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What Is Content Validity In Psychology

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Concurrent And Criterion Validity


Support for the concurrent and criterion validity of anxiety sensitivity is vast. Anxiety sensitivity is elevated among those with anxiety , obsessive-compulsive, and traumatic stress disorders relative to those without. Anxiety sensitivity is also correlated with anxiety symptom severity in both unselected and clinical samples . Those with higher anxiety sensitivity have heightened responding to distress, such as pain , carbon dioxide inhalation , and psychosocial and traumatic stressors .

Anxiety sensitivity also has been validated with respect to physiological and neurological markers of heightened reactivity to threat-related and other affective stimuli. For example, anxiety sensitivity has been associated with heightened fear-potentiated startle and skin conductance response to carbon dioxide challenge . Neuroimaging studies have indicated that anxiety sensitivity is associated with activation and volumetric differences in limbic structures central to emotional processing, such as the amygdala and the insula . Consistent with the perspective that anxiety sensitivity reflects an interpretation of anxiety symptoms and sensations as dangerous or threatening, a recent study identified a role for prefrontal regions that are associated with the appraisal of stimuli in anxiety sensitivity .

Lazar Stankov, … Simon A. Jackson, in, 2015

Example Of Content Validity In Psychology

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What Is The Difference Between Face And Content Validity

4.8/5Content validitydifferentface validitycontent validitybetweencontent

Content Validity. Content validity is an important research methodology term that refers to how well a test measures the behavior for which it is intended. For example, let’s say your teacher gives you a psychology test on the psychological principles of sleep.

Additionally, how do you use content validity? Content validity is most often measured by relying on the knowledge of people who are familiar with the construct being measured. These subject-matter experts are usually provided with access to the measurement tool and are asked to provide feedback on how well each question measures the construct in question.

Subsequently, one may also ask, what do you mean by face validity?

Face validity, also called logical validity, is a simple form of validity where you apply a superficial and subjective assessment of whether or not your study or test measures what it is supposed to measure. However, it doesn’t general include much in the way of objective measurements.

How do you prove content validity?

A test can be supported by content validity evidence by measuring a representative sample of the content of the job or is a direct job behavior.

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Why Is Reliability Important Psychology

Reliability refers to the consistency of the results in research. Reliability is highly important for psychological research. This is because it tests if the study fulfills its predicted aims and hypothesis and also ensures that the results are due to the study and not any possible extraneous variables.

Substantive Conclusions: Measuring Self

Validity in psychological testing

In addition to utilizing the ASTI to demonstrate our approach, we believe that we have gained important insights about the ASTI, as well as about self-transcendence in general, from this study. Through the exercise of assigning and reassigning the items to the dimensions of the construct and discussing the contradictions and difficulties we encountered, we gained a far deeper understanding of the measured itself.

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Face Validity Results Of Patient

A sample of 10 people of patients with cancer who had a long-term history ofhospitalization in oncology wards was requested to judge on the importance,simplicity and understandability of items in an interview with one of the members ofresearch team. According to their opinions, to make some items more understandable,objective examples were included in an item. For instance, the item Nurses trynot to cause any problem for me was changed into During care , Nurses try not to cause any problem for me.The item Care decisions are made without paying attention to my needswas changed to Nurses didnt ask my opinion about care. In addition the quantitative analysis was also performed ascalculating impact score of each item. Nine items had item impact score less than 1.5 andthey were eliminated from the final instrument for preliminary test. Finally, at the endof the content validity and face validity process, our instrument was prepared with sevendimensions and 44 items for the next steps and doing the rest of psychometric testing.

D Factors Affecting The Reliability Coefficient

Any factor which reduces score variability or increases measurement error will also reduce the reliability coefficient. For e.g., all other things being equal, short tests are less reliable than long ones, very easy and very difficult tests are less reliable than moderately difficult tests, and tests where examinees scores are affected by guessing have lowered reliability coefficients.

content, criterion-related, and constructvalidity

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This Article Is A Part Of The Guide:

  • 13Instrument Reliability
  • For example, an educational test with strong content validity will represent the subjects actually taught to students, rather than asking unrelated questions.

    Content validity is often seen as a prerequisite to criterion validity, because it is a good indicator of whether the desired trait is measured. If elements of the test are irrelevant to the main construct, then they are measuring something else completely, creating potential bias.

    In addition, criterion validity derives quantitative correlations from test scores.

    Content validity is qualitative in nature, and asks whether a specific element enhances or detracts from a test or research program.

