constructed on Indus river. Pakistan is also building .

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Effects Of Climate Change On The River

The contains the world’s third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term, but issued a strong warning:

“Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world… In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows.. In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines of the Indus River. Once they vanish, water supplies in Pakistan will be in peril.”

“There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus,” says David Grey, the World Bank’s senior water advisor in South Asia. “But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change,” and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. “Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert , without the river, there would be no life? I don’t know the answer to that question,” he says. “But we need to be concerned about that. Deeply, deeply concerned.”

U.S. diplomat said, shortly before his death in 2010, that he believed that falling water levels in the Indus River “could very well precipitate World War III.”

Labeled Map Of Pakistan Outline

In its geographical terms, Pakistan is one of the most diverse lands in the world due to its massive geographical characteristics. Its the worlds 33rd largest country in the terms of its land which is humongous in itself. The country contains diverse geography of plain fertile lands, mountains, Thar desert, rivers, and almost everything else. One can witness and explore the high varieties in the geographical structure of the country as part of its territory. Our labeled map provides the region-specific geography of the country for ease of learning.

Getting the labeled map of the country can be the wise choice for all the geographical enthusiasts who are willing to learn its geography. With the labeled map we make geographical learning as easier as it can ever get. There are labels on the map to define and explain each and every geographical location on the map. For instance, it covers the systematic representation of all the cities, capital, and other geographical spots of Pakistan. One can easily maneuver across the whole geography of Pakistan by using our labeled map.

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Environmental Issues In Pakistan

Pakistan is confronted with severe environmental issues. One of the concerns is a fault zone that runs directly through the region. Pakistans regions are divided by the Eurasian tectonic plate and the Indian tectonic plate. Shifting tectonic plates cause earthquakes there have been several major ones in Pakistans recent history. For instance, an earthquake of 7.6 magnitude in 2005 in the northern region of the North West Frontier claimed about eighty-nine thousand lives in Pakistan and a few thousand others in neighboring India and Afghanistan. About 150 aftershocks were felt the next day, many of which were over the 6.0 level on the Richter scale. This particular event in 2005 was listed as the fourteenth most devastating earthquake on record at the time. It left over three million people without a home in Pakistan alone and more people were left homeless in neighboring areas. Hardest hit outside of Pakistan was the portion of Kashmir that is controlled by India. Many countries, including the United States, stepped up and supported the aid effort to reach people in the devastated region. Major earthquakes that cause devastation for the large populations here are common along this tectonic plate boundary.

Figure 9.22 Helping Pakistanis

The U.S. Army Helping Pakistanis CC BY 2.0.

Geography And Climate Of Pakistan

Pakistan Geography/Pakistan Administrative Units

Pakistan has a varied topography that consists of the flat, Indus plain in the east and the Balochistan plateau in the west. In addition, the Karakoram Range, one of the world’s highest mountain ranges, is in the north and northwest part of the country. The world’s second-highest mountain, K2, is also within Pakistan’s borders, as is the famous 38-mile Baltoro Glacier. This glacier is considered one of the longest glaciers outside of the Earth’s polar regions.

The climate of Pakistan varies with its topography, but most of it consists of hot, dry desert, while the northwest is temperate. In the mountainous north, though, the climate is harsh and considered Arctic.

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Economics And Land Use In Pakistan

Pakistan is considered a developing nation and has a highly underdeveloped economy. This is largely because of its decades of political instability and a lack of foreign investment. Textiles are Pakistan’s main export, but it also has industries that include food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, and shrimp. Agriculture in Pakistan includes cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton, and eggs. Resources include natural gas reserves and limited petroleum.

Labeled Pakistan Map With States

Well, Pakistan officially comprises four provinces and a single federal territory as part of its geography. Dividing the overall geography of a country in the form of provinces is always a decent way to arrange the geography of a country. We here have this specific map of Pakistan that comes with all its provinces in one place.

It provides the best possible visualization of all the provinces to facilitate the systematic learning of all provinces of the country. With this map, all our readers can get to understand each and every province of Pakistan in a systematic manner.

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Labeled Map Of Pakistan With Capital

Islamabad is the official capital of Pakistan that we can find on the overall map of the country. However, for most geographical enthusiasts, it can quite become a task to spot and learn the geography of a countrys specific geography. Keeping the same thing in our consideration we have developed this specific map of Pakistans capital cities.

This map covers all the capital cities of the country for both Pakistan and its all provinces. The map alone is enough to render ample learning of the countrys capitals in the understanding of all the enthusiasts.

Provinces And Territories Map Of Pakistan


Pakistan is divided into four administrative provinces, two autonomous territories and one federal territory. The administrative provinces are: Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Gilgit Baltistan and Azad Jammu & Kashmir are the two autonomous territories while Islamabad Capital Territory is a federal territory of Pakistan. These administrative provinces are divided into divisions which are further subdivided into districts and a number of smaller subdivisions.

