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What Is Consolidation In Psychology

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Two Types Of Models For Sleep Facilitation Of Learning And Memory

What is Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation?

Based on these neural correlate data, two major types of models have been proposed for the sleep facilitatory effect: use-dependent models and learning-dependent models. Models of both types assume that the efficacy of the synapses that are involved in the acquisition of learning and memory before sleep changes during sleep, thereby leading to offline performance gains or stabilization of learning and memory. Below, we review the active system consolidation hypothesis as a learning-dependent model and the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis as a use-dependent model.

While both hypotheses have supporting data, some data are consistent with neither of them. For instance, several studies on the sleep facilitation of visual perceptual learning did not find an active role of SWS or slow-wave activity . It is also unclear how the active system consolidation hypothesis explains performance gains in learning other than declarative memories. Future studies are necessary to comprehensively integrate them.

B. Bontempi, P.W. Frankland, in, 2009

Which Mechanisms Underlie Sleep

There are two major theories that aim to explain the mechanisms underlying sleep-dependent memory processing in adults: the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis and the active system consolidation theory.

Briefly, the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis proposes that synaptic downscaling during sleep enhances memory by preserving the connections that were strongly potentiated during prior wakefulness . The hypothesis assumes that this synaptic downscaling is achieved by slow-wave sleep . It has been argued that the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis does not experience experimental support for the mechanism of memory consolidation and evolution . For example, the hypothesis implicates that weaker memories are eliminated during synaptic downscaling. However, studies in adults neither show that there is a certain threshold under which memories are forgotten, nor that weaker encoded representations become less consolidated than strong ones . This has not been tested in infants though and there is the possibility that infants reach a certain encoding strength for memory consolidation . There is general agreement, however, that the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis is relevant to explain the benefit of prior sleep on encoding . This restorative function is explained by the downscaling of synaptic strength during sleep that then are de-saturated again and ready for further intake .

Cristina M. Alberini, … Xiaojing Ye, in, 2013

Experiment : Visuomotor Rotations

In the first experiment, we tested whether adapting to opposing visuomotor rotations 24 hr apart would interfere with retention of the first rotation. shows learning curves for control and test subjects. The curves show angular error as a function of block, and the ordinate represents the average across subjects in which the value for each subject is the median of the errors of the eight trials within a block. The height of the shaded area represents ±1 SE. Subjects in the control group, who experienced the same visuomotor rotation on days 1 and 3, showed clear retention of learning on day 3. To quantify learning, we computed, for each subject and day, the average angular error across the second and third blocks. This initial angular error was significantly less = 425 p< 0.001) on day 3 than on day 1 . Subjects in the test group, who experienced the opposing rotation on day 2, showed no retention and, in fact, were worse on day 3 compared with day 1. The initial error on day 3 was significantly greater = 17.3 p = 0.004) than on day 1 .

    The results of experiment 6 not only failed to replicate previous studies showing independent learning of opposing velocity-dependent force fields separated by 1 day but also showed that an extended session of null trials could abolish previous learning. That is, not only did learning the opposite force field interfere with learning, practice under normal conditions without forces in the same task also interfered.

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    Endogenous Modulation Of Consolidation

    Memory consolidation appears to be a highly adaptive function because, as noted earlier, evidence of consolidation is found in a wide variety of animal species. But, why do our long-term memories and those of other animals consolidate slowly? There seems to be no a priori reason to assume that neurobiological mechanisms are not capable of consolidating memory quickly. Considerable evidence suggests that the slow consolidation of memories may serve a highly important adaptive function by enabling endogenous processes activated by an experience, and thus occurring shortly after the event, to modulate memory strength . In a paper published shortly after those reporting that posttraining drug administration can enhance memory consolidation , Livingston suggested that stimulation of the limbic system and brainstem reticular formation might promote the storage of recently activated brain events by initiating a neurohormonal influence future repetitions of the same neural activities . Kety subsequently offered the more specific suggestion that adrenergic catecholamines released in emotional states may serve to reinforce and consolidate new and significant sensory patterns in the neocortex . Although the specific details of current findings and theoretical interpretations differ in many ways from those early views offered by Livingston and Kety, recent findings are consistent with their general hypotheses.

