What Are The 8 Principles Of Attachment Parenting
The Eight Principles of Attachment Parenting Prepare for pregnancy, birth, and parenting. Feed with love and respect. Respond with sensitivity. Use nurturing touch. Engage in nighttime parenting. Provide constant, loving care. Practice positive discipline. Strive for balance in personal and family life.
Four Parenting Styles: Which One Is Right For Your Child
Strict or relaxed? Rules or play? Smacking or time-out? Listening or telling?
There are so many different opinions on how to parent, its enough to send you into a tailspin!
Many new parents start out with firm ideas about how they will balance a loving approach with a nice dose of discipline in their household But often this all goes out the window when you first find yourself in the supermarket with a toddler throwing a tantrum!
And what if your child has been diagnosed with a learning difficulty or a developmental delay? Should you adjust your parenting style to deal with a child who has different needs?
In this article I summarise some of the most important research findings on common parenting styles and their effectiveness . I also offer a brief summary of research on parenting children with different needs. .
Impact Of Authoritarian Parenting On Children
Since parents place high demand on obedience and good behavior they will expect kids to accept parental judgment and accept values and goals of the parent without questioning or challenging them.3 This severely limits childrens ability to independently make judgments and decisions for themselves.
Research suggests children of authoritarian parents tend to display lower self esteem and self-efficacy due to being inexperienced in making their own decisions and judgements. Children tend to have poor mental health and can be emotionally withdrawn due to lack of encouragement and modeling for expressing and managing emotions.4
Despite having strict rules and expectation, children will display rebellion tendencies, particularly toward authority figures due to rule and expectation fatigue.5
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What Makes A Child Happy
Theyre really life conditions, such as having enough nurture and love a strong sense of attachment to a parent or other primary caregiver confidence and optimism about the future physical health a sense of belonging to something larger than oneself and of course, basic needs such as food and shelter.
High Demandingness Low Reponsiveness
High levels of parental control and low levels of parental responsiveness are the two characteristics of the authoritarian style.
Although and authoritative parenting styles have similar names, they have several important differences in parenting belief, demand and approach.
While both parental styles demand high standards, authoritarian parents demand blind obedience using reasons such as because I said so. They only allow one way communication through strict rules and orders. Any attempts to reason with them are seen as backtalk.
These parents use stern discipline and often employ harsh punishment, such as corporal punishment, as a way to obtain behavioral control. Their disciplinary methods are coercive4, i.e. arbitrary, peremptory, domineering, and concerned with marking status distinctions.
Authoritarian parents are unresponsive to their childs needs and are generally not nurturing. They usually justify using mean treatment to toughen up their kids.
Children whose parents have an authoritarian parenting style tend to:
- Have an unhappy disposition.
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Expectation For Behavioral Autonomy
Our second aim was, in part, to identify potential mediating effects of adolescents expectations for autonomy. Results showed that adolescents autonomy expectations mediated the links between parenting styles and both the frequency and intensity of parentadolescent conflict. Specifically, compared to adolescents in authoritative homes, those in neglect, indulgent, and authoritarian homes reported stronger expectations for autonomy, which in turn were linked with more frequent and intense parent-adolescent conflict. This result was consistent with other studies which explored the relationships between parenting styles, adolescents expectation for behavioral autonomy and parent-adolescent conflict .
Adolescents in authoritative families reported the lowest expectation for behavioral autonomy. This result may be due to that adolescents with authoritative parents have achieved appropriate autonomy, therefore, their desire to acquire more autonomy is not so strong. The salutary effect of authoritative parenting style on adolescents behavioral autonomy likely reflects the successful attainment of a socialization goal among authoritative parents: to facilitate autonomy and promote self-reliance. This socialization goal is accomplished by respecting their childrens needs and recognizing that adolescents legitimately have the right to control some aspects of their lives .
Permissive Parenting Or Indulgent Parenting
The third type of Baumrinds parenting style is permissive parenting. It is identified by high responsiveness and low demandingness. It is also known as indulgent parenting.
This parenting style is more focused on childrens freedom and independence rather than parent-child mutual interaction.
Characteristics and behavior attributes
- Permissive parents play the role of a friend rather than being a parent
- They exhibit high levels of warmth, nurturance, and love towards their children
- Permissive parents have very low expectations from their children
- Indulgent parents hardly enforce rules and sometimes tend to enforce inconsistent rules
- They tend to have very little parental authority and parental control
- Indulgent parents use very few disciplines and consequences and tend to be lenient and lax
- They offer children the freedom to make decisions on their own without providing any essential guidelines to them
Effects on Children
The following are the child outcomes of a permissive parent
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Results Of Using The Permissive Style
- Your child does not learn to respect you.
- He is not held accountable for his behavior.
- Proper limits are not set.
- Your child has too much power in the house.
- He does not learn to be responsible to fulfill obligations.
- He is not encouraged to learn the tasks of everyday living that he will need as an adult.
As a result, your child will not build healthy self-esteem. It also damages the relationship between you and your child.
When you use a permissive style of parenting, you do not show yourself to be in-charge, and as a result, your child will be less likely to turn to you for guidance in other situations in his life.
