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What Is Aerobic In Biology

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Genetic Engineering: Review Questions And Answers

What Is Aerobic Respiration? | Physiology | Biology | FuseSchool

Review Questions

  • Define genetic engineering Genetic engineering is the use of technology to change the genetic makeup of living things for human purposes.
  • What is recombinant DNA? Recombinant DNA is DNA that is formed by combining DNA from two different species of organisms.
  • Identify the steps of gene cloning. The steps of gene cloning are isolation, ligation, transformation, and selection. During isolation, a gene is isolated by using an enzyme to break DNA. During ligation, another enzyme is used to combine the isolated gene with plasmid DNA from bacteria, producing recombinant DNA. In transformation, the recombinant DNA is inserted into another cell, usually a bacterial cell. During selection, transformed bacteria are grown to make sure they have the recombinant DNA and only those that do are selected for further use.
  • What is the purpose of the polymerase chain reaction? The purpose of the polymerase chain reaction is to make many copies of a gene or other DNA segment. This might be done in order to have large quantities of the gene for genetic testing.
  • Explain how bacteria can be genetically engineered to produce a human protein. To genetically engineer bacteria to produce a human protein, gene cloning is used to form recombinant DNA that contains the normal human gene for the protein and plasmid DNA from bacteria. The recombinant DNA is re-inserted into the bacteria. The bacteria can multiply rapidly and produce large amounts of the human protein.
  • Regulation Of Gene Expression: Review Questions And Answers

  • Define gene expression. Gene expression means using a gene to make a protein.
  • Why must gene expression be regulated? Gene expression must be regulated so that the correct proteins are made where and when they are needed. This is necessary, for example, so that different types of cells have different shapes and other traits that suit them for their particular functions.
  • Explain how regulatory proteins may activate or repress transcription. Regulatory proteins regulate the transcription phase of protein synthesis by binding to regions of DNA called regulatory elements, which are located near promoters. Regulatory proteins typically either activate or repress transcription. Activators promote transcription by enhancing the interaction of RNA polymerase with the promoter, thus initiating transcription of DNA to mRNA. Repressors prevent transcription by impeding the progress of RNA polymerase along the DNA strand so the DNA cannot be transcribed to mRNA.
  • What is the TATA box, and how does it work? The TATA box is a regulatory element that is part of the promoter of almost every eukaryotic gene. A number of regulatory proteins bind to the TATA box, forming a multi-protein complex. It is only when all of the appropriate proteins are bound to the TATA box that RNA polymerase recognizes the complex and binds to the promoter so transcription can begin.
  • Where Does Aerobic And Anaerobic Respiration Occur In The Cell

    In the cell, Aerobic respiration occurs within the mitochondria, and the anaerobic respiration occurs within the cytoplasm of a cell.

    Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click Start Quiz to begin!

    Select the correct answer and click on the Finish buttonCheck your score and answers at the end of the quiz

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    Control Of The Cell Cycle

    If the cell cycle occurred without regulation, cells might go from one phase to the next before they were ready. What controls the cell cycle? How does the cell know when to grow, synthesize DNA, and divide? The cell cycle is controlled mainly by regulatory proteins. These proteins control the cycle by signaling the cell to either start or delay the next phase of the cycle. They ensure that the cell completes the previous phase before moving on. Regulatory proteins control the cell cycle at key checkpoints, which are shown in Figure 4.12.3. There are a number of main checkpoints.

    Figure 4.12.3 Eukaryotic Cell Cycle – Checkpoints.

    Checkpoints in the eukaryoticcell cycle ensure that the cell is ready to proceed before it moves on to the next phase of the cycle.

    • The G1 checkpoint, just before entry into S phase, makes the key decision of whether the cell should divide.
    • The S checkpoint determines if the DNA has been replicated properly.
    • The mitosis checkpoint ensures that all the chromosomes are properly aligned before the cell is allowed to divide.

