Using The Geographic Perspective To Enrich History
Geography and history are complementary subjects best taught together within the social studies curriculum. It is part of the collected wisdom of teachers that one cannot teach history without geography or geography without history. But what exactly is the nature of the relationship? What are the key concepts in geography that contribute to the teaching of history? And, what strategies can teachers use most effectively to link them together?
This article uses two standards from Geography for Life:National Geography Standards 19941 to examine the relationship between geography and history. It presents a framework of four questions that focus on using geography to interpret the past. And it explores one strategy for developing history lessons that are well-grounded in geography in order to create memorable learning experiences.
The geographic perspective is not strongly represented in the modern social studies curriculum. This is because most social studies teachers receive their training in history, and have little or no background in geography. Geography is typically defined as the physical environment and viewed as the backdrop before which history unfolds. Yet, more often than not, geography intrudes into the drama of historical change, rather than merely providing an arena for history.3
Linking Geography and HistoryWhat are the links between geography and history? The answer involves three assumptions:
Some interesting questions to examine further are:
Geography’s Ways Of Looking At The World
A central tenet of geography is that “location matters” for understanding a wide variety of processes and phenomena. Indeed, geography’s focus on location provides a cross-cutting way of looking at processes and phenomena that other disciplines tend to treat in isolation. Geographers focus on “real world” relationships and dependencies among the phenomena and processes that give character to any location or place. Geographers also seek to understand relationships among places: for example, flows of peoples, goods, and ideas that reinforce differentiation or enhance similarities. Geographers study the “vertical” integration of characteristics that define place as well as the “horizontal” connections between places. Geographers also focus on the importance of scale in these relationships. The study of these relationships has enabled geographers to pay attention to complexities of places and processes that are frequently treated in the abstract by other disciplines.
Integration in Place
Places are natural laboratories for the study of complex relationships among processes and phenomena. Geography has a long tradition of attempting to understand how different processes and phenomena interact in regions and localities, including an understanding of how these interactions give places their distinctive character.
Interdependencies Between Places
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Interdependencies Among Scales
The Power Of Commemorative Street Names
Spatial commemorations formulate memory and history in terms of geographical knowledge: when invested with commemorative functions, monuments and street names are constitutive elements of particular geographies of public memory and a culturally shared vision of history. Spatial commemorations merge the commemorated version of history with the landscape. The effect of this is twofold. On the one hand, the landscape is invested with culturally shared symbolic meanings. On the other, the commemorated past is reified by its integration into the physical environment and its subsequent identification with what is considered the natural order.
The main virtue of street names as a commemorative vehicle is that everybody uses them but hardly anyone pays attention to their specific historical meaning and to the fact that they belong to the structures of power. The encounter with a street name is casual. Unlike commemorative monuments, street signs do not induce pathos and are not charged with the sacred. On the other hand, the utilization of street names for commemorative purposes enables an official version of history to be incorporated into spheres of social and spatial practices of everyday life that seem to be totally detached from political contexts or communal obligations, and to be integrated into intimate realms of human interactions and activities.
D. McCormack, in, 2009
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Integrating History And Geography
Renewing the Social Studies Curriculum
The California History-Social Science Framework places great emphasis on integrating history and geography in social studies. As a member of the committee that helped create this dynamic curriculum document, I urged, along with geographer Christopher Salter, a strong integrated geography component. Many of us on the committee worried that geography would be relegated to one or two grade levels and that students would study geographic concepts and vocabulary apart from history and other social science disciplines. Although the framework recommends the infusion of geography at all grade levels, formal integration is placed within the sequential study of history in grades 4 through 11.
Integrating the Five Themes of GeographyAn effective approach to designing integrated history and geography curricula and teaching strategies is to place a history unit in the context of the five themes of geography. The themes are all related-if you use one, you use them all. You might emphasize aspects of a theme at one point, but you must keep in mind their strong interrelationships. According to the Guidelines for Geographic Education , the five themes of geography are location, place, relationships within places , relationships between places , and regions .
1. Location. Where did the Oregon Trail begin and end? Name three rivers that pioneers followed on the Oregon Trail.
National Geographic Society
B The Status Of History Within The Social Studies
There is a widespread notion that history, particularly American history, is being squeezed out of the curriculum in both the schools and the colleges. The assumed cause for this assumed calamity is the mere existence of the field of the social studies. What are the facts?
