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What Is Segmentation In Biology

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Experimental Evaluation Of Deep Learning Method For Segmentation Of Nuclei

Segmentation is present in | 11 | ANIMAL KINGDOM | BIOLOGY | A2Z | Doubtnut

From the original 32 training image tiles, with no additional preprocessing steps, multiple patches of size 200 × 200 are extracted. Three training datasets are generated . By sliding a window with a step of 54 pixels and random cropping, 4,732 patches are generated, designated as Nuclei Blob dataset and used for nuclei blob detection. Nuclei Boundary dataset is generated by centering each nucleus at the center of each patch, producing 2,785 patches that are used for nuclei boundary detection. Small Nuclei dataset is the duplicate dataset of NBL that only contains nuclei blob patches possessing 50% nuclei pixels. SN dataset is only used for training DRAN for nuclei blob detection.

Table 2. Generation of three datasets from the original 32 image tiles.

Figure 6. Image patch generation. To avoid zero-padding in augmentation, a patch of size 200 × 200 is first provided. Subsequently, the center region of 102 × 102 is cropped and fed into the network as input. For an input of size 102 × 102, the network provides a segmentation map of size 54 × 54.

Table 3. Segmentation of nuclei performance.

Figure 7. Head-to-head comparison between MDRANBL and DRANBL on the test set. Test images are ordered by the ascending order of MDRAN DICE_1. The shaded area indicates that the images were scanned at 20x magnification.

Digital Pathology Challenge And Datasets

We organized the MICCAI 2017 digital pathology challenge to provide a venue for comparing algorithms using a common, curated set of datasets and help in advancing algorithm development in digital pathology. The 2017 challenge consisted of two sub-challenges segmentation of nuclei in tissue images and the classification of whole slide tissue images . It used tissue images obtained from patients with non-small cell lung cancer , head and neck squamous cell carcinoma , glioblastoma multiforme , and lower grade glioma tumors. These cancer types are complex and deadly diseases accounting for a large number of diagnostic patient deaths in spite of application of various treatment strategies.

Segmentation of Nuclei in Images

Algorithm 1 Computing Ensemble Dice Coefficient .

Here, Q and P are the sets of segmented objects . The two DICE coefficients were computed for each image tile in the test dataset. The score for the image tile was calculated as the average of the two dice coefficients. The score for the entire test dataset was computed as the average of the scores of all the image tiles.

Classification of Whole Slide Tissue Images

Can A Segment Be A Single Cell In A Column Of Cells

During development, some animals have an arrangement of cells along the a-p axis in which each single cell could be considered a segment. For example, the notochord of the sea squirt Ciona savignyi is composed of a single column of cells . Similarly, the trunk of the arthropod Parhyale hawaiensis, as well as the trunks of other malacostracan crustaceans, is composed of columns of cells where segments arise from single-cell-wide rows within a grid of cells . For a column of cells along the a-p axis to be considered a column of segments, each cell or row of cells needs a definable anterior and posterior . Having an anterior and a posterior distinguishes each cell from its neighbors, while making each cell a reiteration of a unit. In segments composed of two or more rows of cells, an a-p segmental pattern can be accomplished by having different morphology or gene expression in anterior versus posterior rows of a single segment . In segments composed of only a single cell, or that are only a single cell wide, the anterior and posterior of the single cell must exhibit molecular or morphological a-p asymmetry .

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Is The Tip Of The Arthropod Head A Segment

While most of the arthropod body is universally considered segmented, controversy exists over whether the anterior-most section of the head is a segment, and the segmental affiliation of appendage-like structures, such as the labrum . As there are general reviews of these subjects elsewhere , we will focus here on the question of whether the tip of the head is a segment in the context of how phylogenetic assumptions can influence segmental classifications.

What Is The Animal Classification

The general body plans of animals. biology

In accordance with the Linnaeus method, scientists classify the animals, as they do the plants, on the basis of shared physical characteristics. They place them in a hierarchy of groupings, beginning with the kingdom animalia and proceeding through phyla, classes, orders, families, genera and species.

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What Is Segmentation And Is It Found In All Animals


Segmentation in biology is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments. This article focuses on the segmentation of animal body plans, specifically using the examples of the taxa Arthropoda, Chordata.

3) The length of segment XY can be found by solving for a in 202 7.652 = a2.

5) The measure of the central angle, ZXW, is 45°.

Step-by-step explanation:

C.The length of segment XY can be found by solving for a in 202 7.652 = a2.

E. The measure of the central angle, ZXW, is 45°.

Step-by-step explanation:

Step-by-step explanation:

Given that Geoff has been given three points A, B, and C that are not on a line and he is trying to construct a circle that passes through all of the three points. So far he has created two line segments, AB and BC, found the perpendicular bisector of both segments, and found the intersection point of the two perpendicular bisectors

When three points are not collinear, they can form a circle.

For finding the circle, we must find a point which is equidistant from all the points. Perpendicular bisector intersection will have equal distance from all the 3 points.