    What Is Human Aerobic Respiration

    Labeled Aerobic Respiration Diagram

    Aerobic Respiration: It is the process of cellular respiration that takes place in the presence of oxygen gas to produce energy from food. This type of respiration is common in most of the plants and animals, birds, humans, and other mammals. In this process, water and carbon dioxide are produced as end products.

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    Is Aerobic Or Anaerobic Better

    The takeaway. While both aerobic and anaerobic exercise have their place in a well-rounded fitness routine, anaerobic exercise like HIIT can be more effective for fat loss. If youre incorporating HIIT and strength training, keep in mind that total weight loss is not an accurate indicator of progress.

    What Are 3 Differences Between Aerobic And Anaerobic

    Aerobic respiration takes place in presence of oxygen whereas anaerobic respiration takes place in absence of oxygen. Carbon dioxide and water are the end products of aerobic respiration, while alcohol is the end product of anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration releases more energy than anaerobic respiration.

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    Aerobic And Anaerobic Respiration

    Cellular respiration is a process that takes place inside the cells where energy is released by the breakdown of glucose molecules. The process can be conveniently divided into two categories based on the usage of oxygen, namely aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

    Let us have a look at the major difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

    Feature: Human Biology In The News

    Aerobic Respiration – What is Aerobic Respiration? – 9-1 GCSE Biology

    Figure 4.12.5 The woman in this mid-1900s photo was named Henrietta Lacks. When she died in 1951 of an unusual form of cervical cancer, she was just 31 years old. A poor, African American tobacco farmer and mother of five, she would eventually be called immortal.

    Henrietta Lacks sought treatment for her cancer at Johns Hopkins University Hospital at a time when researchers were trying to grow human cells in the lab for medical testing. Despite many attempts, the cells always died before they had undergone many cell divisions. Mrs. Lacks’s doctor, Howard Jones, took a small sample of cells from her tumor without her knowledge and gave them to a Johns Hopkins researcher, George Gey, who tried to grow them on a culture plate. For the first time in history, human cells grown on a culture plate kept dividing… and dividing and dividing and dividing. Copies of Henrietta’s cells called HeLa cells, for her name are still alive today. In fact, there are currently billions of HeLa cells in laboratories around the world!

    If you want to learn more about Henrietta Lacks and her immortal cells, read Rebecca Skloot’s The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks . You can also watch the short video below about Henrietta Lacks and her immortal cells by Robin Bulleri:

    The immortal cells of Henrietta Lacks – Robin Bulleri, TED-Ed, 2016.

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    Anaerobes: Friend Or Foe

    It is clear that our planet is well-populated with diverse anaerobic organisms. Some are pathogenic, causing severe infections such as MRSA, botulism, and tetanus. Others are beneficial, adding beauty to hot springs, flavoring cheeses, and shaping the communities of the ocean. For others, like E. coli, their status depends on their location: while E. coli is a necessary, helpful resident of the human gut, it can become pathogenic if ingested orally or some other way. In summary, anaerobes are important residents of Earth which brilliantly fulfill their ecological niches.

    Function Of Aerobic Respiration

    Aerobic respiration provides energy to fuel all cellular processes. The reactions produce ATP, which is then used to power other life-sustaining functions, including growth, repair, and maintenance. For example, ATP powers t the action of the sodium-potassium pump, which allows us to move, think, and perceive the world around us. ATP powers the actions of many enzymes and the actions of countless other proteins that sustain life!

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    What Does Aerobic Literally Mean

    Aerobic literally means relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen, and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.

    Aerobic Cellular Respiration: 3 Importance Stages Of Aerobic Respiration

    Aerobic Respiration Bio Anatomical Vector Illustration Diagram Labeled ...

    Some of the importance stages of aerobic respiration are as follows:

    Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain.

    Aerobic Respiration is the process by which the energy from glucose is released in the presence of oxygen. It takes place only if oxygen is available.

