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What Is Agglomeration In Geography

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Agglomeration Of Industries And Businesses

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Agglomeration also happens on a smaller scale. Within a city, certain businesses and industries will often locate themselves in close proximity to capitalise on the benefits of agglomeration within a city. Examples of this are the CBD district of cities, where financial companies desire to locate, or the ports and airports, where shipping companies locate themselves. Each does so to ensure they are in the most profitable location. In some cases, a particular industry can agglomerate to one city. For example, in the USA

– Financial Services, New York

– Technology, San Francisco

– Casino and Tourism, Las Vegas

– Cinema, Los Angeles

– Steel Manufacturing, Pittsburgh

These agglomerations of industry occur due to the benefits of proximity to customers, resources, businesses, and service. This is known as clusters and their benefits are described below.



Transport Costs



Proximity to other industries of a similar nature helps to enhance the rate of learning and technological advancements. It is for this reason the areas like Silicon Valley in California have become industry hubs for technology companies. They have better access to companies with similar or supporting technology that can help to advance their own company’s development and progression. Additionally, linking back to employment, industry agglomerations attract potential employees of that industry, making it easier to find workers who best fit the company.


Additional Effects Of Agglomeration

Agglomeration has a wide range of direct and indirect effects on the geography and economy of a city. The benefits of improved economic output are apparent. Businesses can be more productive and more profitable. However, there is a range of benefits to agglomeration that isn’t purely based on the economic success of a business. Customers also tend to see economic value in agglomeration. Increased competition is a small area that often causes product or service prices to drop in an attempt to one-up the competition. Customers will also have a wider range of products and services available in a single location, making it easier to shop around for the best deal.

Agglomeration processes can also have some undesirable effects. An attraction of customers, employees and shipping in a localised area may cause significant traffic problems if the network is not effectively managed and developed. This can result in a stagnation of the agglomeration process as businesses and industries avoid the negative economic effects of traffic. In a similar fashion, agglomeration can create a reliance on some specific links in a network. If an accident were to happen on a major road into the city, or if a train line was down into the CBD, then there would be significant network effects. In a city that has an evener distribution of industry, this would not have the same economic effect.

Agglomeration: Ap Human Geography Crash Course Review

  • The Albert Team

When we talk about a large city, there are various aspects to consider. For example, there is a city center, and there is the region that borders the city. The suburbs and the urban areas coexist, and thats where the term agglomeration comes from. Located as part of the city center as well as right outside the city center, an agglomeration is a built-up area of a city region. In this AP® Human geography review, we will discuss about what agglomeration is and its importance.

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Empirical Magnitude Of Urban Benefits And Costs

We have seen that agglomeration economies are essential to understand why cities exist at all, and their magnitude fundamentally affects city sizes and patterns of firm and worker location. Thus, quantifying agglomeration economies has been a key aim of the empirical literature in urban economics, especially in recent years.

Agglomeration economies imply that firms located in larger cities are able to produce more output with the same inputs. Thus, perhaps the most natural and direct way to quantify agglomeration economies is to estimate the elasticity of some measure of average productivity with respect to some measure of local scale, such as employment density or total population. This elasticity corresponds to parameter in the model just presented. In early work, Sveikauskas regressed log output per worker in a cross-section of city-industries on log city population and found an elasticity of about 0.06. More recent studies have obtained estimates of around 0.020.05, after dealing with three key potential problems in the original approach.

Moretti Enrico, in, 2011

Agglomeration And Urban Inequality

Category: Agglomeration Economies

Agglomeration economies affect all talents to the same degree in the previous subsection. This is counterfactual. Using individual data, Wheeler and Baum-Snow and Pavan estimate that the skill premium and the returns to experience of US workers increase with city size.62 A theoretical framework that delivers a positive relationship between city size and the returns to productivity is provided in Davis and Dingel and Behrens and Robert-Nicoud . We return to the latter in some detail in Section 4.5.3. To the best of our knowledge, the assignment mechanism similar to Rosen’s 1981 superstar effect of the formerwith markets suitably reinterpreted as urban marketsand the procompetitive effects that skew market shares toward the most productive agents of the latter are the only mechanisms to deliver this theoretical prediction.

To account for this, we now modify as follows:

These expression differ from and in two ways. First, y is log-supermodular in size and talent in but it is only supermodular in : simple supermodularity is not enough to drive complementarity between individual talent and city size. Second, talent is normally distributed and we assume that the composition of talent is constant across citiesthat is, Fc = F for all c.

Combining and implies that urban inequality increases with city size:

Then the relationship between urban inequality and city size is the sum of the size and composition effects:

Stuart S. Rosenthal, William C. Strange, in, 2004

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What Is An Agglomeration Economy

When we talk about these methods of development on a smaller scale, we talk about things like specific business groupings. A business that is located near another may benefit from just the placement. For example a large office building may have a high number of employees. The nearby family-owned restaurants business may escalate during lunch simply because they are located near the building. They reap the benefits of the larger building without actually being part of it but simply by being located nearby.