    Dorothea Eisenhardt, Nicola Stollhoff, in, 2017

    Reconsolidation Of The Conditioned Stimulus


    CSM retention can be observed 24 h after spaced training when the crabs are exposed to the VDS in the training context. When the crabs are exposed to the training context without the presentation of the VDS, a CR is not elicited . Nevertheless, this exposure to the training context has an impact on subsequent memory retention. Namely, the combination of a 5-min context exposure 24 h after training with an injection of protein synthesis inhibitor leads to the inhibition of CSM memory retention 1 day later . The reconsolidation phenomenon has been induced accordingly. The reconsolidation phenomenon is only induced when reexposure to the training context endures for less then 40 min. A longer reexposure to the training context leads to a new, contextno signal association, and hence extinction learning. This extinction learning results in an extinction memory that depends on protein synthesis . Thus, in crabs, the duration of the reexposure of the training context is critical for the consolidation process induced by the reminder : A short reexposure, which does not result in extinction, does lead to reconsolidation.

    K.A. Paller, in, 2009

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    Context Theories Of Memory Can Explain What Consolidation Can And Then Some

      What causes forgetting? This is perhaps the most central question to memory research and motivated even the earliest memory research, yet remains hotly debated today. One of the oldest theories of memory formation is consolidation theory, dating back to Muller and Pilzecker , over 100 years ago. The theory states that memories are vulnerable to forgetting after they have been encoded. Some time after a memory has been encoded it can become consolidated, at which point it becomes resistant to forgetting and can persist for a much longer duration. According to the theory, memories are like plaster in an ever-changing sculpture: It is not until the plaster dries that it becomes a permanent part of the sculpture. While consolidation originally began as an explanation of the protective effects of rest and sleep after learning has occurred, it has gained a considerable foothold in the neuroscience of memory.

      A recent review in Nature Reviews Neuroscience by Andrew Yonelinas, Charan Ranganath, Arne Ekstrom, and Brian Wilgten, made this very point, arguing that the class of contextual-binding models are able to explain everything consolidation can explain and then some.

      Rest and Retroactive Interference

      An alternative account: Memory in context

      For a fuller version of this post, which discusses forgetting functions and more computational considerations, .


      Estes, W. K. . Statistical theory of spontaneous recovery and regression. Psychological Review, 62, 145154.

      Shreds Of Evidence Of Consolidation

      It is vital to state that conscious memories are formed through consolidation which is initially stored in the storehouses namely the hippocampus and neocortex. Then the hippocampus gets out of the sentence and the consolidation is rather restricted to the neocortex after a certain time. Early consolidation examples were studied while studying retrograde amnesia which is known to affect the hippocampus overall. There are certain genetic tools like optogenetic which are used to study consolidation as a whole.

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      Cell And Molecular Biology Bases Of Memory Formation

      There is evidence that early- and late-phase memory consolidation can be impaired independently by some treatments. However, there are also conditions in which early- and late-phases are both impaired by a single treatment. These issues return to some raised by Hebb’s initial dual process hypothesis of memory formation. At the levels of both neural systems and cellular and molecular neurobiology, it now seems quite likely that research findings will eventually reveal some neural systems and biochemical processes that act in series and others that act in parallel.

      The Historical Aspect Of Memory Consolidation

      What is Memory Consolidation | Explained in 2 min

      Quintillian expressed his views in relation to consolidation. He noted over a period of time that a single night is enough to strengthen up the memory a bit. Later a whole data was explained in the clinical data presented by Ribots Law of Regression in 1882. Later William Burnham found the integration between the neurological and psychological sciences linked to memory formation.

