Is It Ethical To Perform Psychological Experiments On Animals
APAs 2002 Ethics Code, which takes effect June 1, mandates that psychologists who use animals in research: Use a procedure subjecting animals to pain, stress or privation only when an alternative procedure is unavailable and the goal is justified by its prospective scientific, educational or applied value.
Opinion: Why Research Using Animals Is Important In Psychology
The use of animal models in psychology research that is not of a neurobiological nature is quite rare in UK laboratories. This may lead many psychologists to consider the use of animals in scientific research as irrelevant to them. With the continued advancement of technologies and non-invasive methodologies, many ask whether experiments involving animals still have a place in psychology and neuroscience research. It is easy to overlook the basic biological investigations that many areas of psychology are built on, and will rely on in the future to continue to develop. I hope to address this issue, offering an explanation as to why animal models are important to contemporary psychology research.
Animals in scientific researchHistorically, animals have played a vital role in scientific research. Much of what is known about the anatomy and physiology of humans, as well as other animals, has come from animal research in various forms. Many of the major researchers in sensation and perception Hubel, Wiesel, Lettvin, Jacobs, Newsome, Sperry, Bekesy, DeValois, Melzack, and more used animal subjects in their groundbreaking research.
It is clear that some medical discoveries have been possible without the use of animals: for instance, Fleming discovered penicillin without animal experiments. However, it was his work with Florey and Chain with mouse models that enabled the application of penicillin to fight bacterial infection.
Experimental Research: Understanding The Causes Of Behaviour
The goal of experimental research design is to provide more definitive conclusions about the causal relationships among the variables in the research hypothesis than is available from correlational designs. In an experimental research design, the variables of interest are called the independent variable and the dependent variable. The independent variable in an experiment is the causing variable that is created by the experimenter. The dependent variable in an experiment is a measured variable that is expected to be influenced by the experimental manipulation. The research hypothesis suggests that the manipulated independent variable or variables will cause changes in the measured dependent variables. We can diagram the research hypothesis by using an arrow that points in one direction. This demonstrates the expected direction of causality :
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Animal Research And The Law
Only one of the organisms included in the list is not an animal: the E. coli bacterium. At least, that is the straightforward scientific answer. However, you may be surprised to learn that in many countries the law regulates what is, and what is not, an animal at least where research is concerned. Such definitions determine which species are covered by the guidelines for psychologists working with animals. According to the Animals Act 1986, which legislates for research in the UK, only species that are vertebrates and one single invertebrate, the octopus , are legally defined as animals when it comes to research. The same category of living things is also protected by the Animal Welfare Act 2006. Under this definition, the only animals in the list are the rat, cat, dog, horse, dolphin and gorilla: the coral, woodlouse, crab, mosquito and scorpion are not legally animals. As for the second question, there are really no right or wrong answers. You were asked which ones you would permit animal research on and that is a matter of personal ethics. However, you now know which of the species listed are protected by law .
Even among the vertebrates, further distinctions are made. Can you guess which animals receive extra protection? It is horses, cats, dogs and primates. In the case of primates, the reason is undoubtedly their genetic proximity to humans and the frequency with which they are used in research, but what about cats, dogs and horses?
What Is The Psychology Of Animals
As noted earlier, animal psychology can be defined as the study of how animals interact with one another, their environment, and with humans. Additionally, animal psychology often focuses on the behavior of a single animal, from which a better understanding of broad behaviors within the same species might be gleaned.
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Life Sketch Of John Greenleaf Whittier
Animal studies on dogs and chimpanzees have also given us an insight into their own behavior, especially the presence of a theory of mind among animals However, this also emphasizes the fact that animals are capable of feeling emotions and pain which makes it unethical to put them through distress during experimentation.
A survey of the articles in journals of American Psychological Association, indicates that none of the most extreme accusations against animal research are verified . It is seen that only 10 percent of the studies used any electric shock, and only 3.9 percent used inescapable shock of greater than .001 ampere.
Also, 80 percent of the studies using shock or deprivation were funded by respected organizations requiring thorough justification of all procedures, while experiments performed out of mere curiosity were not funded.
Thus, even though instances of cruelty may have occurred without being reported, no cases of abuse appeared in the major psychology journals. Abusive treatment of animals cannot thus be considered a central characteristic of psychology .
