Friday, July 12, 2024

What Is Nomenclature In Chemistry

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Why Is Pyridine A Heterocyclic Compound

Naming Alkanes Class 10 Chemistry Chapter Organic Chemistry | IUPAC Naming of Alkanes Class 10

Pyridine and pyrrole are both nitrogen heterocyclestheir molecules contain nitrogen atoms along with carbon atoms in the rings. The molecules of many biological materials consist in part of pyridine and pyrrole rings, and such materials yield small amounts of pyridine and pyrrole upon strong heating.

Which of the following statement is correct about pyridine?

Pyridine is stronger base than aniline because electrons are not in conjugation, therefore, electron density is higher in pyridine because they are outside the plane of the other electrons in the benzene ring.

Compounds With Polyatomic Ions

Not all compounds are binary. This can easily be noticed by flipping through a chemistry book and noting the names of many compounds not ending in ide. Compounds not binary generally contain a polyatomic ion consisting of a number of atoms. which hang around as a group. The group remains unchanged during a chemical reaction, and has a single oxidation number.

The key to remembering many of the polyatomic ions is knowing the five oxy-acids listed below. They will unlock thousands of chemical formulae for you.


phosphoric acid H3PO4

These five oxy-acids can be memorized using the memory tool Nick the Camel ate Clams for Supper in Phoenix, where the chemical symbol matches the underlined letters in the words. Note that other acids in the same family can be identified quickly. Thus for example, chlorine an be replaced by bromine or iodine to make other oxy-acids.

Additional other acids can be easily found for each entry here by adding and subtracting oxygen atoms to/from the above oxy-acids. A summary of these acids is shown below. Thus, we could have HNO, HNO2, HNO3. The key to naming these is in memorizing the normal number of oxygens and using the ic ending for that compound . Any acid with one less oxygen uses the ous ending . If two less oxygens are used the prefix hypo is used with the ous ending . If one extra oxygen is used the prefix per is used with the ic ending

Hypo_ous Acid

Write the formula for each of the following:

  • potassium acetate
  • See If You Need Roman Numerals

    • Check if an Ionic Compound has a transition metal that becomes a multivalent ion
    • For Ionic Compounds with transition metals, you need to insert a roman numeral after the name of the metal to indicate the transition metals charge
    • ex: FeCl = Iron Chloride and FeCl2 = Iron Chloride
    • Think about what the charge of the metal needs to be to balance out the nonmetals charge

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    Information On Chemical Nomenclature

    A single compound may have many different names in the chemical literature. For example, the simple compound: H2NCH2CH2OH can be named: 2-Aminoethanol, 2-Aminoethyl alcohol, 2-Hydroxyethylamine, beta-Hydroxyethylamine, 2-Hydroxyethanamine, or 1-Amino-2- and also has the less systematic name Ethanolamine.

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    Chemical Nomenclature Review

    IUPAC Rules for Alkane Nomenclature

  • Find and name the longest continuous carbon chain.
  • Identify and name groups attached to this chain.
  • Number the chain consecutively, starting at the end nearest a substituent group.
  • Designate the location of each substituent group by an appropriate number and name.
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    What Is Iupac Nomenclature

    IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds refers to the systematic approach taken for the nomenclature of organic compounds as per the recommendation of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry .

    The necessity for such a systematic approach arose due to the sheer quantity of new discoveries of organic compounds which made the trivial nomenclature of organic compounds highly inconvenient.

    However, the IUPAC nomenclature guidelines are not always followed by chemists since some compounds have very long and extremely tedious names as per the IUPAC nomenclature guidelines. These compounds are assigned more trivial names.

    How Do You Identify Organic Compounds

    Organic compound, is one of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more carbon atoms are covalently associated with other elements atoms, most commonly hydrogen, oxygen, or nitrogen. The few compounds that contain carbon that are not classified as organic include carbides, carbonates, and cyanides.

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  • Write first the symbol of the positive ion followed by the symbol of the negative ion or radical. A radical or polyatomic ion is a group of atoms which acts as a single atom.
  • Criss-cross: the valence of the positive ion becomes the subscript of the negative ion, while the valence of the negative ion becomes the subscript of the positive ion. Example:Al+3 O-2 = Al2O3
  • If the valence is numerically equal, there is no need to criss -cross since the sum of the valence is zero. Example: Ca+2O-2 = CaO
  • Do not write the subscript if it is only 1.
  • If the subscript of the radical is greater than 1, the radical is enclosed with a parenthesis. Example: Mg-2PO-3 = Mg3 2
  • Subscripts should be reduced to the lowest ratio. Example: Sn+4 O-2 = Sn2 O4 = SnO2
  • Influence Of Social Political Religious Factors

    What is capillarity in simple terms? What is meant by capillarity? What is capillarity and example?

    Due to social, political, religious, and cultural motivations, things that are the same may be given different names, while different things may be given the same name closely related similar things may be considered separate, while on the other hand significantly different things might be considered the same.