The recognition of the social studies field with the attendant rise of economics, sociology, social problems, and other studies inevitably lessened the prominence and predominance of history. Some educators and historians have argued that the addition of new subjects to the curriculum necessarily lessened the time devoted to history. The elimination of English history, the merging of ancient and medieval history, and the subsequent substitution of a one-year course in world history for the two-year cycle in European history do seem to imply lessened attention to the subjects. The loss is more apparent than real, however, for few students elected the two-year cycle in European history, whereas world history has become a requirement in many schools. Though the change in the program makes it appear that history has suffered an enormous loss, the number of pupils who study world history compares favorably with the number of those who formerly studied one or the other of the courses in the two-year sequence.
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Parallels Or Lines Of Latitude
Figure 1.4 Noted Lines of Latitude
The equator is the largest circle of latitude on Earth. The equator divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and is called 0 degrees latitude. The other lines of latitude are numbered from 0 to 90 degrees going toward each of the poles. The lines north of the equator toward the North Pole are north latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter N. The lines south of the equator toward the South Pole are south latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter S. The equator is the only line of latitude without any letter following the number. Notice that all lines of latitude are parallel to the equator and that the North Pole equals 90 degrees N and the South Pole equals 90 degrees S. Noted parallels include both the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, which are 23.5 degrees from the equator. At 66.5 degrees from the equator are the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle near the North and South Pole, respectively.
Historical Shift In The Study Of War
Historically geography has long been closely related to the waging of war: geographical knowledge about foreign places and people was often gathered during military campaigns and conquests, while this knowledge was primarily used to conquest new territory and control and rule it after war. Geographers were often part of military or imperial agencies. Nowadays most geographers working on war and related issues tend to distance themselves from these institutions and to promote peace and conflict resolution, rather than to take side in a particular war.
Since the institutionalization of geography as an academic discipline at the end of the nineteenth century, the ways geographers consider war have drastically shifted. This shift reflects changing ideas about war waging in society. In the past, when war was seen as a normal practice of foreign policy, geographers were prone to offer their services and provide knowledge and insights to policymakers and war wagers. Geography as an aid to statecraft was the well-known motto of Sir Halford Mackinder, the first reader in geography at the University of Oxford . Warfare being an important branch of statecraft, it was an important field of applied geography.
S. Fullagar, in, 2009
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Short Essay On Relation Between Human And Nature 300 Word Short Custom Essay
Humans and nature share a life-long relationship. They have been in a relationship since the first man laid food on earth. The human-nature relationship is ever-evolving and changing but for the last two centuries, it has just gotten worse. The main reason for this negative change is that humans no longer love and respect nature. The digital age has made humans lazy, now they only exploit nature for their benefit. In this short essay, I will discuss why this relationship is worsening with each passing day.
Population explosion is the main culprit behind environmental pollution. The increased demand for resources has led to the establishment of factories, mills, industries, and even nuclear reactors. All this poisonous waste is released in the sea, air, and water that destroys everything nature has blessed us with. Humans also destroy natural resources like trees and dont care about achieving a sustainable future. Deforestation has caused climate change and a lack of fresh air. This climate change is responsible for global warming and flooding.
After all these centuries of peacefully coexisting the nature has finally struck back. Humans now face the threat of natural disasters like heat waves, rising sea levels, wildfires, and ozone depletion challenges. Humans are also running out of fossil fuels and social capital that played a vital role in the progress of humanity.
How Does Geography Affect Culture
Geography affects culture through topographical features such as mountains or deserts as well as climate, which can dictate options for clothing, shelter and food. The interaction of culture and geography is called human geography, which is the study of peoples language, religion, medicine, economics and entertainment and how these practices have been influenced by their location.
Climate and geography play major roles in determining many lifestyle factors. One reason for Chinas variety of languages and customs is the variety of the terrain and climate. The North China Plain has a great deal of standing water that nourishes reeds which are used for thatched housing and woven baskets. Fish in the ponds and reservoirs are an important source of food. People live in dispersed agricultural communities and value self-sufficiency.
In contrast, life in the Yangzi Valley centers around the river and lakes. The valley has historically been an important producer of food, and the river facilitated trading. Many Yangzi residents live on boats. Manchuria is a cold, rocky region that became a mining center. Rural people live in cliff dwellings. There is a Russian influence in the towns. Contemporary Chinese feel united as a culture despite regional disparities, partly because of the influence of the media.
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Geography As A Science Of Relationship Between Man And Environment
Geography as a Science of Relationship Between Man and Environment!
The concept of geography as the study of man and environment relationship is quite old.
The Greek, Roman, Indian, Chinese and Arab geographers attempted to establish a relationship between man and natural environment. Kant, in the concluding part of the 18th century, advocated the impact of environment on the lifestyle and physical constitution and lifestyle the equatorial, hot deserts, Mediterranean, coastal and mountainous regions. According to Kant, the inhabitants of torrid zone are exceptionally lazy and timid, while the people of the Mediterranean region living in the mild temperature conditions are industrious, hard working and progressive.
