Research Focus: Internal Versus External Focus And Performance
Within the realm of sport psychology, Gabrielle Wulf and colleagues from the University of Las Vegas Nevada have studied the role of internal and external focus on physical performance outcomes such as balance, accuracy, speed, and endurance. In one experiment they used a ski-simulator and directed participants attention to either the pressure they exerted on the wheels of the platform on which they were standing , or to their feet that were exerting the force . On a retention test, the external focus group demonstrated superior learning compared with both the internal focus group and a control group without focus instructions. The researchers went on to replicate findings in a subsequent experiment that involved balancing on a stabilometer. Again, directing participants attention externally, by keeping markers on the balance platform horizontal, led to more effective balance learning than inducing an internal focus, by asking them to try to keep their feet horizontal. The researchers showed that balance performance or learning, as measured by deviations from a balanced position, is enhanced when the performers attention is directed to minimizing movements of the platform or disk as compared to those of their feet. Since the initial studies, numerous researchers have replicated the benefits of an external focus for other balance tasks .
The authors noted:
Different Approaches To The Same Topic
Every topic in psychology can be looked at in a number of ways. For example, let’s consider the subject of aggression.
- A professional who emphasizes a biological perspective would look at how the brain and nervous system impact aggressive behavior.
- A professional who stresses a behavioral perspective would look at how environmental variables reinforce aggressive actions.
- A professional who utilizes a cross-cultural approach might consider how cultural and social influences contribute to aggressive or violent behavior.
Here are seven of the major perspectives in modern psychology.
Extension Of Neural Darwinism To Consciousness
As we have seen, the anatomy of the thalamocortical system provides an essential element in the neural mechanism underlying consciousness. A characteristic feature of the cerebral cortex is the presence of corticocortical connections linking various neurons in spatially dispersed regions of the cortex to one another in a reciprocal fashion . Similarly, the thalamus projects a large number of axons to all areas of the cortex, and the cortex projects an even larger number to the thalamus . Together the corticocortical, corticothalamic, and thalamocortical connections provide a necessary structural basis for dynamic reentry, the ongoing reciprocal signaling within the cortex and between the cortex and the thalamus, constituting a Dynamic Core . Reentrant coupling can result in the formation of synchronous time-locked patterns of activity essential to connecting and integrating the distinctive functions of different brain areas. Reentrant activity allows a brain area having responses originally evoked by sensory input to give similar responses in the absence of that input. By this means the brain speaks to itself, a necessary basis for memory and thought.
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How Do Genes Influence Behavior
Genes, via their influences on morphology and physiology, create a framework within which the environment acts to shape the behavior of an individual animal. The environment can affect morphological and physiological development in turn behavior develops as a result of that animal’s shape and internal workings.
Introduction To Psychology Essay
DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGY1Abstract:The following paper consists of an explanation, of what the history of psychology taught usabout the human behaviour. This explanation consists of summarising the differentperspectives in psychology. Each perspective is trying to view the human mind and behaviourfrom a different angle, i.e. the biological perspective tries to analyse the human behaviour byunderstanding the biological and physical structure of the brain and the nervous
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Does Human Have Super Power
Inside all of us, we have remarkable abilities to resist extreme weather and to endure extreme physical stress. These superpowers are really what Carney calls “human powers,” and theycan be developed and learned. Here are seven of the “superpowers” that can be found in individuals or that can be developed.
Major Perspectives In Modern Psychology
The early years of psychology were dominated by a succession of these different schools of thought. If you have taken a psychology course, you might remember learning about structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanismall of which are different schools of psychological thought.
As psychology has grown, the number and variety of topics that psychologists investigate have also expanded. Since the early 1960s, the field of psychology has flourished. It continues to grow at a rapid pace, as has the depth and breadth of subjects studied by psychologists.
Few psychologists identify their outlook according to a particular school of thought. While there are still some pure behaviorists or psychoanalysts, the majority of psychologists today categorize their work according to their specialty area and perspective.
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How Do I Become A Biological Psychiatrist
4 Steps to Becoming a Psychiatrist
Is A Phd In Psychology Worth It
With a doctorate degree, you will qualify for a greater range of jobs than those who only hold a Masters degreeand youll have a good shot of landing the job you really want, too. And its no surprise that working professionals in psychology jobs with the highest pay are held by those with a doctorate degree.
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How Are Psychological Perspectives Used
So how do all of these different psychological perspectives the way that psychologists view human issues? Lets take a look at a few examples of how psychological perspectives are used.
For example, imagine that psychologists want to investigate test anxiety. This type of anxiety can impact students and make it difficult for them to perform well on school exams.