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      Stages Of Memory Consolidation

      Certain stages are linked to memory consolidation but each stage is linked to the existence of the time since the memory is incorporated into its existence. Memory consolidation is just not a matter of days but is linked to the consolidation process for weeks, months, and years.

      There are different stages of consolidation each linked up with cellular mechanisms and brain systems. Hippocampus and other relatable regions are adjourned to produce memory consolidation. This is known that early memory storage takes place in the hippocampal region and is later transferred to the neocortical areas. These areas are entorhinal and parietal cortices.

      Working Of Memory Consolidation Process

      The memory consolidation works by the process of potentiation. The process is integrated through a synaptic workforce and requires the conduction of information from neurons to neurons via the help of neurotransmitters. The greater the number of times through which the signals pass from a certain synapse can be termed as potentiation. This holds on the learning and memory process onto a greater gateway.

      Continuous rehearsal and revision strengthen the networks existing between the compartments. This can be easily correlated to your studying strategies. Your often recalling patterns help you remember a certain thing for a longer period. This causes repetitive neuronal firing which can even be experienced in the later future times. This marks the accuracy and precision with which youre able to remember a certain thing.

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      Animal Studies Of Memory Consolidation

      Animal research on memory consolidation has the same starting point as human work: establishing whether and how memory stabilizes with the passage of time. It differs in allowing for invasive experiments using interventions, such as lesions, physiological monitoring and recording, and molecular techniques. Key empirical issues include Are temporal gradients of retrograde amnesia reliably observed after comparable experimental interventions? Is there evidence of time-dependent changes in physiological function that relate to or mediate aspects of memory consolidation? Can contemporary molecular-genetic techniques be used to shed new light on the systems issues concerning hippocampalneocortical dialogue?

      System Consolidation: Interaction Between The Medial Temporal Lobes And The Neocortex

      Memory Consolidation: Psychology, Definition, And Examples

      System consolidation can take much longer to complete and may range from days to years or decades. Patients with MTL lesions show a retrograde memory loss that is temporally graded, so recent memory loss is greater than earlier memory loss. This temporal gradient is restricted to explicit memory, leaving implicit memory intact and stable over time .

      These observations suggest that the MTL forms a temporary memory trace needed for explicit memories until they are consolidated elsewhere in the brain, presumably in the neocortex . This standard model of consolidation makes no distinction between various types of explicit memory. For instance, it predicts a similar pattern for episodic and semantic memory.

      Nadel and Moscovitch concluded, contrary to the standard consolidation model, that the MTL is needed to represent even old episodic memories for as long as the memory exists . The neocortex, on the other hand, is sufficient to represent repeated experiences with words, objects, people, and environments. The MTL may aid in the initial formation of these neocortical traces, but once formed they can exist on their own. Thus unique autobiographical memories are different from repeated memories in that they continue to require the MTL. Repeated experiences are proposed to create multiple traces, adding more traces each time the event is brought to mind.

      Gordon B. Feld, Jan Born, in, 2012

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      Systems Consolidation: Stable And Long

      Cortical changes in histone acetylation have also been implicated in regulating recent memory formation in the object location task. Inhibiting cortical histone acetylation by overexpressing a dominant negative form of histone acetyltransferase CBP in mPFC resulted in decreased c-Fos expression in the mPFC and impaired recent memory in the object location task.106 This test is a variation of the NOR in which a familiar object is placed in a different position during the test compared to the habituation phase, thereby adding a spatial component to the task. Control animals show a preference for the novel location 5 min and 24 h after training, whereas CBP dominant negative mice only show a location preference 5 min after training, indicating a selective deficit in recent long-term, but not short-term memory.106 These studies highlight the importance of cortical histone PTMs in regulating both recent and remote memory formation.

