What Is Human Geography
Human geography is the major branch of geography that studies people and their interaction with the earth and with their organization of space on the earths surface, various sub- disciplines under human geography are listed below.
Sub Disciplines of Human Geography
Geography, by nature is an integrative and synthesizing science it is a spatial science that deals with both the physical and human environment. It is not surprising therefore to note that geography is probably the only academic discipline that is located in more than one faculty our universities. It is neither an academic monolith, nor a jack-of-all-trades, as some non-geographers would like to think.
An Overview Of Human Geography
- M.A., Geography, California State University – East Bay
- B.A., English and Geography, California State University – Sacramento
Human geography is one of the two major branches of geography, together with physical geography. Human geography is also called cultural geography. It is the study of the many cultural aspects found throughout the world and how they relate to the spaces and places where they originate and the spaces and places they then travel to, as people continually move across various areas.
Some of the main cultural phenomena studied in human geography include language, religion, different economic and governmental structures, art, music, and other cultural aspects that explain how and/or why people function as they do in the areas in which they live. Globalization is also becoming increasingly important to the field of human geography as it is allowing these specific aspects of culture to travel across the globe easily.
Shepherds At Jesus Birth
John the Baptist called Jesus the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world , and while it may be theologically tempting to associate his birth with shepherds who were already connected to the ritual of temple sacrifice, this can in no way be proven.1
This article on the geography of the areas around Bethlehem and the shepherds at Jesus birth is adapted from Paul H. Wrightss entry in , available from Lexham Press.
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How To Start Your Career In Geography
A geography degree provides valuable skills in data collection, analysis, and research. Geographers examine qualitative and quantitative information to understand the earth, its land, and the distribution of populations. The skills gained during a geography degree prepare graduates for multiple geography careers, depending on their degree level and interests.
Professionals with a bachelor’s in geography can pursue careers in cartography, surveying, research, and data analysis. With a master’s degree, graduates can work as geographers, survey researchers, and urban planners.
Pursuing a certification or minoring in a related area like environmental science, urban planning, or public health can help geography majors expand their career opportunities.
The Earth And Graticule Location
When identifying a region or location on the earth, the first step is to understand its relative and absolute locations. Relative locationPosition on the earths surface with reference to other places. is the location on the earths surface with reference to other places, taking into consideration features such as transportation access or terrain. Relative location helps one compare the advantages of one location with those of another. Absolute locationAn exact point on the earths surface that can be identified by latitude and longitude., on the other hand, refers to an exact point on the earths surface without regard to how that point is related to any other place. Absolute location is vital to the cartographic process and to human activities that require an agreed-upon method of identifying a place or point.
Just as you were taught in geometry that there are 360 degrees in a circle or a sphere, the earth also has 360 degrees, and they are measured using a grid pattern called the graticule. Lines of latitude and longitude allow any absolute location on the earth to have an identifiable address of degrees north or south and east or west, which allows geographers to accurately locate, measure, and study spatial activity.
Figure 1.3 Basic Lines of Longitude and Latitude
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Using A State As A Comparison Guide
In comparing one formal political region with another, it is often helpful to use a familiar country, state, province, or political unit as a reference or guide. Wherever you are located, you can research the statistical data for a formal region familiar to you to provide a common reference. The US state of Kentucky is one example that can be used to compare formal political regions. Kentucky ranks close to the middle range of the fifty US states in terms of its population of 4.3 million people. Kentucky is also within the median range of the fifty states in overall physical area. The states 40,409-square-mile physical area ranks it thirty-seventh in size in the United States. Kentucky is not as large in physical area as the western states but is larger in physical area than many of the eastern states. Kentucky includes part of the rural peripheral region of Appalachia, but the state also has cosmopolitan core urban centers such as Lexington and Louisville. Kentucky also borders the metropolitan city of Cincinnati. The rural peripheral regions of the state are home to agriculture and mining. The urban core areas are home to industry and service centers. Other US states could also be used as examples. Identifying a states geographical attributes provides readers both in and outside the United States with a comparison indicator for geographic purposes.
Agriculture And Rural Settlement
A majority of the world’s population is directly involved in agriculture and farmland occupies most of the inhabited area of the earth. The course, GEOG-2401 Agricultural Geography, is central to this topic. Particular emphasis is given in the course to the different problems facing temperate and tropical agriculturalists.
The course, GEOG-2503 Manitoba’s Physical and Human Environment, deals in part with agriculture and rural development within Manitoba. This course should be of value and interest to a wide range of students, but it will be particularly valuable for students who intend to take Education degrees and those who hope to work eventually in government departments concerned with environmental issues.
