What Are Demographic Variables
First, let’s consider the meaning of the words: Variablesquite simplyare anything that can change and be measured. Examples include age, gender, ethnicity, fertility rates, etc. Demography is the study of human populations. If your research interest has to do with how characteristics vary among individuals or groups of individuals, then you will be looking for demographic statistics.
Typically, we think of two broad classes of demographic statistics that are collected and used by researchers:
Demographers explore changes in the structure of populations, such as in numbers of births and deaths, life expectancy, migration rates, and so on. The statistics describing these changes are together called “vital statistics” or “population statistics.” For example, a demographer might analyze trends and projections of birth and death rates for Afghanistan:
Demographicor more broadly, sociodemographicstatistics refer to characteristics of a population, such as age, race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, income, education, and marital status. These types of variables are often used to understand how these characteristics vary with respect to each other . For example, a study tracking cancer incidence might collect data on the race, ethnicity, age, and/or gender of the research participants to understand whether and how occurrence of cancer varies by one or more of these demographic characteristics:
Drivers Of Population Growth: Fertility And Mortality
The world’s population increases every year because the global birth rate exceeds the death rate. For example, in 20002005 population size increased at a rate of 1.17 per cent per year, which equals the difference between a birth rate of 2.03 per cent and a death rate of 0.86 per cent. At the country level, population growth is also affected by migration, but for the regional aggregates of population used in this analysis, migration is usually a minor factor, and it will therefore not be discussed in detail.
The annual birth and death rates of populations are in turn primarily determined by levels of fertility and mortality experienced by individuals. The most widely used fertility indicator is the total fertility rate , which equals the number of births a woman would have by the end of her reproductive years if she experienced the age-specific fertility rates prevailing in a given year. Mortality is often measured by the life expectancy at birth, which equals the average number of years a newborn would live if subjected to age-specific mortality rates observed in a given year.
Why Are Demographics Important
Demographics are important because they provide a broad understanding of the different characteristics of a population. This information is particularly useful to government organizations for making crucial policy decisions concerning the population. Corporations and other businesses in the private sector also use demographics to develop a better understanding of the public and, accordingly, make strategic business and marketing plans.
An understanding of demographics and their statistical possibilities is incredibly important for everyone, not just governments, businesses and economists. The decisions that are made using demographics data can have a profound impact on our everyday lives.
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What Is Geographic Segmentation
Geographic segmentation refers to grouping your customers based on the region on their geographic location. This is more and simple and easier to conduct than other segmentation methods. Moreover, we can do this segmentation in a number of ways. We can group them by their country, region, city, or even postal code. Moreover, the size of the region we target should depend on our needs as a business. Larger businesses target bigger areas, but for small businesses, it might be safer to stick to smaller areas.
We can use the following six factors to create customer segments in geographic segmentation.
Lets look at an example to understand geographic segmentation. If someone is opening a restaurant in Beijing, they will have to focus on factors like language and cultural preferences. In fact, these factors differ from region to region.
Stage : High Growth Rate
Around the mid-1700s, global populations began to grow ten times faster than in the past for two reasons: The IndustrialRevolution and increased wealth. The Industrial Revolution brought with it a variety of technological improvements in agricultural production and food supply. Increased wealth in Europe, and later North America, because of the Industrial Revolution, meant that more money and resources could be devoted to medicine, medical technology, water sanitation, and personal hygiene. Sewer systems installed in cities led to public health improvements. All of this dramatically caused CDRs to drop around the world. At first, CBRs stayed high as CDRs decreased this caused populations to increase in Europe and North America. Over time, this would change.
Africa, Asia, and Latin America moved into Stage 2 of the demographic transition model 200 years later for different reasons than their European and North American counterparts. The medicine created in Europe and North America was brought into these emerging nations, creating what is now called the medicalrevolution. This diffusion of medicine in this region caused death rates to drop quickly. While the medical revolution reduced death rates, it did not bring with it the wealth and improved living conditions, and development that the Industrial Revolution created. Global population growth is highest in the regions that are still in Stage 2.