Is Authoritative Parenting For Every Child
The authoritative parenting style has been found to benefit children of different temperaments.
In fact, among different temperaments, children who are regarded as difficult benefit more from authoritative child rearing than the easy kids.
But arent all kids different and therefore require different parenting styles?
Kids are different.
Different children need to be parented differently according to the Goodness of Fit.
When there is a goodness-of-fit between the childs temperament and the parents personalities, attitudes and parenting practices, the child will flourish.
But when it is poorness-of-fit, the child suffers.
Notice that there is a difference between parenting style and parenting practice.
Parenting style is the emotional climate in which the parents raise their children.
A parenting practice is a specific action that parents employ in their parenting.
The authoritative parenting style is the best parentingstyle.
Parents should adopt that same authoritative parenting style, but different parenting practices according to their childs individual temperament.
Within the Baumrinds parenting style topology, authoritative parenting is not a fixed set of parenting practices.
For instance, within the high responsiveness, high demandingness spectrum, a parent can choose practices that are nurturing but slightly less demanding .
When parenting another child of a different temperament, a parent can use practices that are demanding, but slightly less nurturing 8.
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High Demandingness High Responsivenss
have high expectations for achievement and maturity, but they are also warm and responsive3.
These parents set rules and enforce boundaries by having open discussion, providing guidance and using reasoning.
These parents provide their kids with reasoning and explanation for their action. Explanations allow children to have a sense of awareness and teach kids about values, morals, and goals.
Their disciplinary methods are confrontive4, i.e. reasoned, negotiable, outcome-oriented, and concerning with regulating behaviors.
Authoritative parents are affectionate and supportive. They respect their childrens autonomy, provide them with a lot of freedom and encourage independence.
They also allow bidirectional communication. This style of parenting is also known as the democratic parenting style5.
Children of authoritative parents are cherished.
Based on Baumrinds research on parenting styles, children of authoritative parents tend to6:
- Appear happy and content.
Parenting Styles Focusing On A Social Psychology
Parenting Styles Focusing on a Social Psychology Research Paper Instructions You will be responsible for writing a Research Paper focusing on a social psychology topic of your choosing.
The topic must be one that is discussed in the textbook. The focus of the paper will be to present and review peer-reviewed research regarding your topic as well as provide a Biblical integration discussion for your topic.
For your paper, you must thoroughly review and cite 2 peer-reviewed journal articles that demonstrate research regarding your topic. Your articles must present original research studies in which the authors of the article actually formed hypotheses, collected/analyzed data, and compiled results themselves. Theoretical/review articles and meta-analyses are not permitted to be reviewed for this paper.
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What Are Parenting Styles
While developmental psychologists have long been interested in learning more about the effect that parent behavior has on children, pinpointing exact cause-and-effect relationships between these variables is not always easy. Researchers have discovered four distinctive patterns of parental behavior known as parenting styles that can have an impact on childrens health and development.
It was during the 1960s that psychologist Diana Baumrind performed research on pre-school age kids, utilizing parent interview, observations and naturalistic observation to study different dimensions of parenting. Using her observations, she concluded that parents differed on a few important factors, which she identified as:
- Disciplinary strategies
Based on her research, Baumrind described three different parenting styles. Later research by Maccoby and Martin led to the addition of another parenting style. Today, researchers recognize four distinct parenting styles.
What Is Authoritative Parenting
Like authoritarian parents, they set limits and enforce standards. But unlike authoritarian parents, they’re much more nurturing.
Some common traits of authoritative parents:
- Responsive to their child’s emotional needs, while having high standards
- Communicate frequently and take into consideration their child’s thoughts, feelings and opinions
- Allow natural consequences to occur, but use those opportunities to help their child reflect and learn
- Foster independence and reasoning
- Highly involved in their child’s progress and growth
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Results Of Using The Aggressive Style
- The self-esteem of your child is damaged because he does not feel understood or supported.
- The parent-child relationship is weakened as your child would not feel that you are someone he could turn to if he had a problem.
- Children from these families often become either overly submissive or rebellious.
Examples Of Authoritative Parenting Style With Different Parenting Practices
Example of Authoritative Parenting Style: High responsiveness means warm, accepting and supportive.
Practices: Hugging, cheering and smiling are different parenting practices.
Another Authoritative Parenting Style Example: High demandingness means high standards and limits.
Practices: Requiring a child to do chores, get good grades and show manners are different parenting practices.
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Which Parenting Style Is Most Effective
The most effective parenting style, as stated by Diana Baumrind herself, is the Authoritative style.
Of all the different parenting styles, authoritative parenting has proven to have the most positive effect on children.
The combination of guidance, support, and rules which are enforced, are all strong elements that enable a child to grow into the greatest version of themselves.
Children who have been brought up with the authoritative parenting style are more likely to achieve academic success, as well as having success within their career.
With authoritative parenting, the child feels nurtured and loved, which will help with their confidence and self-esteem as they grow and develop.
If youre looking for the best parenting style to bring up your children, its definitely worth considering the authoritative style.
Uninvolved Or Neglectful Parenting
After several pieces of research and studies, Maccoby and Martin5 added the fourth style of parenting into the original set of Baumrinds parenting styles.