- Using a psychoanalytic perspective, one psychologist might choose to look at how unconscious influences might lead to or exacerbate test anxiety.
- Using a behavioral perspective, another psychologist might look at how conditioning process have contributed to the anxious feelings. Behavioral techniques such as classical conditioning or operant conditioning might be used to help reduce the feelings of anxiety.
- Using a cognitive perspective, another psychologist might look at the thought processes that contribute to these feelings of anxiety.
- Using a biological perspective, a psychologist might look at genetic factors as well as brain processes that might lead to feelings of anxiety.
- Using a humanist perspective, a psychologist might look for ways to help people focus on more positive aspects of their experience rather than dwelling on negative emotions.
Can Humans Be Mutated
Scientists believe that every time the human genome duplicates itself there are around 100 new mutations. They’re pretty common, and usually negligible. However, it would stand to reason that within the pantheon of human mutations, some would express themselves in the form of extraordinary superhuman abilities.
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Can We Modify Genes
Human genetic modification is the direct manipulation of the genome using molecular engineering techniques. Recently developed techniques for modifying genes are often called âgene editing.â Genetic modification can be applied in two very different ways: somatic genetic modification and germline genetic modification.
Recent Issues Related To Psychotropic Drugs And Metabolism
Grapefruit Juice and Metabolism. Grapefruit can interfere with enzymes in the liver that help the body to process certain drugs.
Certain types of food in the stomach can alter the rate of drug absorption, and other foods can also alter the rate of drug metabolism. The most well known is grapefruit juice. Grapefruit juice suppresses cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver, and these liver enzymes normally break down a large variety of drugs . If the enzymes are suppressed, drug levels can build up to potentially toxic levels. In this case, the effects can persist for extended periods of time after the consumption of grapefruit juice. As of 2013, there are at least 85 drugs shown to adversely interact with grapefruit juice . Some psychotropic drugs that are likely to interact with grapefruit juice include carbamazepine , prescribed for bipolar disorder diazepam , used to treat anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and muscle spasms and fluvoxamine , used to treat obsessive compulsive disorder and depression. A link at the end of this module gives the latest list of drugs reported to have this unusual interaction.
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What Are The 8 Major Perspectives In Psychology Explained
Major Perspectives in Psychology
Synopsis: Psychology is currently defined as the science of behavior and cognitive processes . However, psychology is a fairly new discipline and has a history of differing opinions on what the focus of the field should be and the manner in which human behaviour should be studied. The field has evolved from many different perspectives and this article explores the eight main that influenced the discipline greatly.
Many Null Findings For Biological Treatment Moderators Are Likely The Result Of Underpowered Statistical Tests
Second, many moderating effects in psychological research are ordinal, particularly in treatmentoutcome studies. In other words, the slopes of the regression lines for different treatment groups have the same sign at different levels of the moderator. Such is the case when two groups improve during treatment, but one group improves more than the other. Power to detect moderators is considerably less for ordinal interactions than for crossover interactions .
Third, despite stern warnings from statisticians, many researchers dichotomize variables to test for moderation. It remains a common practice to first divide the putative moderator and then test the correlation between the IV and the dependent variable in the resulting subgroups, a strategy advanced originally by . Although it is essential to interpret a moderating effect by examining the relation between the IV and DV at different levels of the moderator, this should be done only after a significant effect is found using the continuous product term to compute the interaction. Although there are several compelling reasons to avoid dichotomizing continuous variables , the point here is that doing so results in further erosion of statistical power for effects that are already underpowered given the considerations noted.
Implications for prevention and intervention
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Epigenetic Regulation Of Learning And Memory
Cortical neuron tissue. Neural plasticity is the change of neural pathways and synapses which allows for our ability to learn new things and remember them.
Memories are recollections of actual events stored within our brains. But how is our brain able to form and store these memories? Epigenetic mechanisms inuence genomic activities in the brain to produce long-term changes in synaptic signaling, organization, and morphology, which in turn support learning and memory .
Neuronal activity in the hippocampus of mice is associated with changes in DNA methylation , and disruption to genes encoding the DNA methylation machinery cause learning and memory impairments . DNA methylation has also been implicated in the maintenance of long-term memories, as pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation and impaired memory . These ndings indicate the importance of DNA methylation in mediating synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions, both of which are disturbed in psychological illness.
In humans genetic defects in genes encoding the DNA methylation and chromatin machinery exhibit profound effects on cognitive function and mental health . The two best-characterized examples are Rett syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome , which are profound intellectual disability disorders. Both MECP2 and CBP are highly expressed in neurons and are involved in regulating neural gene expression .
