What Are The Twelve Principles Of Green Chemistry
The two principles of green chemistry are concepts aimed to reduce the chemical-related impact on human health and contamination in the environment through sustainable programs and actions.
These two principles of green chemistry also apply innovative scientific solutions to solve problems in the lab by offering alternative, more environmentally friendly approaches, mediums, and educational prevention programs.
Mitigating Risk And Hazard
Is there difference? Formally, in chemical fields, risk can be defined as a function of hazard and exposure:
Risk = f
Traditionally, in industry and society, the reduction of risk is achieved through the reduction of exposure. By characterization of hazards and knowing the effectiveness of the exposure controls , risk can be manipulated or dissipated, especially at the early stages of the chemical chain, when it is easy to identify and measure. However, exposure controls may be not as useful downstream. The farther the hazard is from its source, the less the awareness of the potential hazard. With uncertainties in chronic effects, bio-accumulation, synergistic effects of chemicals, there is an uncertainty in risk mitigation.The Green chemistry approach, in contrast with traditional practice, targets risk reduction through reduction of hazard. This is a safer approach because, if hazard is eliminated in the first place, there is no way risk can increase through any unpredicted spontaneous exposure increase anywhere downstream .
Example: Fire Causes Methanol Spill
This, however, does not eliminate risk itself – it is strictly controlled, but it is still there.
News source: Chemical plant blast injures 8, poses environmental concerns, INDYStar/ Accessed: 2/9/2015.
Ict Green Technology Placement Cell
Centre for Green Technology at Institute Of Chemical Technology
The “Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry” were initially established by;Paul Anastas;and;John Warner,;who are world-renowned founding fathers of Green Chemistry. In this article, the students of the;Green Technology; at the;Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai;endeavor to explain these principles in a few words.
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What Is Green Chemistry
Green chemistry is a newly emerging field to design, synthesize and implement chemical products by scientists and engineers that would protect and benefit the economy, people, and our planet by finding creative and innovative methods to reduce waste, conserve energy, and discover replacements for hazardous substances.
It is a sustainable method that would protect our ecosystem from hazardous and toxic chemicals.
Is Waste Prevention What You Think It Is
Waste prevention is defined by the EPA as, also known as source reduction, means using less material to get the job done methods include creating less waste in the first place before recycling.
Waste can be any material not incorporated into a product during the manufacturing stage when a product no longer serves a purpose and/or excessive resource use. Waste is also a symptom of inefficiency and means people/organizations are using materials, energy, etc. inefficiently.
To state the obvious: it is better to prevent waste all together than to treat it or clean up waste after it has been created.
The Twelve Principles Of Green Chemistry: Designing Safer Chemicals
The fourth installment in our Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry series talks all about the implementation and designing of safer chemicals. This principle is similar to the previous in many ways, but also unique in its own way too. Throughout this blog, well cover a quick recap on the previously covered principles and green chemistry as a whole hit on the fourth principle of green chemistry, and expand on what it means in use. Keep reading to learn more about designing safer chemicals and why it is so important for our future and for chemists.
Greenline Green Chemistry From The Pcc Group
The PCC Group has always applied global and European standards of sustainable production in its activities. We follow modern trends and implement ecological solutions. Key aspects of our green chemistry philosophy include: the use of green energy in technological processes, the use of raw materials obtained from renewable sources, or the design of products taking into account their biodegradability and emissions, and the reduction of waste production.
This is evidenced by another eco-label in our product portfolio. Introducing our customers to THE NEW GREENLINE product line. The range was created in accordance with the principles of green chemistry. GREENLINE offers include sodium hypochlorite, caustic soda or sodium lye developed in modern technology.
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Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses
Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.
Contributed by David J. C. Constable, Ph.D., Director, ACS Green Chemistry Institute®
When you think about it, this is a two-part principle divided by the first two words, wherever practicable. Saying those two words implies that it may not be practical or possible to avoid using substances that are toxic, and this is, if you will, the get out of jail card most chemists use to try to avoid applying this principle to their work. Lets face it; chemists use toxic substances all the time because reactive chemicals afford reactions that are kinetically and thermodynamically favorable. And unlessand untilreplacement chemicals along with new synthetic protocols are developed, inherently toxic materials will continue to be used. But its easier to say that it isnt practicable and dispense with any thought about the chemical choices that are made.
The chemicals and materials used in effecting chemical transformations matter and chemists need to pay more attention to the choices they make about what goes into the flask. Its easy to discount all the other stuff and focus all our energy on the synthetic pathway that delivers the desired product. But when we ignore all the other stuff, we pay a high price and its a price we need to stop paying.