Animals Are Used In Psychological Research Because A
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Weighing Harm And Benefit
Researchers who study nonhumans recognize that their studies may involve certain harms that can range from the relatively minor to the more serious . The research community tries to mitigate some of the harms by insuring, for example, that the animals psychological well-being is optimized in fact, there is a large body of psychological research that focuses on animal welfare and identifying best practices to house and care for animals in captivity. Still, some harms will remain, and ethically, one must weigh those harms against the potential benefits to be obtained from the research. Equally important is the consideration of the potential harms to humans of not doing the research. For example, without any animal research, effective treatments for human conditions like Alzheimers disease may very well be found, but it would certainly take decades longer to find them, and in the meantime, millions and millions of additional people would suffer.
Correlational Research: Seeking Relationships Among Variables
In contrast to descriptive research, which is designed primarily to provide static pictures, correlational researchinvolves the measurement of two or more relevant variables and an assessment of the relationship between or among those variables. For instance, the variables of height and weight are systematically related because taller people generally weigh more than shorter people. In the same way, study time and memory errors are also related, because the more time a person is given to study a list of words, the fewer errors he or she will make. When there are two variables in the research design, one of them is called the predictor variable and the other the outcome variable. The research design can be visualized as shown in Figure 3.9, where the curved arrow represents the expected correlation between these two variables.
One way of organizing the data from a correlational study with two variables is to graph the values of each of the measured variables using a scatter plot. As you can see in Figure 3.10 a scatter plot is a visual image of the relationship between two variables. A point is plotted for each individual at the intersection of his or her scores for the two variables. When the association between the variables on the scatter plot can be easily approximated with a straight line, as in parts and of Figure 3.10 the variables are said to have a linear relationship.
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Is Apivita Cruelty Free
From our establishment in 1979, we chose not to test the safety, efficacy or environmental impact of our products and raw materials on animals. Instead, we opted to fully test our products using other valid alternative methods. In this context, advertising a product as cruelty free, against animal testing etc.
Why Do Scientists Use Animals In Research
Scientists use animals to learn more about health problems that affect both humans and animals, and to assure the safety of new medical treatments. Some of these problems involve processes that can only be studied in a living organism. Scientists study animals when there is no alternative and it is impractical or unethical to study humans.
Animals are good research subjects for a variety of reasons. They are biologically similar to humans and susceptible to many of the same health problems. Also, they have short life-cycles so they can easily be studied throughout their whole life-span or across several generations. In addition, scientists can control the environment around the animal , which would be difficult to do with people. However, the most important reason why animals are used is that it would be wrong to deliberately expose human beings to health risks in order to observe the course of a disease.
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Agglomerations Based On Animal Procedures During Studies And Accompanying Feelings
There was a significant difference in the frequency of the respondents sex, qualified for clusters 1 and 2. In cluster 1, the number of women and men was very similar , whereas, in cluster 2, the percentage of women was significantly higher . The difference was significant .
Respondents assigned to specific clusters differed in the matter of seeing the possibility of abandoning animal experiments. In both clusters, people mostly did not declare the possibility of resignation from animal experiments . But taking into consideration the percentage ratio in cluster 1 and 2, 5% and 19% respectively declare no possibility of animal procedures resignation .
Considering the inability to avoid animal experiments, 96% of respondents from cluster 1 believe that animal experiments are inevitable, while in cluster 2 this percentage was smaller and amounted to 83% .
When the respondents were asked whether animal experiments are necessary, the responses were not equal in each cluster. In the first cluster, only 33% of respondents believe that animal experiments are unnecessary, while in the cluster 2 as much as 61% of respondents have the same opinion .
Considering the question of whether animal experiments should be carried out at present, Cluster 1 includes people who think that animal experiments should not be conducted, while in Cluster 2, 84% of respondents had similar views .
Scatterplot of the stress feeling in respondents.Box-whiskers plot for stress feeling.
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Regulations For Animal Research
Finally, its important to note that animal research in the United States is very tightly regulated by a series of federal and state laws, policies and regulations, dating back to the landmark Animal Welfare Act from 1966. Oversight and inspection of facilities is provided by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and, at the local level by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees . Even procedures as simple as drawing a blood sample or testing an animal on a cognitive task must be approved by the local IACUC before the work can begin. Part of that approval process requires the scientist to identify whether there might be less invasive ways to do the same thing. In addition, the scientist must justify the numbers of animals that they use, insuring they are using the smallest number possible.