    For example, Hindi and Urdu are both closely related, mutually intelligible Hindustani languages . However, they are favored as separate languages by Hindus and Muslims respectively, as seen in the context of Hindu-Muslim conflict resulting in the violence of the 1947 Partition of India. In contrast, mutually unintelligible dialects that differ considerably in structure, such as Moroccan Arabic, Yemeni Arabic, and Lebanese Arabic, are considered to be the same language due to the pan-Islamism religious identity.

    Names provide us with a way of structuring and mapping the world in our minds so, in some way, they mirror or represent the objects of our experience.

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    The Stock Method Of Naming

    An ionic compound is named first by its cation and then by its anion. The cation has the same name as its element. For example, K+1 is called the potassium ion, just as K is called the potassium atom. The anion is named by taking the elemental name, removing the ending, and adding “-ide.” For example, F-1 is called fluoride, for the elemental name, fluorine. The “-ine” was removed and replaced with “-ide.” To name a compound, the cation name and the anion named are added together. For example, NaF is also known as sodium fluoride.

    If either the cation or the anion was a polyatomic ion, the polyatomic ion name is used in the name of the overall compound. The polyatomic ion name stays the same. For example, Ca2 is called calcium nitrate.

    For cations that take on multiple charges , the charge is written using Roman numerals in parentheses immediately following the element name. For example, Cu2 is copper nitrate, because the charge of two nitrate ions is 2 = -2. Since the net charge of the ionic compound must be zero, the Cu ion has a 2+ charge. This compound is therefore, copper nitrate. The Roman numerals in fact show the oxidation number, but in simple ionic compounds this will always be the same as the metal’s ionic charge.

    Iupac Nomenclature Of Organic Chemistry

    In chemical nomenclature, the organic chemistry nomenclature IUPAC is a method of organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry . It is published in the Organic Chemistry Nomenclature.

    Ideally, any conceivable organic compound should have a name from which to construct an unmistakable structural formula. Inorganic chemistry also has an IUPAC nomenclature.

    In order to avoid long and tedious names in normal communication, the official recommendations for naming IUPAC are not always followed in practice, except when a compound has to be given an unambiguous and absolute definition. Sometimes, IUPAC names may be simpler than older names, as with ethanol, rather than ethyl alcohol.

    They can be more easily understood for relatively simple molecules than non-systematic names which have to be learned or looked over. The common or trivial name, however, is often considerably shorter and clearer, and so preferred. Such non-systematic names are often derived from an original compound source. Furthermore, very long names may be less obvious than structural formulas.

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    Compounds Containing A Metal Ion With A Variable Charge

    Most of the transition metals can form two or more cations with different charges. Compounds of these metals with nonmetals are named with the same method as compounds in the first category, except the charge of the metal ion is specified by a Roman numeral in parentheses after the name of the metal. The charge of the metal ion is determined from the formula of the compound and the charge of the anion. For example, consider binary ionic compounds of iron and chlorine. Iron typically exhibits a charge of either 2+ or 3+ , and the two corresponding compound formulas are FeCl2 and FeCl3. The simplest name, iron chloride, will, in this case, be ambiguous, as it does not distinguish between these two compounds. In cases like this, the charge of the metal ion is included as a Roman numeral in parentheses immediately following the metal name. These two compounds are then unambiguously named iron chloride and iron chloride, respectively. Other examples are provided in Table 4.

    Table 4. Names of Some Transition Metal Ionic Compounds
    Transition Metal Ionic Compound
    SnF4 tin flouride

    Steps Involved In Writing Iupac Name


    1) The first step in giving IUPAC name to an organic compound is to select the parent chain and assign a word root.

    2) Next, the appropriate primary suffix must be added to the root word to indicate the saturation or unsaturation.

    3) If the molecule contains functional group or groups, a secondary suffix must be added to indicate the main functional group. This is optional and not necessary if the molecule contains no functional group.

    4) Prefix the root word with the infix “cyclo” if the parent chain is cyclic or with the infix “spiro” if it is a spiro compound or with the infix “bicyclo” if the compound is bicyclic.

    5) Finally add prefix to the IUPAC name, if there are side chains or substituents on the parent chain.

    E.g. The IUPAC name of the following compound is arrived in steps mentioned below.

    Now add them to makeup the IUPAC name of the compound.

    You will learn how to select a parent chain? how to number the carbon atoms and give the locants to the functional groups, side chains ? etc., in the following section.

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    Nomenclature In Organic Chemistry

    Not all compounds are binary. This can easily be noticed by flipping through a chemistry book and noting the names of many compounds not ending in ide. Compounds not binary generally contain a polyatomic ion consisting of a number of atoms. which hang around as a group. The group remains unchanged during a chemical reaction, and has a single oxidation number.