Twelve Principles Of Green Chemistry
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Carbon Dioxide As Blowing Agent
In 1996, Dow Chemical won the 1996 Greener Reaction Conditions award for their 100% carbon dioxide blowing agent for polystyrene foam production. Polystyrene foam is a common material used in packing and food transportation. Seven hundred million pounds are produced each year in the United States alone. Traditionally, CFC and other ozone-depleting chemicals were used in the production process of the foam sheets, presenting a serious environmental hazard. Flammable, explosive, and, in some cases toxic hydrocarbons have also been used as CFC replacements, but they present their own problems. Dow Chemical discovered that supercritical carbon dioxide works equally as well as a blowing agent, without the need for hazardous substances, allowing the polystyrene to be more easily recycled. The CO2 used in the process is reused from other industries, so the net carbon released from the process is zero.
What Does Designing Safer Chemicals Mean
The word chemicals in this specific principle is misleading. It isnt just everyday cleaners like bleach or toilet bowl cleaner this principle is speaking about. Chemicals are everywhere in our lives and every substance that is made of matter is a chemical.
Designing safer chemicals means exactly what it says: products should be designed to be used for their purpose while minimizing their toxicity. When creating a product, design it to have the greatest efficacy possible with the lowest amount of toxicity to the user, earth, etc. as you can. Just creating a newer product with lower toxicity to replace an existing product helps the cause that the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry are trying to promote.
Reducing toxicity is a constant priority in chemistry but a challenge nonetheless. It becomes important to have a basic understanding of toxicology to fully understand what makes a molecule toxic. This is especially important when molecules that have never been made before are created. It becomes a problem as not many chemists have the toxicology knowledge that could benefit from this situation. Because of this, many green chemistry educators are pushing for more toxicology courses to be added to chemistry education.
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Use Of Protecting Groups
This principle of green chemistry states that if an organic molecule contains two reactive groups and we want to use only one of these groups, the other group has to be protected, the desired reaction completed and the protecting group removed.
This reaction is very common for the synthesis of pesticides. In the above protection, benzyl chloride and the waste generated after deprotection should be handled carefully.
The main limitation in this principle of “using of protecting groups” is that protected groups or reactants are not involved in a reaction, thus making; the reaction less atom-economical. So, the use of a protective group should be avoided whenever possible.
Green Chemistry Control Keys
So, what are possible avenues for changing the existing practices towards the minimum-risk alternatives? There are several controls that can be manipulated at different stages of a chemical manufacturing process.
Using alternative feedstock or starting materials: Selection of the starting materials has a major effect through the whole synthetic pathway. It determines what hazards will be faced by the workers extracting the substance, shippers transporting the substance, chemists handling the substance. It also predetermines possible future risks from the end-products and wastes. Using more environmentally benign alternative feedstock may improve the environmental profile of the whole process . One of the examples of this step is choosing between the petroleum feedstock and biological feedstock. Currently, 98% of all organic chemicals in the USA are produced from petroleum. Petroleum refining is extremely energy-consuming and contains high-pollution oxygenation processes. Agricultural feedstocks can be a great alternative that eliminate much of that hazard. Research has shown that many agricultural products can be transformed via variety of processes into textile, nylon, etc. .
Process monitoring: Real time measurements of process parameters and concentrations sometimes provide valuable information and hints how the process should be tuned to avoid adverse effects or risk . Also, process monitoring may open avenues for making the process more cost-effective.
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Inherently Safer Chemistry For Accident Prevention
Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.
Contributed by Shelly Bradley, Campus Chemical Compliance Director, Hendrix College; Dr. David C. Finster, Professor of Chemistry, Wittenberg University; and Dr. Tom Goodwin, Elbert L. Fausett Professor of Chemistry, Hendrix College
Safety can be defined as the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk. Green Chemistry Principle # 12 is known as the Safety Principle. It may be the most overlooked of the twelve principles, yet it is the logical outcome of many of the other principles. In fact, it is practically impossible to achieve the goals of Principle 12 without the implementation of at least one of the others. Since the very essence of green chemistry is to reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances there is an intrinsic connection to laboratory safety. While there are a few exceptions, the majority of the Green Chemistry Principles will result in a scenario that is also safer.
Manuele, F. A. Acceptable Risk, Professional Safety, 2010, 30-38;
Anastas, P. T.; Warner, J. C. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice; Oxford University Press; New York, 1998.
Energy Efficiency And Use Of Waste Materials
All manufacturing processes need energy to convert raw materials into useful products. In the chemical industry it is used to heat reactants and in processes such as distillation, product drying, electrolysis, and treatment of waste.
