Why Is It Important To Recognise And Respect Individual Differences
Respecting both similarities and differences in others opens doors to many opportunities. Respecting both similarities and differences in others opens doors to many opportunities. Youll learn new things and make better decisions, which in turn will help your career and improve your self-confidence.
Edited By Louise Barrett And Robin Dunbar
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- Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience
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date: 05 January 2022
Emotional Intelligence In Business Decisions
In a world where people are facing unparalleled hardships, their emotions are spilling out in uncontrollable measures. Since experts claim that EI could be responsible for as much as 80% of any success therefore, many businesses are interested in the EI of their workforce because understanding the EI of future employees can have clear benefits. It can be the difference between a successful and a risky hire the latter should obviously be avoided to prevent a business, especially a big one, from facing dire consequences. Conducting EI tests also helps evaluate important aspects of work-related activities where the management can know beforehand on how to deal with emotionally charged situations where stress and anger is involved, the manner of workforce relating themselves to their superiors and colleagues, the ability to learn, follow leadership, and so on. We also mentioned in M1 that work relationships and performance are directly related to the EI of the workforce. Every human being has emotions, and motivation plays a large role in pushing emotions to its limit. Therefore, when management tap into the positive energy of EI, it can not only make work life easier for them and the workforce, but also lead to a better connection with top-level management through top notch performance, lowered employee absenteeism, improved productivity and efficiency, and last but not the least, increased overall profits.
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Individual differences in decision making are a topic of longstandinginterest, but often yield inconsistent and contradictory results. Afterproviding an overview of individual difference measures that havecommonly been used in judgment and decision-making research, wesuggest that our understanding of individual difference effects in JDMmay be improved by amending our approach to studying them. We proposefour recommendations for improving the pursuit of individualdifferences in JDM research: a more systematic approach moretheory-driven selection of measures a reduced emphasis on main effectsin favor of interactions between individual differences and decisionfeatures, situational factors, and other individual differences andmore extensive communication of results . As a first step, we offer our database& #X2014 theDecision Making Individual Differences Inventory , a free, public resource that categorizes and describesthe most common individual difference measures used in JDM research.
Keywords: individual differences, decision making, judgment,inventory, measures.
more Extensive Communication Of Results
A final piece of the puzzle is the importance of reporting all results,whether significant or not. We believe that individual differencesresearch currently suffers from a & #X201C file drawerproblem& #X201D , meaning thatreported results are only a fraction of the actual results .Although this criticism can be justly applied to many fields, it may beparticularly glaring for individual differences: For various reasons,researchers frequently employ a wide range of individual differencemeasures in a study, but report only those that are significant. At thesame time, journals, with reason, are often reluctant to publishnon-significant results. The result is that studies that find nosignificant relationships often do not get published. Studies that arewell-designed and have adequate statistical power but nonetheless findnon-significant results are not only worth reporting, they are anecessary part of a complete picture of individual differences.
individual Differences And Decision Making
There are frequent calls to study the effects of individual differenceson decision processes and outcomes in order to rectify what has beenseen as an overemphasis on decision features and situation factors. Contrary to what these appeals suggest, thereactually is a considerable amount of JDM research on the effects ofindividual differences. What is lacking, however, is consensus aboutthe interpretation and significance of existing results and, thus,about the role of individual differences in decision making. Even acursory review reveals a constellation of confusing and oftencontradictory results for many individual differences .
Psychometric Test A Brief Overview
Psychometric tests are structured assessments that aim to measure, without bias, characteristics of an individuals mental capacity, or aspects of their personality . Business employers use it as it offers greater objectivity, reliability and validity than interviews and also helps provide additional information that helps the employer to create an overall profile of employees and to foresee how they will function in the workplace . The tests are homogeneous, which means that all applicants sit the same assessment and are scored according to the same criteria, no matter where or when the test is completed . However, taking a wide range of tests depends upon individuals needs as to how they approach or want to approach their personal development . Focusing on improving weak areas of performance can lead to great progress in achieving objectives when strengths are identified and developed . Therefore, psychometric testing can assist in choosing the approach that will deliver the most benefit.
Big Five Dimensions Of Personality
The Big Five dimensions of personality have been theoretically hypothesized and empirically shown in previous work to influence the extent to which individuals benefit from psychological intervention including mindfulness training. According to several theoretical frameworks relating personality traits to intervention outcomes , all five dimensions of the Big Five theory have relevance to intervention effectiveness. Here, we extend this framework to discuss how the Big Five dimensions of personality could have an impact on mindfulness training.