      In addition to histone changes in the hippocampus during the cellular consolidation window, memory recall is also associated with a new wave of histone PTMs after recall. Reexposure of animals to the same context 24 h after CFC training induced increased global H3 phosphorylation and acetylation in area CA1 of the hippocampus.109 Although the role of recall-induced changes is less clear, these changes may be essential for reconsolidation of previously consolidated memories.109

      Matthias Mölle, Jan Born, in, 2011

      Speeding Up Memory Consolidation Process

      Rehearsal and strategic learning can improve the accuracy with which the short term memory is consolidated into the long term. Creating links and integrating things into the existing knowledge is for this reason considered to be an optimistic mode of learning. There is rather a preference given to concept building in comparison to Rhode learning in schools and higher levels. This lets links be created incorporating memories and new knowledge at a higher pace. Adapting to a pro-technique can help you in life long acquisition of memories timely.

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      What Are The Causes Of Retrieval Failure

      Retrieval FailureretrievecausesRetrieval failurefailureLet’s take a look at some of the ways research has found to keep our memories around as long as possible.

      • Meditate to improve your working memory.
      • Drink coffee to improve your memory consolidation.
      • Eat berries for better long-term memory.
      • Exercise to improve your memory recall.
      • Chew gum to make stronger memories.

      Transfer Of Short Term Memory To Long Term Memory

      Intro to Memory Reconsolidation

      There is always the existence of interference between the storing information and that of the competing information. When we aren’t retrieving the facts and figures we are paving the path for the particular memory to decay. The non-declarative memories tend to be more volatile than the declarative ones. The non-declarative memories can be incorporated into permanent stores by constant practices and repeated procedural conditioning.

      The formation of long term declarative memory can occur through several processes. Like making connections between the information, the newer ones have to be linked to the older ones. Acting upon the new information to bring about a better progressive result. We, humans, are known to make connections with the existing stored information in the storehouses. The process of integration is widely known as consolidation. Here we deal with two straightforward yet comprehensive terms. These are:

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      Data Extraction And Coding

      Three authors extracted the following data from the 31 studies that comprised the final sample: sample size , age and sex distribution of participants in each of the sleep and control conditions, study design, number and type of control conditions, type of sleep condition , and type of encoding . We also extracted data related to the outcome measures: type of primary outcome , and the relevant statistics within both the sleep and control conditions) for each outcome variable. Where studies reported SE rather than SD, we estimated the latter using the formula SD = SE×n.

      In cases where a study used more than one sleep condition, we only extracted data from the sleep condition that most closely matched the control condition . Moreover, we maintained independence of studies by using a unique control condition for each sleep condition.

      We coded the extracted data into an MSExcel spreadsheet, and for each study also coded risk of bias along the following dimensions: clarity regarding definition of study sample clarity regarding definition and implementation of eligibility criteria clarity regarding definition of sampling strategy demographic or other matching of groups control for potential confounds quality and validity of outcome measures percentage of participants who completed the study protocols amount of missing data adjustment of results for confounds and other.

      Step : Pestel/ Pest Analysis Of The Role Of Consolidation And Its Use In Psychology Case Solution:

      Pest analyses is a widely used tool to analyze the Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Environmental and legal situations which can provide great and new opportunities to the company as well as these factors can also threat the company, to be dangerous in future.

      Pest analysis is very important and informative. It is used for the purpose of identifying business opportunities and advance threat warning. Moreover, it also helps to the extent to which change is useful for the company and also guide the direction for the change. In addition, it also helps to avoid activities and actions that will be harmful for the company in future, including projects and strategies.

      To analyze the business objective and its opportunities and threats, following steps should be followed:

      • Brainstorm and assumption the changes that should be made to organization. Answer the necessary questions that are related to specific needs of organization
      • Analyze the opportunities that would be happen due to the change.
      • Analyze the threats and issues that would be caused due to change.
      • Perform cost benefit analyses and take the appropriate action.

        Pest analysis




      • Social attitudes and social trends, change in socio culture an dits effects.
      • Religious believers and life styles and its effects on organization
      • Other socio culture factors and its impacts.


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