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A Social Science History
Historical demography is a social science history. It is distinguished from other branches of history by its explicit use of concepts and tools derived from a discipline in social sciences . Its goal is to establish historical facts by applying such conceptual frameworks to historical sources, and its methodological novelty lies in quantification. The research results of historical demography as such have often questioned the conventional pictures of past populations, thereby raising doubts about the assumptions upon which many theories rest. The position of historical demography in the social and behavioral sciences thus resembles that of New Economic History, but it should be realized that there are a few notable differences in emphasis between these two social science history fields. While the application of theoretically constructed econometric models is given prime importance in New Economic History, emphasis in historical demography has always been on measurement. Attempts to formulate models to explain historical facts have never been put aside, but more effort has been directed to the development of finer measures and the identification of patterns, temporal, and cross-cultural, by using those quantitative measures.
Yang C. Yang, Ryan K. Masters, in, 2015
Mortality And Life Expectancy
Mortality levels have also changed rapidly over the past several decades . The South experienced exceptional improvements in LE from an average of 41 years in 19501955 to 64 years in 20002005. By the early 2000, Latin America reached mortality levels similar to those prevailing in the North in the 1970s, and Asia was just a few years behind. Africa experienced the highest mortality and improvements in LE stalled in the 1990s due to the AIDS epidemic. As a result, Africa’s LE, at 52 years in 20002005, was still substantially below that of Asia and Latin America . As expected, Europe and Northern America already achieved relatively low levels of mortality by 1950, but they have nevertheless seen significant further improvements since then. Europe’s LE is now lower than North America’s because of a rise in mortality in Eastern Europe after the break-up of the Soviet Union.
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Types Of Demographic Information
For corporate marketing goals, demographic data is collected to build a customer base profile. The common variables gathered in demographic research include age, sex, income level, race, employment, location, homeownership, and level of education. Demographical information makes certain generalizations about groups to identify customers.
Additional demographic factors include gathering data on preferences, hobbies, lifestyle, and more. Governmental agencies collect data when conducting a national census and may use that demographic data to forecast economic patterns and population growth to better manage resources.
You can gather demographic information on a large group and then break it down into smaller subsets for deeper dive into your research.
Common Rates And Ratios
A stable population does not necessarily remain fixed in size. It can be expanding or shrinking.
Note that the crude death rate as defined above and applied to a whole population can give a misleading impression. For example, the number of deaths per 1,000 people can be higher for developed nations than in less-developed countries, despite standards of health being better in developed countries. This is because developed countries have proportionally more older people, who are more likely to die in a given year, so that the overall mortality rate can be higher even if the mortality rate at any given age is lower. A more complete picture of mortality is given by a life table, which summarizes mortality separately at each age. A life table is necessary to give a good estimate of life expectancy.
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Stage : Moderate Growth Rate
Today, Europe and North America have moved to Stage 3 of the demographic transition model. A nation moves from Stage 2 to Stage 3 when CBRs begin to drop while CDRs simultaneously remain low or even continue to fall. It should be noted that the natural rate of increase in nations within Stage 3 is moderate because CBRs are somewhat higher than CDRs. The United States, Canada, and countries in Europe entered this stage in the early 20th Century. Latin American nations entered this stage later in the century.
Advances in technology and medicine cause a decrease in IMR and overall CDR during Stage 2. Social and economic changes bring about a reduction in CBR during Stage 3. Nations that begin to acquire wealth tend to have fewer children as they move away from rural-based development structures toward urban-based structures because more children survive, and the need for large families for agricultural work decreases. Additionally, women gain more legal rights and chose to enter the workforce, own property, and have fewer children as nations move into Stage 3.
Stage : Low Growth Rate
We have lived in the first stage of the Demographic Transition Model for most of human existence. In this first stage, CBRs and CDRs fluctuated significantly over time because of living conditions, food output, environmental conditions, war, and disease. However, the natural increase of the world was pretty stable because the CBRs and CDRs were about equal. However, around 8,000 BC, the worlds population began to grow dramatically due to the first agriculturalrevolution. During this time, humans learn to domesticate plants and animals for personal use and became less reliant on hunting and gathering for sustenance. While this transition allowed for more stable food production and village populations to grow, War and disease prevented population growth from occurring on a global scale.
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G The Demographic Transition Model
Data Available From The Us Bureau Of Labor Statistics
Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov/
Access all BLS data on the SUBJECTS AREA page of their website.Below is a sampling of the type of data available.