Agreeableness and Extraversion
Openness to Experience
The Development Of Individual Differences: Nature Or Nurture
Discussions of individual and group differences too often embrace a false dichotomy. The infamous nature versus nurture debate, though once central to the discourse of individual differences, is no longer a credible question asked by informed scientists. Differences in human characteristics are the result of a longitudinal interaction between genetic, biological, and environmental factors. To take a nonhuman example, the color of the hydrangea blossom will vary depending on the acidity of the soil during a certain period in its growth. Thus, the color of its blossom cannot be attributed solely to genetic or environmental factors the color of the blossom is due to both genetic and environmental factors and the interaction between them. Likewise, to understand how human differences develop, it is necessary to understand how differences in nature nurture environmental differences, and how environmental differences nurture the expression of genotypic differences.
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Other Types Of Studies
Surveys are used in psychology for the purpose of measuring attitudes and traits, monitoring changes in mood, and checking the validity of experimental manipulations . Psychologists have commonly used paper-and-pencil surveys. However, surveys are also conducted over the phone or through e-mail. Web-based surveys are increasingly used to conveniently reach many subjects.
Exploratory data analysis refers to a variety of practices that researchers use to reduce a great many variables to a small number overarching factors. In Peirce’s three modes of inference, exploratory data analysis corresponds to abduction.Meta-analysis is the technique research psychologists use to integrate results from many studies of the same variables and arriving at a grand average of the findings.
Investigating Unique Age Differences
Because over a century of research has established that most cognitive measures are moderately correlated with one another, an important theoretical issue in cognitive aging is the extent to which the age-related influences on the target measure are unique and independent of age-related influences on other cognitive measures. This is a critical question because unless general influences are controlled, many of the relations of age on the measures of primary interest may not be specific to those measures and instead may be shared with other measures. To the extent that this is the case, much of the research in cognitive aging may have been inadvertently investigating relations of age on general influences on cognition, rather than the intended specific age-related influences.
One analytical procedure used to investigate unique age relations, defined as effects that are independent of age-related influences on established dimensions of cognitive functioning, involves the contextual analysis method discussed earlier. The rationale is that:
There are now a large number of studies in which contextual analysis procedures have been used to investigate unique age-related influences on a variety of target measures. Although there are some exceptions, the dominant finding in these studies has been that unique age relations were typically small and seldom significantly different from zero .
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What Is The Individual Differences Approach In Psychology
INVESTIGATES THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PEOPLE, SUCH AS ABNORMALITY AND MENTAL ILLNESS. ASSUMPTIONS of the Individual Differences Approach: Individuals differ in their behaviour and personal qualities so not everyone can be considered the average person.
What does individual differences mean in psychology?
Individual differences are found in all psychological characteristics physical mental abilities, knowledge, habit, personality and character traits. Individual differences in bodily appearance and physique, habits and skills, interests and temperaments, abilities and attainments have already been recognised.
What is individual differences approach? The individual differences approach takes an ideographic view of people, looking to investigate the things that make people different, or even unique.
Why do we study individual differences in psychology?
Differential is a branch of psychology concerned with how and why individuals psychological traits differ. Increasingly, research has focused on the development of these traits and their importance to life outcomes, values, psychopathology, and socially relevant behaviours.
Major Schools Of Thought
Psychologists generally consider biology the substrate of thought and feeling, and therefore an important area of study. Behaviorial neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, involves the application of biological principles to the study of physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying behavior in humans and other animals. The allied field of comparative psychology is the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals. A leading question in behavioral neuroscience has been whether and how mental functions are localized in the brain. From Phineas Gage to H.M. and Clive Wearing, individual people with mental deficits traceable to physical brain damage have inspired new discoveries in this area. Modern behavioral neuroscience could be said to originate in the 1870s, when in France Paul Broca traced production of speech to the left frontal gyrus, thereby also demonstrating hemispheric lateralization of brain function. Soon after, Carl Wernicke identified a related area necessary for the understanding of speech.:202
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If We Start This Blog Post With The Statement That People Differ From Each Other You Will Probably Snort With Derision Thinking Of Snowflakes And Popular Cheesy Quotes About Being Unique Like Everyone Else But It Is True People Do Differ And In So Many Ways This Week Elena And Kirstin Tell Us A Bit More About What We Mean By The Term Individual Differences In Research
The individual differences approach is based on the core idea that each of us has a unique combination of characteristics and that people vary in this range of characteristics. Crucially, we can measure the amount of variation individuals demonstrate on many of these characteristics and this can be informative. It might help us understand and, importantly, predict peoples behaviours, for example, it may enable us to predict outcomes of an intervention or treatment in a more personalised way. Research on individual differences has provided a better understanding of many aspects of human variation and has also initiated the development of approaches to conceptualise and measure psychological constructs.
it may enable us to predict outcomes of an intervention or treatment in a more personalised way.
Studying individual differences
The study of individual differences takes every persons score into account
Both approaches can be useful depending on the question that you want to answer.