When people or businesses are established near each other, they realize mutual benefits from each other as a result. When larger businesses move into town, everyone sees the benefits of the increased cash flow, even if they are not directly impacted by it. When a railroad or airport is put in, likewise everyone in the area will start to benefit from it simply because they are located nearby, even if they are not directly impacted by the new business. This is what agglomeration means for those who are a part of it. It means getting benefits from different forces located nearby as well as from direct aspects.

Location Externalities And Agglomeration Economies

The significant property of location externalities and agglomeration economies is embedded in the access measures presented. We call the impact on residents and visitors that a resident in a neighborhood, either a household or a firm, induces on other agents in the same neighborhood, a location externality. This impact may be of different types, such as socioeconomic, religious or ethnic, attraction or exclusion, nuisance, or production opportunities, which could be induced by explicit or implicit interactions. When such an effect is associated with the increment on density, this type of location externality is called an agglomeration economy.

To appreciate this property, consider the elemental interaction benefit given by Eq. and its aggregation across interaction purposes given by

0 is the change in the congestion cost.

This analysis considers a simplified model of interactions because it does not recognize trip tours, i.e., chains of trips, but more complex transportation demand models could be considered to arrive at similar conclusions.

Therefore, noting that density on average increases with urban population N, we foresee that location externalities increase with the city’s population size. Thus, on average, benefits of urban agents increase with the city size as

Gilles Duranton, Diego Puga, in, 2004

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Sharing The Gains From Individual Specialisation

The micro-economic foundations for urban agglomeration economies presented in the previous section capture a plausible motive for agglomeration. However, they have been subject to two main criticisms. First, they seem somewhat mechanical: a larger workforce leads to the production of more varieties of intermediates, and this increases final output more than proportionately because of the constant-elasticity-of-substitution aggregation by final producers. Second, any expansion in intermediate production takes the form of an increase in the number of intermediate suppliers and not in the scale of operation of each supplier.21 That is, an increase in the workforce only shifts the extensive margin of production.

Adam Smith’s original pin factory example points at another direction: the intensive margin instead of the extensive margin of production. In the pin factory example, having more workers increases output more than proportionately not because extra workers can carry new tasks but because it allows existing workers to specialise on a narrower set of tasks. In other words, the Smithian hypothesis is that there are productivity gains from an increase in specialisation when workers spend more time on each task.

In an urban context, these ideas have been taken up by a small number of authors .23 The exposition below follows Duranton . The rest of the literature is discussed further below.

2.3.1From individual gains from specialisation to aggregate increasing returns

Agglomeration Of A City

ESA Echoes in Space Land Introduction to Urban Monitoring

The agglomeration of a city is heavily related to urbanisation. Urban agglomerations have always existed, however, not at the size and scale that is seen in modern cities. The main driver for the significant growth was the industrial revolution in the late 18th century. The mechanisation of rural industries such as farming, and a demand for factory and commercial work in cities began to create a shift from a predominantly rural population to a denser urban population. Small cities were able to grow into global economic centres and towns became crucial regional industry hubs. For example, London grew from a population of 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million in 1900.

People flocked to cities because they offered economic opportunities previously unavailable before advancements in technology, such as mass-manufacturing, large scale construction and commercial markets. The process through which this happens operates as a positive feedback loop.

This sees a city expand exponentially as long as the opportunities and economic prosperity continue to be present. Proximity to industry and commercial opportunities are the major drivers of city growth as a rapidly urbanising population seek new opportunities. The city then expands around a central business district in all directions. Smaller, business hubs also develop as rural areas become suburbia and grow into dense residential districts supporting the positive feedback loop.

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What Is Agglomeration Industry


Similarly, it is asked, what is agglomeration in geography?

The act or process of collecting in a mass a heaping together. State of being collected in a mass a mass cluster. An extended city area comprising the built-up area of a central city and any suburbs linked by continuous urban area.

Also Know, what is agglomeration economy? Agglomeration economies or external economies of scale refer to the benefits from concentrating output and housing in particular areas. If an area specialises in the production of a certain type of good, all firms can benefit from various factors such as: Good supply networks.

In this way, what is meant by agglomeration of industries?

Agglomeration is a phenomenon: it refers to the spatial clustering or concentration of industrial activities in a relatively small area. Agglomeration is a process: it refers to the snowballing process whereby more and more manufacturing firms cluster or areally concentrate in a relatively small area.

What industries benefit from agglomeration?

Benefits arise from the spatial agglomeration of physical capital, companies, consumers and workers:

  • Low transport costs.
  • A great market.
  • A large supply of labor and thus the increased chance of supply and demand for labor, particularly for specialists to compensate for fast matching, lower search costs.

Examples Of Agglomeration In A Sentence

agglomerationagglomerationagglomerationWiredagglomeration ProPublicaagglomeration Washington Postagglomeration Los Angeles Timesagglomeration The New York Review of Booksagglomeration The New York Review of Booksagglomeration The New York Review of Booksagglomeration The New York Review of Books

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘agglomeration.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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Four Classic Agglomeration Tales


This approach is based on the idea that more coagglomeration between industry pairs will take place when the links between industries are stronger. reach a similar conclusion in the context of an agent-based model.