Major Perspectives In Psychology
The formal beginning of modern psychology is usually traced back to 1879 when the first experimental laboratory for psychology was established in Leipzig, Germany by Wilhelm Wundt. Wundt firmly believed the scientific method could be used to study human behaviour. He was primarily interested in the study of conscious experience and wanted to analyse the simplest constituents or the building blocks of the mind. Wundt focused his research on such tasks as analyzing sensations, feelings, and images into their most basic parts. He did this using the method of introspection, in which individuals describe in detail what is going on in their own minds, their own mental processes and experiences. This perspective was known as structuralism.Another major figure associated with structuralism is Edward Titchener. Titchener believed that an experience should be evaluated as a fact, as it exists without studying the significance or value of that experience. According to him, the anatomy of the mind had little to do with how or why the mind functions. Structuralism eventually lost popularity as many psychologists felt that introspection was not scientific or verifiable.
4. Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic perspective
Many other psychologists who worked under Freud, like Carl Jung, Otto Rank, and Alfred Adler went on to develop their own theories based on Freuds psychoanalysis and these theories constitute the psychodynamic perspective.
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Who Is The Dad Of Biological Psychology
Among the owners of clinical psychology, William James , in fact dealt with psychology as a biological scientific research as well as identified the value of the mind for awareness, yet the excellent Russian physiologist as well as 1904 Nobel Laureate Ivan Petrovich Pavlov might probably be taken into consideration the initially
Historical Perspectives Of Abnormal Psychology
Historical Perspectives of Abnormal PsychologySusan HardinUniversity of PhoenixAbnormal PsychologyPSY/410Krisit Lane, Ph.D.October 25, 2011Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology Historical perspectives of abnormal psychology sounds complicated, mainly due to the differing definitions, or interpretations, of what is considered abnormal. Identifying someone at work or in a social situation who appears to be behaving abnormally is easier to spot than it is to define the
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Relevance Of Biological Perspective In Psychology
One of the major perspectives in psychology is biological perspective, which involves the study of brain, genetics, immune system and also the nervous system. Various schools of thought in psychology since very long have centred around a debate on nurture versus nature. The school of thought which supports the nurture aspect of the debate strongly hold that the environment plays a crucial role in moulding or influencing behaviour. While, those who support the nature facet believe that the biological factors influence human behaviour.
Biology Neuroscience And Prevention
The tendency of clinical psychology to respond slowly to paradigm shifts that are embraced by other areas of psychological science is clearly evident in neuroscience. Most clinical psychology programs offer minimal training in the brain bases of behavior, if they offer any such training at all, and clinical neuroscience articles are still a rarity in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, flagship journals of the profession. Perhaps of more importance, neuroscientific principles are almost completely absent from current theoretical formulations of prevention and intervention. Although exceptions to this generalization can be found in research on autism spectrum disorders , posttraumatic stress disorder , and borderline pathology , clinical psychology as a whole has not embraced neuroscience, despite extraordinary advances in our understanding of the brain bases of motivation, emotion, and self-control. Yet dysfunction in one or more of these aspects of behavior is observed in all forms of psychopathology. Even though neuroscientific findings have resulted in rich theoretical models of major psychiatric disorders , they are usually not considered in clinical prevention or intervention programs.
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Why Is Retribution The Best Theory Of Punishment
Retribution certainly includes elements of deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation, but it also ensures that the guilty will be punished, the innocent protected, and societal balance restored after being disrupted by crime. Retribution is thus the only appropriate moral justification for punishment.
What Are The Seven Perspectives Of Psychology: Explained
Do you know its a myth that the humans use only 10% of their brain? Yeah, it is completely false. A human mind is as complex as it can be. And the brain is active almost all the time and uses almost every part of it at one moment or another. Its just that the human psychology is such a vast concept to study and differs from perspective to perspective. Well, perspective is a point of view of one person regarding another object or situation or a person. So you see human psychology is itself a vast field of complexity. The perspective builds the human psychology and the human reacts according to it. So if you wonder What are the Seven Perspectives of Psychology, we have shed some light today on these main perspectives of human psychology.
The Ap Psych Exam And The Neuroscience/biological Perspective
This perspective has been represented on the AP® Psychology exam several times over the last few years. Each of these free response questions considers an individual or group and considers how the neuroscience/biological perspective applies to the situation that they find themselves in. For example, in 2006 a question was raised as to a young woman named Zoey who is looking for a new car. It then considers how different aspects will affect the decision that she makes regarding the car she wants.