At present, the energy used still relies mainly on fossil fuels, but even so the use of these can be reduced in several ways .
|Maintenance and recovery||Good insulation and well-maintained equipment will reduce heat loss, and any waste heat can be used for warming offices and producing hot water rather than being lost to the atmosphere. In some cases this heat may be shared with a local community by piping hot water from the site.|
|Reaction choice and conditions||Reactions and catalysts that operate at lower temperatures may be chosen.Most reactions based on biosynthesis work at relatively low temperatures; however this may need balancing with the extra energy often needed for product separation.|
|Combined heat and power||Manufacturing sites often generate their own electricity, rather than buying from the grid. This is more efficient as it eliminates transmission losses, and the excess heat released during the generation process can be used on site for many different purposes from pre-heating reactants to keeping offices warm.|
Table 2 Improving energy efficiency in the chemical industry.
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Selection Of Appropriate Solvent
This principle of green chemistry states that the solvent selected for a particular reaction should not cause any environmental pollution and health hazard.
For example, Benzene is used as a solvent in many industrial processes which is toxic and carcinogenic. This problem can be solved by introducing aqueous phase solvents or liquid carbon dioxide as a solvent. Another problem with traditional solvents is that they are volatile and may damage human health and the environment.;
This problem can be solved using an immobilised solvent which maintains the solvency of the material and safe for humans and the environment.
Expanding On Designing Safer Chemicals
Like previously mentioned, the environment is important and the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry aim to protect it as much as possible, but how does the fourth principle help prevent or lessen the impact?
Many companies dont understand or care enough about the impact their products are having on the environment, in particular how the chemicals within the products would affect the people using them and the unintended consequences that come with that products usage. After much research has been conducted, more companies are realizing the impact their products are having and are leaning towards creating safer products using safer chemicals. If we want our future generations to live in a safer, healthier, more environmentally friendly world, we all need to make the investment from large corporations to each of us.
Not to mention now more than ever, consumers are concerned with how products affect the environment and how they affect the consumer. Therefore, creating a product that is mindful of the environmental impact and impact on consumers may create a new market for said product. Consumers are often choosing a more environmentally friendly product and may even pay a premium for these products. The world doesnt need everyone to practice being green perfectly, just everyone making an effort to make the world a better place.
Our Emphasis On Safe Chemicals
Safety is a top priority at Avomeen. Every day at Avomeen, our formulation and innovation experts aim to create the safest, most efficient products for our clients while adhering to the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry. Our scientists use the safest chemical components possible for each project to ensure safety for consumers who will be using them. Avomeen has more than a decade of expertise in creating environmentally friendly, safe, and innovative products. Lets connect and make your big idea a reality.
Ii Framework Of Green Chemistry
1. Green Chemistry designs across all stages of the chemical life-cycle.
2. Green Chemistry seeks to design the inherent nature of the chemical products and processes to reduce their intrinsic hazard.
3. Green Chemistry works as a cohesive system of principles or design criteria.
The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry are design criteria or guidelines that provide the framework for sustainable design. They constitute an overarching for the design of safer chemicals and chemical transformations. Chemistry has long been perceived as a dangerous science and often the public associates the word chemical with toxic. There are ways to reduce risk by using safety precautions such as protective gear. When safety protections fail, the risk, which is defined as a function of the hazard and exposure, increases . If the hazard is high and exposure controls fail, the consequences can be catastrophic ” rel=”nofollow”>death). By minimizing the hazard portion of the equation instead of focusing only on exposure controls, the risk can be limited even in cases of undesirable circumstances . Designing safer sustainable chemicals and processes requires striving to reduce the intrinsic hazards to a minimum and therefore limiting the risk of accident and damage.1
|Fig. 1 Risk is a function of hazard and exposure.|
The Prevention Of Waste
This principle actually applies to many aspects of life, both in and outside of the laboratory. For example, its the first rule of the Three Rs: reduce. Its important to dispose of waste properly. But its even better to reduce the amount of waste being produced in the first place.;
You might apply this principle by trying to produce less garbage at home. Chemists apply this principle by trying to produce less chemical waste.
You might not think of your car as something that produces waste, but it does. Inside a cars engine, fuel and oxygen from the air undergo a chemical reaction called combustion. The combustion reaction produces the energy needed for the car to move. But it also produces some harmful . For example, combustion produces carbon monoxide , which is poisonous. It also produces volatile organic compounds , nitrogen oxides , and unburnt hydrocarbons . All of these contribute to smog. Too much smog in the environment can give people respiratory illnesses.
Luckily, cars contain a piece of technology that helps prevent the production of harmful chemicals. Its called a catalytic converter. While the car is running, a catalytic converter chemically changes these pollutants into less harmful molecules before theyre released from the cars tailpipe. Examples of these less harmful molecules are oxygen , nitrogen , carbon dioxide , and water .;;