    Determining Face Validity Of An Instrument

    12 Types of Validity

    Face validity answers this question whether an instrument apparently has validity forsubjects, patients and/or other participants. Face validity means if the designedinstrument is apparently related to the construct underlying study. Do participants agreewith items and wording of them in an instrument to realize research objectives? Facevalidity is related to the appearance and apparent attractiveness of an instrument, whichmay affect the instrument acceptability by respondents. In principle, face validity is not considered as validity asfar as measurement principles are concerned. In fact, it does not consider what tomeasure, but it focuses on the appearance of instrument.To determine face validity of an instrument, researchers userespondents and experts viewpoints. In the qualitative method, face-to-face interviewsare carried out with some members of the target groups. Difficulty level of items, desiredsuitability and relationship between items and the main objective of an instrument,ambiguity and misinterpretations of items, and/or incomprehensibility of the meaning ofwords are the issues discussed in the interviews.

    If the item impact of an item is equal to or greater than 1.5 , it ismaintained in the instrument; otherwise it is eliminated.

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    What Is Construct Validity

    Construct validity is about ensuring that the method of measurement matches the construct you want to measure. If you develop a questionnaire to diagnose depression, you need to know: does the questionnaire really measure the construct of depression? Or is it actually measuring the respondents mood, self-esteem, or some other construct?

    To achieve construct validity, you have to ensure that your indicators and measurements are carefully developed based on relevant existing knowledge. The questionnaire must include only relevant questions that measure known indicators of depression.

    The other types of validity described below can all be considered as forms of evidence for construct validity.

    Face Validity In Psychology

    Typesof Validity | What is Face Validity in PsychologyFace validity in Psychologyvalid.invalidactive childhood interest in flying model planes.Types of Validity |face validityFace validity in psychologyTypes of Validity |content validity, face validity in psychologyFace validity in psychologylow face validityFace validity in psychologycontent validity.contentvalidityFace validity in psychologyvalid

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    Social Support Scale Based On Attachment Theory

    The following statements concern what you think about how people relate to others and establish bonds with them. If you agree strongly with a statement, indicate 6. If you disagree strongly, indicate 1. If your degree of agreement or disagreement falls between those extremes, choose one of the values from 2 to 5. Please answer honestly; your data will remain anonymous.

    Beliefs about others socially supportive behavior items


    Results Of Stage : Judgment Of Expert Panel On Validity Of Patient


    In the second step and after selecting fifteen content experts including the instrumentdeveloper experts , cancer research experts ,nurse-patientcommunication experts and four nurses experienced in cancer care, an expertpanel was created for making quantitative and qualitative judgments on instrument items.The panel members were requested thrice to judge on content validity ratio, contentvalidity index, and instrument comprehensiveness. In each round, they were requested tojudge on face validity of instrument as well. In each round of correspondences via e-mailor in person, a letter of request was presented, which included study objectives and anaccount on instrument, scoring method, and required instructions on responding.Theoretical definitions of the construct underlying study, its dimensions, and items ofeach dimension were also mentioned in that letter. In case no reply was received for thereminder e-mail within a week, a telephone conversation would be made or a meeting wouldbe arranged.

    In the first round of judgment, 108 items out of 188 instrument items were eliminated.These eliminated items had content validity ratio lower than 0.49, orthose which combined to remained items based on the opinion of content experts throughediting of item. shows a sample ofinstrument items and CVR calculation method for them.

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    What Is Content Validity

    The term;content validity refers to how well a survey or test measures the construct that it sets out to measure.

    For example, suppose a professor wants to test the overall knowledge of his students in the subject of elementary statistics. His test would have content validity if:

    • The test covers every topic of elementary statistics that he taught in the class.
    • The test does not cover unrelated topics such as history, economics, biology, etc.

    A test lacks content validity if it doesnt cover all aspects of a construct it sets out to measure or if it covers topics that are unrelated to the construct in any way.

    Description And Application Of The Content

    As the study design is intended to be a template for other studies, we first present a point-by-point description of the steps in Table 1. In general, detailed descriptions of the procedure for assigning items to scales are important elements for the transparency of studies, especially as they offer the possibility to reanalyze and compare results across different studies .

    The research questions for the current study were as follows.

    Which items of the ASTI fulfill the requirement of content validity? The theoretical background of the ASTI describes a multidimensional, complex construct, and it is not obvious for all items to which dimension they pertain. In addition, item responses may be influenced by other, related constructs that the ASTI is not intended to tap. Thus, we investigated experts’ views on the relation of the items to the dimensions of the ASTI and to related constructs. The results of this analysis were also expected to show whether all dimensions of the ASTI are well-represented by the items, i.e., whether enough items are included to assess each dimension.

    Do the expert judgments suggest hypotheses for theory-based item analysis? The expert judgments are interesting not only with respect to the dimensionality of the ASTI. Other relevant psychometric issues include potential predictors of differential item functioning, comprehensibility of items, and too strong or too imprecise item formulations.

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    Example: Measuring Content Validity

    Suppose we ask a panel of 10 judges to rate 6 items on a test. The green boxes in the following table shows which judges rated each item as an essential item:

    The content validity ratio for the first item would be calculated as:

    Content Validity Ratio = / = / =;0.8

    We could calculate the content validity ratio for each item in a similar manner:

    From the critical values table, we can see that an item is considered to have content validity for a panel of 10 judges only if it has a CVR value above 0.62.