Sometimes research will compare the difference between the means for two populations using a t-test
Individual differences in complex traits
Working Memory And Fluid Intelligence
Overall, the common cognitive outcomes of mindfulness training may reflect inter-correlated relationships, and further, considerable individual variability within each construct. Not only are these baseline individual differences in cognitive function likely to exert reciprocal influences over one another, but they may also interact with the learning and training processes to affect the magnitude of improvement induced by mindfulness training, especially for cognitive outcomes. Therefore, it may be important to take into account pre-existing individual differences in these cognitive constructs when studying mindfulness training effects, in order to more accurately evaluate the extent of improvement among individuals, and conversely, to identify individuals for whom mindfulness training is unlikely to be useful in terms of improving cognitive abilities. It should be noted, however, that there are certainly other cognitive outcome measures of mindfulness training that were not mentioned above, but which could also contribute to differential training effectiveness. The present discussion serves only as a starting point for a more in-depth investigation and conversation regarding the role of individual differences in cognitive function, in terms of their potential impact on mindfulness training effects.
Could Personality And Dispositional Traits Influence Mindfulness Training Effects
Personality and dispositional traits are the most frequently assessed dimension of individual difference, and are also popular moderators of intervention effects in psychotherapy research. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that personality traits can predict differential targeted behavioral changes in psychotherapy . In the following section, traits that could play an important role in influencing mindfulness training effectiveness will each be identified and discussed based on supporting theories and empirical evidence from prior literature. Because the goal of individual differences investigation should always be confirmatory, rather than exploratory, it is critical to formulate a priori hypotheses regarding putative variables associated with differential intervention effects . Employing such a theoretically oriented and hypothesis-driven approach would greatly mitigate the concerns of spurious statistical associations that can result from exploratory, fishing expedition-type analyses in which a myriad of putative dispositional traits are queried.
Individual Differences In Social Cognition
Individual differences in sociocognitive abilities have been shown to be importantly linked to children’s adjustment and social competence in middle childhood the wealth of research on social cognition and children’s peer relationsand specifically to problems in those relationsillustrates these associations. One line of research has focused on information-processing models , which highlight children’s attributions about their peers, their goals, and strategies in peer relations. These models conceptualize an ordered series of steps in social information processing that includes encoding and representational processes, search and decision-making strategies. Differences in processing patterns may underlie the form of aggressive behavior that children show towards their peers. Experimental studies with aggressive children show, for instance, that they did not attend to all relevant cues, they attributed hostile intent to a protagonist in an ambiguous setting, and failed to generate enough viable alternative strategies. The original social information-processing models were criticized on the grounds that the linear model was too constrained, and that no role of emotion was included. Revised models now include emotional states as influences on what is perceived, how it is processed, and what attributions are made.
Frederic Dick, … Suzanne Curtin, in, 2016
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Seven Major Approaches In Psychology
The seven different approaches to psychology have helped humanity out greatly in the solving of our everyday problems that we face. These seven different approaches tackle psychology in all different types of areas and view points in an attempt to make sense of ourselves and how the world we live in affects us. Psychologists have dedicated their whole lives to understanding these two things in a number of different ways, which is why they have broken up into subcategories into this wonderful subject. Psychology truly is a wonderful subject because it is able to be applied to many different aspects of human life weather it is on the nurture or nature side of the argument. These view points are not perfect and definitely seem one sided at times but that does not disregard these theories as invalid. These opinions have bettered the lives of many people world wide by providing insight, perspectives, and a deeper look into our individual realities. These are summaries of each of these approaches and there main idea on its attempt to understand reality. Sense the 1960s these approaches have really been the landmarks and structure behind what we know today as psychology and will continue to be for a long time. The following are the 7 approaches to psychology.
Atypical Approach And Avoidance Motivation In Psychopathology
Individual differences in approach and avoidance motivation and prefrontal regulation of these motivational systems may represent transdiagnostic dimensions relevant for various disorders . Specifically, heightened approach motivation may be related to externalizing disorders characterized by impulsivity, such as ADHD and other disruptive behavior disorders as well as substance use disorders and obesity. Heightened avoidance motivation may be related to internalizing disorders such as anxiety and depression. These individual differences in excessive approach and/or avoidance may be offset by strong top-down modulating influences of functional subdivisions of the PFC. Characterizing the neural correlates of atypical approach and avoidance motivation and deficient frontal lobe modulation of these motivational systems is important for elucidating shared and unique etiologies for different disorders and for understanding comorbidities. Given the reciprocal influence on fronto-subcortical brain regions governing approach and avoidance behavior, we will focus on the structural and functional connectivity of these neural networks in addition to examining regional brain abnormalities in the relevant fronto-subcortical circuitry.
Table 19.1. Characterizing atypical motivation in internalizing and externalizing disorders
S.K. Crowley, S.D. Youngstedt, in, 2013
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