Hence with centre as the point of intersection and radius as the point with any one of the three points, if we draw a circle, the circle will be the required circle.

The answer is actually just C and E

Step-by-step explanation:

How Does Geographic Segmentation Work


Some companies only do business in one country and need to concentrate their marketing efforts there. Other companies are international and may develop strategies to market to consumers in different countries or to enter a new international market.


A company may go to preferentially target people that live in a specific city. Cities have greater population density than suburban or rural areas, enabling companies that sell physical products to distribute to more people for a lower cost by targeting cities. Marketing preferentially to cities is effective for firms whose distribution infrastructure is concentrated in urban centers.


Some companies may choose to market their products differently to customers living in urban, suburban and rural environments. This reflects the reality that our environments affect how we perceive and interact with certain products and services.

A car company might market to urban populations by highlighting safety features like lane change alerts and back-up cameras that help avoid collisions when there are many other vehicles around. For suburban populations, the same company might emphasize fuel economy and spaciousness , knowing that this target market will use the car for commuting to work each day and bringing the kids to soccer practice. For rural customers, marketing messages might focus on comfort and durability.

Climate & Weather

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Gene Expression Dynamics Within Cells

In vertebrates such as zebrafish, repressive interactions between Her/Hes transcription factors are thought to form the core of the segmentation clock, driving oscillations by time-delayed negative feedback . Analogously, it is possible that the arthropod segmentation clock is driven by an intracellular negative-feedback loop formed by some or all of the oscillating pair-rule genes.

The main evidence for this is that knocking down primary pair-rule genes can block segmentation and truncate the body axis, as has been found in Tribolium , the silkmoth Bombyx , a second beetle species Dermestes and the hemipteran bug Oncopeltus . It can also cause the expression of other primary pair-rule genes to become aperiodic , suggesting that at least some of the oscillations are mutually interdependent. This observation distinguishes these knockdowns from those of downstream patterning genes, which may also yield asegmental phenotypes but do not perturb expression dynamics in the SAZ .

In summary, although it is likely that cross-regulation plays a considerable role in shaping dynamic pair-rule gene expression, it is not yet clear whether the oscillating genes are linked into a single circuit, whether this circuit is sufficient to generate oscillations, what the topology of this circuit is likely to be, nor indeed the extent to which it may have diverged in different lineages .

S For Segmentation And Classification Of Digital Microscopy Tissue Images

What Is Biology?
  • 1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
  • 3Department of Biomedical Informatics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States
  • 4School of Clinical Dentistry, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
  • 5Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School and Mass General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
  • 6Department of Pathology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States
  • 7Cancer Imaging Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

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Classification Of Whole Slide Images By A Two

As a result of the above shortcomings, we present a method for non-small cell lung cancer classification, that primarily focuses on the diagnostic areas within the image for determining the cancer type. In section Network Architecture, we describe the deep learning framework for patch-based classification. In section Extraction of Statistical and Morphological Features and Random Forest Regression Model we describe the random forest regression model for classifying a whole slide image as LUAD or LUSC. A high-level overview of the classification framework can be viewed in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Overview of the NSCLC classification framework. Workflow for training the neural network to classify input patches as either non-diagnostic , lung adenocarcinoma , or lung squamous cell carcinoma . Workflow for processing the WSIs within the test set to obtain probability maps for each class. Workflow for the random forest regression model. Features are extracted from LUAD and LUSC probability maps and then fed as input into the random forest model. SN stands for stain normalization by method of Reinhard et al. .

Network Architecture

Figure 5. The deep convolutional neural network. Network architecture, residual unit. Within the residual block, refers to the summation operator. Key highlighting each component within the workflow. Note, the number within each convolutional operator denotes the output depth. Above each residual block we denote how many residual units are used.

A Common Ancestral Gene Causes Body Segmentation In Spiders And Insects

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Scientists have pinpointed a key gene that controls segmentation during spider development, which reveals a further similarity to the control of segmentation in insects, a study in eLife reports.

Silencing the Sox21b-1 gene in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum results in the loss of three leg-bearing segments and the posterior segment addition zone. Paese et al., 2018.

The research suggests the Sox gene was duplicated in the spider and then may have replaced the function of another related Sox gene that is still used in segmentation in insects, shedding new light on the evolutionary secrets that allow such a diverse range of animals to build their bodies.

Segmentation is an essential developmental process in arthropods that involves the formation of body segments with different functions. In insects, this happens in two ways either all segments are made almost simultaneously, or a few segments at the front of the body are specified, such as the head, and then posterior segments are added afterwards, which is similar to what happens in most other arthropods such as spiders.

The team first studied where the different Sox genes are used in spider embryos. They established that Sox21b-1 was supplied by the mother spider, and that its patterns of activity suggested it was involved in segmentation.