The environmental causation continued throughout the 19th century. Humboldt asserted that the mode of life of the inhabitants of the mountainous countries of the Andes mountains differ from that of the people of Amazon basin, coastal plains and islands like Cuba and West Indies. Ritter attempted to establish the cause variations in the physical constitution of body, physique and health of people living in the different physical environmental conditions.
The Darwins concept of man and environment relationship may be summarized as under:
1. Organisms vary, and these variations are inherited by their offspring.
2. Organisms produce more offspring than can possibly survive.
Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Ncert Textbook Questions Solved
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
Question 1.Which one of the following statements does not describe geography? an integrative discipline study of the inter-relationship between humans and environment subjected to dualism not relevant in the present time due to the development of technologyAnswer: not relevant in the present time due to the development of technology
Question 1.Which one of the following is not a source of geographical information? travellers accounts samples of rock materials from the moon ancient epics samples of rock materials from the moon
Question 1.Which one of the following is the most important factor in the interaction between people and environment? human intelligence
Which one of the following is not an approach in human geography? Areal differentiation
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
Question 2.Define human geography.Answer:Human geography is defined as the relationship between the physical/ natural and the human worlds, the spatial distribution of human phenomenon and how they come about, the social and economic difference between different parts of the world. According to Ratzel Human geography is the synthetic study of relationship between human societies and earths surface.According to Ellen C. Semple Human geography is the study of the changing relationships between the unresting man and unstable earth
3. Answer the following questions in 150 words:
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A Short Definition For Human Geography
The study of the interrelationships between people, place, and environment, and how these vary spatially and temporally across and between locations. Whereas physical geography concentrates on spatial and environmental processes that shape the natural world and tends to draw on the natural and physical sciences for its scientific underpinnings and methods of investigation, human geography concentrates on the spatial organization and processes shaping the lives and activities of people, and their interactions with places and nature. Human geography is more allied with the social sciences and humanities, sharing their philosophical approaches and methods .
With respect to methods, human geography uses the full sweep of quantitative and qualitative methods from across the social sciences and humanities, mindful of using them to provide a thorough geographic analysis. It also places emphasis on fieldwork and mapping , and has made a number of contributions to developing new methods and techniques, notably in the areas of spatial analysis, spatial statistics, and GIScience.
Keeping Up With The Journal Literature
Want an easy way to keep up with the journal literature for all facets of Geography? And you use a mobile device? You can install the BrowZine app and create a custom Bookshelf of your favorite journal titles. Then you will get the Table of Contents of your favorite journals automatically delivered to you when they become available. Once you have the ToC’s you can download and read the articles you want.
You can get the app from the App Store or Google Play.
Don’t own or use a mobile device? You can still use BrowZine! It’s now available in a web version. You can get to it here. The web version works the same way as the app version. Find the journals you like, create a custom Bookshelf, get ToCs and read the articles you want.
C A Recommended Policy
There is no exclusive road to the achievement of a particular understanding there is no exclusive method for the acquisition of a particular skill. Various materials can be utilized in the development of a desired insight. The Committee nevertheless believes that there are compelling reasons why it should endorse the study of history and why it should undertake to indicate at least the minimum content of American history. The argument is not based upon any loyalty to history for its own sake. The interests and capacities of pupils and the needs of society take precedence over the claims of any subject. The argument for history rests upon the assumption that it serves the needs of the individual and society. Citizens cannot understand the society in which they live without some knowledge of its past, and they cannot give their fullest loyalty to the nation without understanding the ideals and aspirations which have developed in its history. Human relationships exist in time as well as in space, and a program of social studies which neglects the time dimension will give a distorted view of the world.
4. See Chapter VI for the recommended content.
Relationship Between Human And Environment Essay
Humans and the environment have a centuries-long relationship with each other. For countless centuries mankind has peacefully coexisted and benefited from everything provided by nature. Mother nature on the other hand has been very kind to shower us with all its blessings. It has provided mankind with food, shelter, and all necessities of life without ever asking anything in return. For all these centuries human beings also cared for nature until the invention of diesel engines and large-scale factories that polluted the environment. In this essay, I will discuss how the relationship between humans and the environment is progressing after all this time.
Population explosion is the biggest factor that negatively affects the relationship between humans and the environment. Because of the rapid human population growth, the requirement for resources also increased by many folds. This huge population size created an imbalance and scarcity of resources. To fulfill growing demands for resources large-scale factories and production units were set up. These factories, chimneys, the petroleum industry, the textile industry, and whatnot released all the poisonous waste into the environment. These factories are exploiting nature and playing with human well-being by polluting the natural world.
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