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    For instance, if glucose were oxidized, the result would be energy, carbon dioxide and water. Take a look at the chemical formula given below.

    C6H12O6+ 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

    In simple words, Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy

    In brief, aerobic respiration helps in release of maximum energy and also gets rid of carbon dioxide and excess water.

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    There are three stages of aerobic respiration as given below:

    Glycolysis:

    Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol of the cell where in glucose is partially oxidized and is broken down into 3 carbon molecules of private. This process of glycolysis produces energy 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH molecules. Each NADH molecule carries 2 energy electrons. The cells later use these electrons.

    Krebs Cycle:

    This is the next stage of aerobic cellular respiratory. In Krebs cycle, private molecules are processed to release the energy that is stored between their molecular bonds. The energy is released in the form of ATP. This cycle is also called as the citric acid cycle.

    Electron Transport Chain:

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    Why Are Humans Such Sweaty Animals

    Figure 2.3.1 Humans sweat to lower their body temperature.

    Combine exercise and a hot day, and you get sweat and lots of it. Sweating is one of the adaptations humans have evolved to maintain homeostasis, or a constant internal environment. When sweat evaporates from the skin, it uses up some of the excess heat energy on the skin, thus helping to reduce the body’s temperature. Humans are among the sweatiest of all species, with a fine-tuned ability to maintain a steady internal temperature, even at very high outside temperatures.

    Aerobic Respiration And Weight Loss

    Aerobic respiration is the process by which many cells, including our own, produce energy using food and oxygen. It also gives rise to carbon dioxide, which our bodies must then get rid of.

    Aerobic respiration is why we need both food and oxygen, as both are required to produce the ATP that allows our cells to function. We breathe in O2 and we breathe out the same number of molecules of CO2. Where did the carbon atom come from? It comes from the food, such as sugar and fat, that youve eaten.

    This is also why you breathe harder and faster while performing calorie-burning activities. Your body is using both oxygen and sugar at a faster-than-normal rate and is producing more ATP to power your cells, along with more CO2 waste product.

    Although our cells normally use oxygen for respiration, when we use ATP faster than we are getting oxygen molecules to our cells, our cells can perform anaerobic respiration to supply their needs for a few minutes.

    Fun fact: The buildup of lactate from anaerobic respiration is one reason why muscles can feel sore after intense exercise!

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    Mutations: Review Questions And Answers

  • Define mutation. Mutation is a random change in the sequence of bases in DNA or RNA.
  • Identify causes of mutation. Mutations may occur spontaneously when errors occur during DNA replication or during the transcription of DNA during protein synthesis. Other mutations are caused by mutagens. Mutagens are environmental factors that cause mutations. They include radiation, certain chemicals, and some infectious agents.
  • Compare and contrast germline and somatic mutations. Germline mutations occur in gametes and may be passed on to offspring. Every cell in the body of the offspring will then carry the mutation. Somatic mutations occur in other cells of the body than gametes. They are confined to a single cell and its daughter cells, and they cannot be passed on to offspring. They are likely to have little or no effect on the organism in which they occur.
  • Why do many mutations have neutral effects? Many mutations are neutral in their effects because they do not change the amino acids in the proteins they encode or because they are repaired before protein synthesis occurs.
  • Give one example of a beneficial mutation and one example of a harmful mutation. Answers will vary. Sample answer: An example of a beneficial mutation is a mutation that is found in people in a small Italian town that protects from atherosclerosis. An example of a harmful mutation is the mutation that causes the genetic disorder cystic fibrosis.
  • Identical Twins Identical Genes

    What Is Anaerobic Respiration | Physiology | Biology | FuseSchool

    Figure 5.2.1 Identical twins share the same DNA since they came from a single zygote.

    You probably can tell by their close resemblance that these two young ladies are identical twins . Identical twins develop from the same fertilized egg, so they inherit copies of the same chromosomes and have all the same genes. Unless you have an identical twin, no one else in the world has exactly the same genes as you. What are genes? How are they related to chromosomes? And how do genes make you the person you are? Let’s find out!