Animal research continues to play a vital role in psychology, enabling discoveries of basic psychological and physiological processes that are important for living healthy lives. You can learn more about some of this research, as well as the ethical and regulatory issues that are involved, by consulting online resources such as Speaking of Research.
The Top 5 Most Commonly Used Animals For Scientific Research
Some people have said that a computer could replace animals that are used for research and to discover cures for various diseases. It has also been said that computer modeling can be utilized to develop new drugs. All of this is true, but nothing has been found that can replace the intricate workings of a live animal. However, by law, replacements must be used whenever possible. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of each research institute ensures that the scientist have carefully considered and will utilize any method of replacement that is available.
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The Horrors Of Harry Harlow
You may find parts of this distressing.
One of six monkeys isolated for three months refused to eat after release and died five days later the effects of six months of total social isolation were so devastating and debilitating that we had assumed initially that twelve months of isolation would not produce any additional decrement. This assumption proved to be false twelve months of isolation almost obliterated the animals socially – Harry Harlow
If you find this distasteful, you’re not alone. Harlow’s own colleagues were disturbed by the glee with which he carried out these excessively cruel experiments. The terms “pit of despair” and “rape rack” were his own. It’s hard to avoid the conclusion there was a distinct lack of love somewhere in Harry Harlow’s childhood too.
I don’t have any love for them. Never have. I don’t really like animals. I despise cats. I hate dogs. How could you like monkeys? – Harry Harlow
What Animals Are Commonly Used In Psychological Research
4.3/5Animalsusedpsychological researchanimals usedPsychologistsin-depth answer
Non-human animals are used in psychological research because it is considered practical and ethical to do things to animals that researchers could not do to humans. For example, you can study the development of animals in a shorter time frame than humans. The use of animals is based on evolutionary theory.
Also, what are the advantages of using animals in psychological research? The advantage of animal research is that it puts no human lives at risk. Experiments can take place to determine if a product or idea will work as intended. If it does, then it can be tested on humans with a lower risk of a negative outcome. The disadvantage of animal research is that it lessens the value of life.
Similarly, why are non human animals used in psychological research?
Why Nonhuman Animals are Studied in PsychologyTo be sure, each species has its own specializations that enable it to fit into its unique ecological niche but common ancestry results in structural and functional processes that are remarkably similar between humans and nonhumans.
Why do psychologists study animals and is it ethical to experiment on animals?
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Is Armani Perfume Cruelty Free
No. Giorgio Armani does not use animals to test its products, and does not have animal testing conducted by anyone else to support our product safety review. Others, completely independent of LOréal and outside the direction or control of LOréal, might do animal testing pursuant to their local requirements.
Other Animals Used In Research
Other animals not included in this list include birds, fish, mice and rats. It turns out that mice and rats are the most commonly used animals in research. Because of this, some argue that the numbers mentioned above don’t properly report the total number of animals used in research. In fact, this number is likely to be much higher than it’s currently reported by the USDA.
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Alternatives To Psychological And Behavioural Animal Experiments
The big questions are: have we learned much that is new or beneficial from these millions of experiments? And – whatever may have been learned – is the infliction of so much pain and terror warrantable? And finally, is there any possible justification for duplicating and reduplicating this sort of experiment or variants of it, when the results are known and are readily ascertainable by means of films, books and articles in Journals?
Yet the usual justification for such experiments is that they are of help in understanding mental disorders. The experiments described make such a claim difficult to accept, but let us be generous and explore the idea a little further. It might be thought that the introduction of behavioural therapy, to treat phobias and other neurotic disorders was dependent on research using animals, to develop the underlying theories of learning.
It would be curious to argue that it would have been impossible to carry out the relevant research on human subjects for how could a therapeutic method for use with human beings be based on principles of learning which could be demonstrated and investigated in dogs and rats, but which could not be demonstrated and investigated in human volunteers? Indeed, one could argue that the development of behavioural therapy might have been more rapid if more of the relevant research had been carried out on human volunteers rather than on animals for instance, the importance of imagery would probably have been defined earlier.