Characteristics and behavior attributes
- Uninvolved parents are highly unresponsive and show minimal or no involvement with their children
- They lack warmth, nurturance, and affection and express no feelings for their children
- Uninvolved parents have least to no expectations regarding their childrens behaviors
- Parents of this style of parenting set no rules and boundaries and have no demands from their children
- Neglectful parents make least or no use of parental authority and show poor supervision qualities
- Neglectful parents often neglect the basic needs of their children like food, shelter, clothing and their health
- Uninvolved parents are found to be occupied by financial, social and economic problems and sometimes face excessive workload due to which theyre forced to neglect their children
Effects on Children
Children raised by uninvolved parenting tend to show extreme negative outcomes. The following are the effects of neglectful parenting on their children
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Permissive Parenting: Staying Out Of Kids’ Way Does Not Help Them Figure Things Out On Their Own
- Permissive parents do not enforce rules for their kids. The stereotypical permissive parents are the ones who see themselves as their children’s friend, and not a figure of authority.
- Kids of permissive parents are more likely to do poorly in school, and there are poor social and emotional consequences as well.
- Permissive parents are not the same thing as neglectful parents. Permissive parents are still loving and responsive to their children’s needs. Neglectful parents also provide no structure ore rules, but they’re also totally uninvolved in other aspects of the child’s life. Permissive parents are involved, but not in a traditional way.
“Permissive parents have a hard time setting limits with their children,” says Laura Markham, Ph.D., author of Peaceful Parent, Happy Kids. “Therefore, parents are more likely to ignore bad behavior, and to ‘give in’ against their better judgment when their child gets upset. The result is that they don’t set or enforce age-appropriate expectations for behavior.” It may seem like this type of parenting style could foster independence, since children likely have to learn for themselves without the guidance of their parents. But studies show the opposite is true, and kids of permissive parents are more likely to show signs of anxiety and depression, be aggressive, have bad social skills, and do poorly in school.
How Do You Practice Authoritative Parenting
Its one thing to read a definition, and another to put it into practice. How can you tell if you are acting like an authoritative parent?
When researchers want to identify an individuals parenting style, they often use a kind of rubric or questionnaire. For example, they may present a parent with a series of statements, and ask the parent to rate his or her agreement on a four-point scale .
- I take my childs wishes and feelings into consideration before I ask her to do something
- I encourage my child to talk about his feelings
- I try to help when my child is scared or upset
- I provide my child with reasons for the expectations I have for her
- I respect my childs opinion and encourage him or her to express themeven if they are different from my own
And parents are judged to be less authoritative if they agree with these statements:
- I let my child get away with leaving chores unfinished
- I bribe my child to get him to comply with my wishes
- I explode in anger toward my child
- I punish my child by withdrawing affection
So this is a good guide to follow. But authoritative parents are also good psychologists and problem-solvers. How do they talk with their kids? What tactics do they use to reason with children? How do they address their childrens emotional issues?
For help, see these evidence-based tips for implementing opens in a new windowpositive parenting practices.
But there isnt any one, universally-accepted litmus test.
Again, thats not necessarily true.
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The Role Of Adolescent Gender
The third and final aim of the current study was to examine potential gender differences in the relationships between parenting styles, parent-adolescent conflict and cohesion, adolescents expectation for behavioral autonomy and endorsement of parental authority. There is reason to expect differences to be found, although results may differ depending on the parenting styles and parent-adolescent relationship features in question. For instance, Shek reported an association between parental negativity and greater parent-adolescent conflict, only for girls. These differences may reflect distinct socialization goals for boys and girls, with girls oriented more toward family relationships and compliance, and boys oriented toward autonomy and self-reliance . Based on previous research, we expected to find stronger associations between parenting style and parentadolescent relationship features for girls compared to boys. However, given the lack of prior research on beliefs about autonomy and parental authority as mediators, we had no hypotheses regarding gender as moderator of those mediating effects.
Why Is Authoritative Parenting Style The Best Parenting Style
To understand why the authoritative approach is the most effective parenting style, we should look at each component of this parenting style.
Nurturing: Authoritative parents are attuned, nurturing, sensitive and supportive of their childrens emotional and developmental needs. Research shows that children with responsive parents tend to develop a secure attachment. Children with secure attachment are protected from developing internalizing problems. Infants who have responsive mothers also develop better problem-solving skills, cognitive competence and emotional control.
Responsive: Emotional regulation lays the foundation for a childs success. Responsiveness and autonomy support from the parents seem to provide children with the opportunity to develop good self-regulation skills. These children
Supportive: Authoritative parents are supportive. They tend to be more involved in a childs schooling by volunteering or monitoring homework. Parental involvement has been shown to have a beneficial impact on adolescent academic achievement.
Open-minded: Authoritative parents are also open-minded and collaborative. They use open communication, explanations, and reasoning to foster individuality. These parents are modeling prosocial behavior that the children can internalize. These children grow up having good social skills.
High Standards: The high standards demanded by authoritative parents keep childrens behavior in check.
Its not an either-or parenting style.
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