We begin our analysis by estimating Equation including all manufacturing sectors in our data. In this case, the sample includes 4656 industry pairs repeated over 12years, giving rise to 55,872 observations. Standard errors are clustered at the industry-pair level. Results are reported in the top row of and confirm prior findings that all three Marshallian forces are significant determinants of co-location but labour pooling has a much stronger effect than input sharing and knowledge spillovers. In particular, the standardised effect of LP is approximately 10%two and a half times the impact of IO and five times larger than the impact of KS .

We now turn to industry-specific models of our four salient classic tales of agglomerationnamely, the textile , cutlery , computer and automobile sectors. When considering microfoundations for these specific sectors, the empirical model in Equation is identified by exploiting variation in how one of these industries co-locates with the remaining 96 manufacturing industries. Note that while these models allow for maximal heterogeneity, the results are noisier given the limits imposed on this approach by the data.

Agglomeration: City And Industry

Wide Urban World: Cities as social reactors

Agglomeration changes the way cities grow, and hence it is very important for transport and economic researchers to model and understand the process of agglomeration. In this way, they can predict the growth of a city, plan network development, property investment or development and increase the efficiency of business and industry sectors. In its simplest form, agglomeration occurs when there is a financial benefit to proximity to customers, suppliers, businesses or any other beneficiaries. Whilst the reasons for this and the process is similar, agglomeration can happen on large city-scales or smaller industry-scales.

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Study On Urban Agglomeration: Progress And Prospects

GU Chao-lin

  • School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    • Received:2010-12-30Revised:2011-03-20Online:2011-05-20Published:2011-05-20


    GU Chao-lin. Study on urban agglomeration: Progress and prospects.GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2011, 30: 771-784.


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    The Difficulty With Agglomeration

    It is important to note, however, that an agglomeration is a type of cluster or joining of forces that is not necessarily direct and that also has nothing to do with a merger between companies or cities. Instead, its aspects of that city or aspects of different companies, working together that may not necessarily be intentional, but tends to work. When considering the AP® Human Geography exam, you do not want to mention mergers or any agreements between different cities or companies because this is not the same as an agglomeration.

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    Data And Variable Construction

    The core data we use to carry out our analysis is the UK BSD covering the period 19972008. The data are an annual snapshot of the Inter-Departmental Business Register , which consists of constantly updated administrative business data collected for taxation purposes. Businesses liable for value added taxation and/or with at least one employee registered for tax collection appear on the IDBR. In 2004, the Office for National Statistics estimated that businesses listed on the IDBR accounted for approximately 99% of economic activity in the UK.

    Businesses tracked in the dataset are structured into enterprises and local units, where the first refers to the overall business organisation, while the second can be thought of as a plant or establishment. In the majority of cases , enterprises only have one local unit. In our work, we make use of data at the local unit level including plants belonging to both single- and multi-plant enterprises and located in England, Wales and Scotland. We neglect Northern Ireland because of poor data coverage.


    This measure is related to the covariance of industries across metropolitan areas. To study how this tendency of industries to co-locate is affected by the three standard Marshallian agglomeration forces of labour pooling, input sharing and knowledge spillovers, we construct the following proxies.

    Single Linkage Agglomerative Clustering

    Madrid, Capital of Spain ðªð¸ – by drone 4K HDR (60fps)

    In single linkage agglomeration , two clusters fuse when the two objects closest to each other reach the distance level of the considered partition . As a consequence of chaining, results of single linkage clustering are sensitive to noise in the data , because noise changes the distance values and may thus modify the order in which objects cluster. The origin of single linkage clustering is found in a collective work by mathematicians Florek, Lukaszewicz, Perkal, Steinhaus, and Zubrzycki, published by Lukaszewicz in 1951.

    Complete linkage rule

    Woodard & amp Curran, Inc., in, 2006

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    Alisdair Rogers Noel Castree And Rob Kitchin

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    date: 05 July 2022

    A Dictionary of Human Geography

    Agglomeration On The Ap Human Geography Exam

    When it comes to the exam, you will have to know what agglomeration is and a better definition to relate in case you are asked to define it yourself. Remember to use terms like cooperation or joining but to avoid merger and other terms like it. An agglomeration is not an official agreement in this sense but rather a cluster of similar groups or organisations that can use similar aspects of a city together. You have to be able to clarify the difference between a contractual agreement between companies or cities to assist one another and an agglomeration that occurs on its own.

    You will also have to be able to explain why an agglomeration is going to be beneficial to different groups of people as well as different organisations and businesses. Things like improving the labor pool, increasing the cash flow in the area and improving urbanization can all be benefits, but there are many more as well that you should consider. You have to make sure that your definition is going to focus primarily on a couple of examples, however, rather than giving a large number of examples that are not thoroughly explained. These types of exams primarily focus on the quality that you provide in your answers rather than simply quantity of answers.

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