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What Are The Two Main Branches Of Geography
Geography is the study of the Earth that focuses on its land, physical features, and atmosphere, as well as human activities and how they are influenced by the Earth. Geography examines the nature and relative organization of physical places, locations and human societies throughout the globe. It is divided into two main branches: human geography and physical geography. Geography is considered a discipline that bridges the natural sciences and the social sciences .
Geography As A Science
Geography in the past used to be strictly descriptive and taxonomic and therefore hardly stated and tested any hypothesis. Consequently, it was regarded as a non-scientific discipline no matter how exact it may be. Geography in the 19th century provided and even systematized data that was used by such sciences as geology, botany, sociology etc, but itself was considered a non-scientific or as a protoscience. Today, geography transcends its past descriptive outlook. It is a basic knowledge among geographers today that the discipline has shifted its emphasis from a basic concern with mere ordering of data to a major interest in scientific analysis. According to Boulding , geography is in a state of intellectual ferment, busy developing and absorbing new methods, especially quantitative methods, on all sides and quite consciously aware of its role as an integrator of many social sciences.
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The Nature And Types Of Fields
Even though the basic concept of a field came from physics, geographers have developed independent theories, data models, and analytical methods. One reason for this apparent disconnect is that although geographic fields may show patterns similar to gravity and magnetism, they can have a very different underlying nature, and be created by very different processes. Geographic fields can be classified by their ontology or fundamental nature as:
- Natural fields, properties of matter that are formed at scales below that of human perception, and thus appear continuous at human scales, such as temperature or soil moisture.
- Aggregate fields, statistically constructed properties of aggregate groups of individuals, such as Population density or tree canopy coverage.
- Fields of potential or influence, which measure conceptual, non-material quantities , such as the probability that a person at any given location will prefer to use a particular grocery store.
Geographic fields can also be categorized according to the type of domain of the measured variable, which determines the pattern of spatial change. A continuous field has a continuous domain, and typically shows gradual change over space, such as temperature or soil moisture a discrete field, also known as a categorical coverage, has a discrete domain, such as land cover type, soil class, or surface geologic formation, and typically has a pattern of regions of homogeneous value with boundaries where the value changes.
What Are The Fields Of Study In Geography
The Fields of study of geography Main can be classified in geomorphological, hydrographic elements, climatological elements, biological elements and human elements.
The term” geography “Comes from the Greek words Gea Which means”land”) and Graphenea .
Geography is a science that is responsible for the study, description and interpretation of the elements that make up the planet Earth, both physical as biological .
The geography Is in charge of the study of the interaction between the human being and the environment.
As can be seen, geography encompasses several fields of study, including geomorphological elements , hydrographic elements , climatic elements, Biological or biotic elements and human elements .
In this sense, the fields of study of geography overlap with areas of study of other sciences, such as biology, geology, geomorphology, hydrology and medicine, and even with human sciences such as history, politics and Anthropology.
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How To Switch Your Career To Geography
Geography professionals seeking a career change to a different job within the same field do not typically need to earn another degree unless their new job requires more advanced education. In most cases, professionals changing careers within geography only need specialized training or certification for their new job.
Professionals coming from other fields may need to earn another degree. These individuals should especially consider going back to school if their new job requires a graduate degree. Professionals coming from other fields should also strongly consider earning certification from a geography-related professional organization.
Training and courses in practical skills, such as GIS, can also be helpful.
Why Pursue A Career In Geography
Careers with a geography degree offer the opportunity to work indoors or outdoors. Geographers and survey and mapping technicians spend time out in the field collecting data and studying the land. Careers like postsecondary teacher include more desk work and less time spent outdoors.
Geography students need excellent analytical thinking skills and attention to detail. Some geography professionals work alone, while others work as part of a team, meaning students should develop the ability to both work individually and compromise with others.
Careers for a geography major also require a deep understanding of the earth and how humans interact with it.
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Dozens Of Branches Of Geography Explained
- M.A., Geography, California State University – Northridge
- B.A., Geography, University of California – Davis
The field of geography is a vast and wondrous academic field with thousands of researchers working in dozens of interesting sub-disciplines or branches of geography. There is a branch of geography for just about any subject on Earth. In an effort to acquaint the reader with the diversity of the branches of geography, we summarize many below.
What Is Field Work In Geographical Studies
What is fieldwork? Fieldwork is learning directly in the real world outside the classroom and has a long tradition in school geography. It is one of the distinctive features of a geographical education and feeds our curiosity about the world. Much fieldwork is done locally even within the school grounds.