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    How Is Energy Released In Atp

    ATP can be referred to as energy currency of the cell because it provides a releasable energy in the bond between the second and third phosphate groups causing an exothermic reaction.

    These bonds between phosphate groups are high energy because their electronegative charges repel one another. Through the metabolic processes, the loss of a phosphate group hydrolyzes ATP to ADP. Feedback mechanisms control these reactions to maintain a consistent ATP level within the cell.

    What Are The Differences Between Aerobic And Anaerobic Respiration Give Example Each

    Aerobic respiration takes place in presence of oxygen whereas anaerobic respiration takes place in absence of oxygen. Carbon dioxide and water are the end products of aerobic respiration, while alcohol is the end product of anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration releases more energy than anaerobic respiration.

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    Aerobic Vs Anaerobic Respiration

    Aerobic respiration, a process that uses oxygen, and anaerobic respiration, a process that doesn’t use oxygen, are two forms of cellular respiration. Although some cells may engage in just one type of respiration, most cells use both types, depending on an organism’s needs. Cellular respiration also occurs outside of macro-organisms, as chemical processes for example, in fermentation. In general, respiration is used to eliminate waste products and generate energy.

    What Is Atp Energy

    # 91 Anaerobic respiration

    Biochemists call the energy produced in cells by adenosine triphosphate ATP energy. This energy is essential for many processes in biology, such as muscle contraction and nerve impulses. In biology, ATP generates energy from breaking down high energy foods within cells as well as through converting from ATP to ADP.

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    What Explains Aerobic Respiration

    Aerobic Respiration: It is the process of cellular respiration that takes place in the presence of oxygen gas to produce energy from food. This type of respiration is common in most of the plants and animals, birds, humans, and other mammals. In this process, water and carbon dioxide are produced as end products.

    What Is Anaerobic Respiration

    Anaerobic means without air. Therefore, this type of cellular respiration does not use oxygen to produce energy. Sometimes there is not enough oxygen around for some organisms to respire, but they still need the energy to survive. Due to lack of oxygen, they carry out respiration in the absence of oxygen to produce the energy they require, which is referred to as anaerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration usually occurs in lower plants and microorganisms. In the absence of oxygen, the glucose derived from food is broken down into alcohol and carbon dioxide along with the production of energy.

    Further Reading:Fermentation: Anaerobic Respiration

    Glucose Alcohol + Carbon dioxide + Energy

    Anaerobic respiration is also used by multi-cellular organisms, like us, as a temporary response to oxygen-less conditions. During heavy or intensive exercise such as running, sprinting, cycling or weight lifting, our body demands high energy. As the supply of oxygen is limited, the muscle cells inside our body resort to anaerobic respiration to fulfil the energy demand.

    Glucose Lactic acid + Energy

    Anaerobic respiration produces a relatively lesser amount of energy as compared to aerobic respiration, as glucose is not completely broken down in the absence of oxygen.

    In-Depth Reading: Cellular Respiration: Aerobic Vs Anaerobic

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    Whats The Difference Between Aerobic And Anaerobic

    Aerobic means with air and refers to the body producing energy with the use of oxygen. This typically involves any exercise that lasts longer than two minutes in duration. Continuous steady state exercise is performed aerobically. Anaerobic means without air and refers to the body producing energy without oxygen.

    Fermentation In Food Production

    GCSE Science Revision Biology “Respiration”

    Anaerobic respiration is also used in the food industry. You read about yeasts role in making bread and beer, but did you know that there are many microbes that are used to create the food we eat, including cheese, sour cream, yogurt, soy sauce, olives, pepperoni, and many more. Watch the video below to learn more about fermentation in the food industry.

    The beneficial bacteria that make delicious food Erez Garty, TED-Ed, 2016.

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