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Pharyngeal Arches: Segmentation Of The Pharynx

The pharyngeal arches are a series of bulges on the lateral surface of the head of vertebrate embryos. These structures are a key characteristic of the phylotypic stage and indeed lend that stage its name, the pharyngula. The development of these structures is complex as they comprise a number of disparate cell populations from all three germ layers . Within each arch there is a mesodermal core, that will form muscle and endothelium and this is surrounded by neural crest cells, which will generate the skeletal and connective tissue components. These two mesenchymal populations are enveloped externally by ectoderm, which will generate epidermis and neurogenic placodes, and internally by the pharyngeal endoderm, which will produce the lining of the pharynx, taste buds and specialised structures such as the thyroid, thymus and parathyroids. Thus, the pharyngeal arches constitute an iterated series with each generating the same basic set of components.

What Is The Meaning Of Segment Body

Animal survey 2010

Segmented things are divided into separate parts, and segmented animals have bodies made up of distinct sections. An earthworm is one example of a segmented animal. Although humans clearly aren’t segmented the way worms and leeches are, we do have segmented spinal columns, with repeated segments, or vertebrae.

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Geographic Segmentation Vs Demographic Segmentation Whats The Difference

Geographic segmentation is not the only type of marketing segmentation in fact, there are three other types that are commonly applied to help identify groups of customers with common characteristics: demographic, psychographic and behavioral segmentation.

Demographic segmentation divides a target market into different groups based on statistical data. This data can include things like age, gender, family situation, location, income, education level, ethnicity, and other factors. Companies can access demographic information about consumers through different sources, including through the United States Census Bureau, the Small Business Administration Office of Entrepreneurship, through market research websites, or from companies that do public polling.

Psychographic segmentation tries to divide a target market into categories based on psychological characteristics such as traits, values, motivations, beliefs, interests, and lifestyles. This data is not readily available, so organizations may have to conduct in-depth research into their customers to identify and accurately understand psychographic segments.

Why Is The Definition Of Segmentation Important

The only dogmatic statement we are justified in making is, that when a region exhibits during development a sufficient number of the essential structures of a typical segment, it may be assumed to be at true metamere. What is sufficient has to be decided in each case. ES Goodrich, 1897

It is difficult to find a in the whole of zoology that is so vaguely defined, but, at the same time, so universally employed asmetamerism. RB Clark, 1964

Phylogenetic relationship among segmented and unsegmented phyla. Phylogeny of bilatarians based on segmented and pseudosegmented animals identified after . Segmented phyla are more closely related to unsegmented phyla than to each other. Segmentation is no longer a rare characteristic if both segmented and pseudosegmented phyla are considered . Here, pseudosegmented is meant solely to distinguish traditionally segmented chordates, arthropods and annelids from other phyla with repetition of units with anterior-posterior polarity along the anterior-posterior axis. It does not necessarily mean that there is a biological distinction between these groups based on their repeated units.

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Other Modes Of Segmentation

The sequential mode of segmentation is widespread and almost certainly ancestral within arthropods. However, across species the timing of segmentation can vary dramatically relative to other developmental events.

For example, arthropod embryos differ widely in the number of segments they pattern at the blastoderm stage, versus afterwards during germband extension. In insects, this variation is roughly correlated with a spectrum of germ types defined in the pre-molecular era , but for simplicity and generality, we have chosen to eschew such terminology in this Review. Instead, we will refer to sequential segmentation versus simultaneous segmentation . The mechanisms underlying simultaneous segmentation are discussed in more detail below.

Outside of the insects, many arthropod groups undergo post-embryonic segmentation, i.e. delay the development of a portion of the AP axis until after hatching. In crustaceans with naupliar larvae, for example, only the head segments are patterned in the embryo, and trunk segments develop sequentially from a SAZ-like region after the larva has begun feeding . Other, less extreme, examples are found within myriapods: these pattern the head and the first trunk segments in the embryo, but may add one or more trunk segments after each moult .

The History Of The Definition Of Segmentation

True segmentation or metamerism means | 11 | ANIMAL KINGDOM | BIOLOGY | A2Z | Doubtnut

The Greeks first recorded the observation that some animals are made of segments, reiterated units along the anterior-posterior axis. Aristotle named and classified a group of animals as insects, because of their segmental nature. Entomon is derived from the Greek word entomos, meaning to cut up, and was used because these animals had nicks or cuts on their back or bellies, corresponding to boundaries between segments. Latin and related modern languages continued this theme, as the English word insect is derived from the Latin insecure, which also means to cut up.

The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century brought science to the forefront of Western society and set the stage for renewed interest in segmentation in the nineteenth century. During the 1800s, Cuvier grouped arthropods and annelids into the now defunct taxon Articulata because of their similar segmental morphologies . Goodrich also considered arthropod and annelid segments homologous. From studies on arthropods and annelids, Goodrich defined a segment as a unit, marked off from the rest of the body by transverse grooves, containing a mesodermal hollow space , a pair of nephridia , and a pair of ventral ganglia . Goodrich also noted that, in polychaetes and arthropods, a segment also contains a pair of appendages. Besides these morphological characteristics, Goodrich used a developmental characteristic, the sequential addition of segments from anterior to posterior, to define segmentation.

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