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Systemic Or Topical Geography
Systematic or topical geography considers systematic studies of climate, landforms, economics, and culture among others. Geographers may specialise and call themselves, for example, urban geographers, climatologists, biogeographers, geomorphologist, political geographers and historical geographers. One thing in common to all of them is their focus on the spatial perspective in their studies. They see their subject matter in terms of locational characteristics and seek answers to certain patterns of place or the interactions between places.
Geog 391 2022 Information Available In Spring 2022
GEOG 391 is a required course for Geography and Earth Science Majors.
This course is designed for Geography and Earth Science majors to prepare you for in-depth concepts covered in senior courses and provide you with hands-on experience in the field of geographic research. You will develop field research techniques and learn about topics in physical and human geography including how to apply research methodology in a real-life study situation.
Topics may include fluvial geomorphology, hydrology, land use mapping, biogeography, human and urban geography, vegetation sampling, remote sensing, soils geography, microclimate, and land use conflicts, historical geography, resource issues or transportation.
There is a non-refundable supplementary fee for GEOG 391 Geographic Field Studies. This includes field trips, local transportation, accommodations and meals. The supplementary fee does not include tuition.
Please note: itinerary and costs are subject to change
What Is The Example Of Geographical Field
Common types of geographic fields include: Natural fields, properties of matter that are formed at scales below that of human perception, such as temperature or soil moisture. Artificial or aggregate fields, statistically constructed properties of aggregate groups of individuals, such as population density.
What Is The Value Of Field Work
The value of fieldwork lies particularly in providing students with a better sense of real-world environments and processes, an enhanced understanding of their subject and affords opportunities for social interaction that cannot be duplicated in class. Key words: fieldwork, physical geography, student learning, value.
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Meridians Or Lines Of Longitude
The prime meridian sits at 0 degrees longitude and divides the earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The prime meridian is defined as an imaginary line that runs through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, a suburb of London. The Eastern Hemisphere includes the continents of Europe, Asia, and Australia, while the Western Hemisphere includes North and South America. All meridians east of the prime meridian are numbered from 1 to 180 degrees east the lines west of the prime meridian are numbered from 1 to 180 degrees west . The 0 and 180 lines do not have a letter attached to them. The meridian at 180 degrees is called the International Date Line. The International Date Line is opposite the prime meridian and indicates the start of each day . Each day officially starts at 12:01 a.m., at the International Date Line. Do not confuse the International Date Line with the prime meridian . The actual International Date Line does not follow the 180-degree meridian exactly. A number of alterations have been made to the International Date Line to accommodate political agreements to include an island or country on one side of the line or another.
Parallels Or Lines Of Latitude
Figure 1.4 Noted Lines of Latitude
The equator is the largest circle of latitude on Earth. The equator divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and is called 0 degrees latitude. The other lines of latitude are numbered from 0 to 90 degrees going toward each of the poles. The lines north of the equator toward the North Pole are north latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter N. The lines south of the equator toward the South Pole are south latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter S. The equator is the only line of latitude without any letter following the number. Notice that all lines of latitude are parallel to the equator and that the North Pole equals 90 degrees N and the South Pole equals 90 degrees S. Noted parallels include both the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, which are 23.5 degrees from the equator. At 66.5 degrees from the equator are the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle near the North and South Pole, respectively.
Scope And Subject Matter Of Geography
Geography is concerned with the patterns of phenomena and the processes that created them. Therefore, there is no special or specific subject matter which it studies, but rather its subject matter is the Earth, described and explained using the spatial perspective. History is somewhat similar to geography because its subject matter is Earth in the historical perspective. Geography is often described as two parts which makes up a whole: that is, geography is dichotomizedinto two types.
How To Advance Your Career In Geography
Most careers for a geography major require either a bachelor’s degree or a master’s degree for entry-level work. Advancement can bring better job titles, better pay, and more responsibility in the workplace.
Below, readers can find more information about advancing their careers in geography. The following sections explain certification and licensure, continuing education opportunities, and benefits of joining a professional organization.
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Geographical Information Systems Officer
If, as well as the environment, youre interested in working with data, analytics and computer systems, then this role might suit you. Geographic information systems are computerized systems used for the collection, storage, analysis, management and presentation of complicated geographical information, for example radar.
Geographical information systems officers carry out the gathering and examination of geographical data generated by GIS. The data can be applied in a variety of areas, such as defense, meteorology, oil, gas, telecommunications and transportation, to make decisions which benefit the environment.
For entry into this role, you may find it useful to have previously studied GIS as a module during your degree, and many employers also highly value a relevant postgraduate degree and/or work experience.