    For this particular test, only three of the items pass this threshold.

    Lastly, we can also calculate the content validity index of the entire test as the average of all the CVR values:

    CVI = / 6 =;0.5

    This CVI value is quite low, which indicates that the test likely doesnt measure the construct of interest as well as it could.

    It would be recommended to remove or modify the items that have low CVR values to improve the overall content validity of the test.

    How Is Content Validity Measured

    Measuring Content Validity

    Content validity is related to face validity, but differs wildly in how it is evaluated.

    Face validity requires a personal judgment, such as asking participants whether they thought that a test was well constructed and useful. Content validity arrives at the same answers, but uses an approach based in statistics, ensuring that it is regarded as a strong type of validity.

    For surveys and tests, each question is given to a panel of expert analysts, and they rate it. They give their opinion about whether the question is essential, useful or irrelevant to measuring the construct under study.

    Their results are statistically analyzed and the test modified to improve the rational validity.

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    What Is Criterion Validity

    To evaluate criterion validity, you calculate the correlation between the results of your measurement and the results of the criterion measurement. If there is a high correlation, this gives a good indication that your test is measuring what it intends to measure.


    A university professor creates a new test to measure applicants English writing ability. To assess how well the test really does measure students writing ability, she finds an existing test that is considered a valid measurement of English writing ability, and compares the results when the same group of students take both tests. If the outcomes are very similar, the new test has a high criterion validity.

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    Validity And Clinical Utility Of The Structural Interview

    The convergent validity of the structural diagnosis has been supported in studies that show that measures of the structural diagnosis from the structural interview are positively correlated with related constructs such as DSM personality disorders diagnoses, personality pathology, and use of primitive defence mechanisms, as assessed by a variety of methods, such as structured interviews, batteries of psychological testing and self-report questionnaires .

    Delroy L. Paulhus, Daniel N. Jones, in, 2015

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    S To Evaluate Content Validity

    Several approaches to evaluate content validity have been described in the literature. One of the first procedures was probably the Delphi method, which was used since 1940 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as a systematic method for technical predictions . The Delphi method, which is predominantly used in medical research, is a structural iterative communication technique where experts assess the importance of characteristics, symptoms, or items for a target construct . In the first round, each expert individually rates the importance of symptoms/items for the illness/construct of interest. In the second round, the experts receive summarized results based on the first round and can make further comments or revise their answers of the first round. The process stops when a previously defined homogeneity criterion is achieved.

    Face Validity In Psychological Testing

    38: Content Validity: Generalized to Entire Content

    Another method that is used rarely because it is not very sophisticated is face validity. It is based only on the appearance of the measure and what it is supposed to measure, but not what the test actually measures.

    Face validity is one of the most basic measures of validity. Essentially, researchers are simply taking the validity of the test at face value by looking at whether a test appears to measure the target variable. On a measure of happiness, for example, the test would be said to have face validity if it appeared to actually measure levels of happiness.

    Obviously, face validity only means that the test looks like it works. It does not mean that the test has been proven to work. However, if the measure seems to be valid at this point, researchers may investigate further in order to determine whether the test is valid and should be used in the future.

    Essentially, face validity is whether a test seems to measure what it is supposed to measure. It involves taking the test at face value.

    A survey asking people which political candidate they plan to vote for would be said to have high face validity. The purpose of the test is very clear, even to people who are unfamiliar with psychometrics.

    A complex test used as part of a psychological experiment that looks at a variety of values, characteristics, and behaviors might be said to have low face validity. The exact purpose of the test is not immediately clear, particularly to the participants.

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    Expert Meeting: Discussion Of The Results

    Next, the experts are invited to discuss the assignments and comments as a group. This discussion is particularly fruitful if the assignments were relatively heterogeneous. It can lead to clarifications and possible modifications of the definitions of the dimensions, removal of items that clearly do not fit the construct, and even generation of additional items. If the original assignments were very heterogeneous, it makes sense to repeat the individual assignment and collective discussion in order to achieve a sufficient level of agreement among the experts. However, this iterative process can become very complex and is not always feasible. In any case, a minimum of two experts from different fields should make the decisions together.

    The results of the analysis and discussion of the experts’ assignments can take various forms. Usually, some items are clearly assigned to a specific dimension, others turn out to be so equivocal that they are eliminated. In some cases, however, the conceptualization of the dimensions needs to be reconsidered. For example, as mentioned above, if a number of items are assigned to two dimensions with about equal weight, this may mean that the two dimensions need to be collapsed or that an additional dimension is required that is conceptually located between the two. If the comments of experts provide new insights for possible dimension definitions or labels, these comments can also be included in the formulation of new definitions.

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