Located at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau, in south western Pakistan Balochistan is the largest of the four provinces of Pakistan occupying an area of 347,190 sq. km. Islamabad the capital city of Pakistan is located in the northern part of the country, along the Himalayan foothills and in The Islamabad Capital Territory. Islamabad is a planned city with high standards of living and is also the 9th largest city of Pakistan.

Karachi is the largest and most populous city of Pakistan. Located in the southern part of the country, on the Arabian Sea coast Karachi serves as Pakistans maritime port and the countrys economic center.

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Geography: The Rivers Of Pakistan

The river system of Pakistan originates from the snow-covered Himalayan and the Karakoram range. The system comprises mainly five rivers that pass mostly through the Punjab province therefore the name ‘Punjab’ ‘panj’ meaning five and ‘aab’ meaning water. The five rivers of Pakistan are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sultej and Indus. Jhelum

River Jhelum is nearly 774 kilometres long and is the tributary of River Chenab. Jhelum originates from the south-eastern part of Kashmir valley and flows through Srinagar before entering Pakistan.

Along its journey, it is joined by the largest tributary of the Neelam River near Muzaffarabad. River Jhelum also has many dams and barrages constructed on it, with one of the dams being Mangla which is the world’s largest earth-fill dam and was constructed in 1967. It has a storage capacity of nearly 5.9 million acre-feet. Rasul Barrage is also built on Jhelum River as well as Trimmu Barrage.


Sutlej flows through the historic crossroad region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. It is located north of the Vindhya Range, south of the Hindu Kush segment of the Himalayas, and east of the Central Sulaiman Range in Pakistan. Some 550 kilometres long, Sutlej is also called as the Red River.




The Indus river is the longest river in Pakistan, originating from the Himalayan region. It is also the world’s 21st largest river in terms of annual water flow. With a total length of 3,180 kilometres, it is also Pakistan’s lifeline.

Recent Changes And Detailed Demographic Data

Pakistan Bureau of Statistics released religious data of Pakistan Census 2017 on 19 May 2021. 96.47% are Muslims, followed by 2.14% Hindus, 1.27% Christians, 0.09% Ahmadis and 0.02% others.

These are some maps of religious minority groups. The 2017 census showed an increasing share in Hinduism, mainly caused by a higher birth rate among the impoverished Hindus of Sindh province. This census also recorded Pakistan’s first Hindu-majority district, called Umerkot District, where Muslims were previously the majority.

On the other hand, Christianity in Pakistan, while increasing in raw numbers, has fallen significantly in percentage terms since the last census. This is due to Pakistani Christians having a significantly lower fertility rate than Pakistani Muslims and Pakistani Hindus as well as them being concentrated in the most developed parts of Pakistan, Lahore District , Islamabad Capital Territory , and Northern Punjab.

The Ahmadiyya movement shrunk in size between 1998 and 2017, while remaining concentrated in Lalian Tehsil, Chiniot District, where approximately 13% of the population is Ahmadiyya.

Here are some maps of Pakistan‘s religious minority groups as of the 2017 census by district:

Virtually all people not belonging to one of these minority groups were Sunni or Shia Muslim, with the most religiously homogeneous areas found in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

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Discussion And Study Questions

Why Pakistan’s Geography Sucks
  • What happened to East Pakistan? Why did its name change?
  • Why does Pakistan have a forward capital? Where is it? Where did the capital used to be?
  • Compare the population density of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and the United States.
  • What are the four main provinces of Pakistan? How are they different from each other?
  • How is Bangladesh affected by the summer monsoon? How much rain can it receive annually?
  • What are the main environmental problems in Pakistan? In Bangladesh?
  • What type of government does Pakistan have? What is the law based on?
  • How could both countries address their population growth situation?
  • Who was the first woman prime minister of Pakistan? What happened to her?
  • How has microcredit aided in the economic development of Bangladesh?
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    Religion And Politics In Pakistan

    Today most of the people living in Pakistan are Muslim. About 85 percent of the Muslim population in Pakistan is Sunni and about 15 percent of the Muslim population is Shia, which is consistent with the percentages of the two Islamic divisions worldwide. Islam is considered the state religion of Pakistan. The state is a federal republic with a parliamentarian style of government. As an Islamic state following the Sharia laws of the Koran, it has been a challenge for Pakistan to try to balance instituting democratic reforms while staying true to fundamental Islamic teachings. Pakistan has held elections for government leaders, and the status of women has improved. Women have held many governmental and political positions, including prime minister. The military has been a foundation of power for those in charge. As a result of weak economic conditions throughout the country, it has been the military that has received primary attention and is the strongest institution within the government. Pakistan has demonstrated its nuclear weapons capability in recent years, which established it as a major player in regional affairs.

    Benazir Bhutto: The First Female Prime Minister of Pakistan

    Figure 9.21

    Wikimedia Commons public domain.

    Where Is Pakistan

    Pakistan is a sovereign country in Southern Asia, located both in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres of the Earth. It borders four countries. Pakistan shares an eastern border with India, a north eastern border with China, a south western border with Iran and a western and northern border with Afghanistan The Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman border Pakistan to the south.

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