- Inflation & Prices | consumer, producer and import/export price indexes, consumer expenditure survey
- Employment | labor force statistics , job openings and labor turnover survey, employment and wage data by industry and geographic area , occupational employment statistics , employment projections
- Unemployment | national, state and local unemployment rates, mass layoff statistics
- Pay & Benefits | National Compensation Survey, benefits, local industry wages, earnings statistics from the CPS
- Spending & Time Use | Consumer Expenditure Survey, American Time Use Survey
- Productivity | quarterly labor productivity, annual indexes for industry productivity
- Workplace Injuries
- International | comparative productivity and labor costs by country
- Regional Resources | regional offices, including Mid-Atlantic and Southeast
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What Is The Demographic Transition Model
October 13, 2014
This is post 1 of 6 in a series about the Demographic Transition Model a fundamental concept in population education, which is covered in Social Studies courses, most notably AP Human Geography.
Beginning in the late 1700s, something remarkable happened: death rates declined. With new technologies in agriculture and production, and advancements in health and sanitation, a greater number of people lived through their adolescent years, increasing the average life expectancy and creating a new trajectory for population growth. This sudden change created a shift in understanding the correlation between birth and death rates, which up to that point had both been relatively equal, regardless of location. Over the past 300 years, population demographics have continued to evolve as a result of the relationship between the birth and death rates within a country. The observation and documentation of this global phenomenon has produced a model, the Demographic Transition Model, which helps explain and make sense of changes in population demographics. Using the Demographic Transition Model, demographers can better understand a countrys current population growth based on its placement within one of five stages and then pass on that data to be used for addressing economic and social policies within a country and across nations.
What Is Agriculture In Your Own Words
Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the worlds food and fabrics.
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What Does Connectivity Mean In Human Geography
Accordingly, what is connectivity in geography?
Connectivity is the extent flows of passengers or freight from a node can reach other nodes either directly or indirectly through another node. It draws from conventional graph theory, which investigates the arrangement of nodes and links in networks.
Secondly, what is connection in human geography? Connections. Definition. Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
Then, what is an example of connectivity in human geography?
Example: In an water distribution system, connectivity would refer to the way pipes, valves, and reservoirs are attached, implying that water could be “traced” from its source in the network, from connection to connection, to any given final point.
What is connectivity in transport?
Connectivity refers to the density of connections in path or road networks, and the directness of links. A well-connected network has many short links, numerous intersections, and minimal dead-ends .
Population In Geography Topic
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Why Do Businesses Need Demographics
Demographics are key to businesses today. They help identify the individual members of an audience by selecting key characteristics, wants, and needs. This allows companies to tailor their efforts based on particular segments of their customer base. Online advertising and marketing have made enormous headway over the past decade in using algorithms and big data analysis to micro-target ads on social media to very specific demographics.
What Are Demographic Changes
Demographic changes are the dynamics in the quantifiable statistics of a given population. Demography seeks to understand population changes by investigating such demographic components as gender, age, ethnicity, home ownership, mobility, disabilities, language knowledge, employment status and location. These elements and how they change constitute vital information about the population of a given location and its culture.
Demography examines the relationship of changes through deaths, births and migration in demographic composition, with the natural environment and with social and economic change. Demographic indicators may include population size, crude birth rate, population growth rate, crude death rate, fertility rate, life expectancy and infant mortality. Estimated and projected gender and age distributions in relation to fertility rates could also be included. The impact of demographic change is considered as one of the most important challenges for the future.
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Population Geography: Roots Definition Nature And Subject Matter
The early works of George and the influential statement of Trewartha before the annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers in 1953 are often considered as the turning point in the emergence of population geography as a separate field within geographical studies. The development, however, was not sudden nor was it unexpected. The roots of the sub-field can be located in developments that were taking place both within geography and outside during some earlier periods.
While some can be traced, as early as, in nineteenth century, others became potent forces in the first half of the twentieth century. In addition to the growing recognition of the significance of human elements in geography, some other developments that were taking place in different parts of the world and in different fields helped a great deal in the emergence and thereafter growth and expansion of the sub-field.
As Kosinski and Clarke have suggested, growing availability of population statistics has played a crucial role in the emergence of population geography. Prior to the emergence of governmental and international agencies as sources of data, several private agencies, mainly in Europe, were involved in collection and compilation of population data. The UN agencies began publishing demographic statistics on a regular basis soon after the end of the Second World War.
Population Geography: Definition, Nature and Subject Matter:
A historical account of population