    • Parent Chain
    • 14:5 Carboxylic acid

    Example Of Iupac Nomenclature

    Considering the following Example:

    • There exist 9 carbon atoms on the straight chain and the 5th carbon atom consists of a substituent group which in turn has 3 carbon atoms in a chain.
    • Furthermore, there the first and second carbons of this substituent chain have an additional CH group attached to them.
    • In the nomenclature of this compound, the 9 membered carbon chain is identified as the parent chain and is numbered.
    • The substituent chain attached to position 5 of the parent chain is 3 members long, with 2 methyl groups attached at positions 1 and 2.
    • Thus the carbon chain substituent group on the parent chain can be called 1,2 dimethyl propane. The name for the substituent chain containing this compound would be 1,2 dimethyl propyl.
    • Substituting this name on the parent chain, the IUPAC name of the compound in question is found to be: 5- nonane.

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    Nomenclature In Inorganic Chemistry

    • Oxides. Binary compounds with oxygen and some other element, which are named using prefixes, according to the amount of atoms that each oxide molecule has. For example: digalium trioxide , carbon monoxide . When the oxidized element is metallic, they are called basic oxides When it is non-metallic, they are called anhydrides or acid oxides.
    • Peroxides They consist of the reaction of a monoatomic oxygen and a metal, being named the same as the oxides but with the word peroxide. For example: calcium peroxide , dihydrogen peroxide .
    • Superoxides Also known as hyperoxides, they occur when oxygen reacts with valence -1/2. And they are regularly named as oxides, but using the word hyperoxide or superoxide. For example: potassium superoxide or hyperoxide .
    • Hydrides Compounds formed by hydrogen and another element, which when metallic are called metal hydrides and when not, hydrazides. Its nomenclature depends on the metallic or nonmetallic nature of the other element, although in some cases common names are privileged, as in ammonia .
    • Metal. The term hydride and numeric prefixes are used depending on the amount of hydrogen atoms and. For example: potassium monohydride , lead tetrahydride .
    • Not metallic The terminal -uro is added to the non-metallic element and then hydrogen is added. For example: hydrogen fluoride , dihydrogen selenide .

    What Is Prefix In Organic Chemistry

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    A prefix to the name comes before the molecule. The prefix of the molecule’s name is based on the number of carbon atoms. For example, a chain of six carbon atoms would be named using the prefix hex-. The suffix to the name is an ending that is applied that describes the types of chemical bonds in the molecule.

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    Iupac Name Of Compounds With Multi Functional Groups

    Whenever there are more than one functions group, the main functional group is indicated by the 2osuffix in the IUPAC name, whereas the remaining functional groups are considered as substituents and are indicated by the appropriate prefixes.

    E.g. In the following organic compound, 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid, both -OH and -COOH groups are the functional groups. But the -COOH group has more priority than the -OH group. Hence it is considered as the main functional group and indicated by secondary suffix, “oic acid”. Whereas the -OH group is considered as substituent and is indicated by the prefix, “hydroxy”.

    What Is Nomenclature Of Heterocyclic Compounds

    The name of the heterocyclic ring is chosen as the parent compound and the name of the fused ring is attached as a prefix. The prefix in such names has the ending o, i.e., benzo, naphtho and so on.

    What is pyridine used for in organic chemistry?

    Pyridine is used to dissolve other substances. It is also used to make many different products such as medicines, vitamins, food flavorings, paints, dyes, rubber products, adhesives, insecticides, and herbicides.

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    Naming The Chemical Ions

    An ion is an electrically charged atom or molecule that is, one in which the number of electrons differs from the number of nuclear protons. Many simple compounds can be regarded, at least in a formal way, as being made up of a pair of ions having opposite charge signs.


    The positive ions, also known as cations, are mostly those of metallic elements which simply take the name of the element itself.

    H3O+ NH4+

    Multivalent Cations

    Some of the metallic ions are multivalent, meaning that they can exhibit more than one electric charge. For these there are systematic names that use Roman numerals, and the much older and less cumbersome common names that mostly employ the Latin names of the elements, using the endings –ous and –ic to denote the lower and higher charges, respectively. The only ones you need to know in this course are the following:


    The Old Classic Or Common Way Of Naming

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    Names of some ionic compounds: Common, or trivial, names of compounds are sometimes used in informal conversations between chemists, especially older chemists. Systematic names are formal names that are always used in print.

    Since some metallic elements form cations that have different positive charges, the names of ionic compounds derived from these elements must contain some indication of the cation charge. The older method uses the suffixes -ous and -ic to denote the lower and higher charges, respectively. In the cases of iron and copper, the Latin names of the elements are used . This system is still used, although it has been officially supplanted by the more precise, if slightly cumbersome, Stock system. In both systems, the name of the anion ends in -ide.

    Naming Compounds – Part 1 – YouTube: This video explains how to name covalent and ionic compounds.

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    Differing Aims Of Chemical Nomenclature And Lexicography

    It is generally understood that the aims of lexicography versus chemical nomenclature vary and are to an extent at odds. Dictionaries of words, whether in traditional print or on the web, collect and report the meanings of words as their uses appear and change over time. For web dictionaries with limited or no formal editorial process, definitions âin this case, definitions of chemical names and termsâ can change rapidly without concern for the formal or historical meanings. Chemical nomenclature on the other hand is necessarily more restrictive: It aims to standardize communication and practice so that, when a chemical term is used it has a fixed meaning relating to chemical structure, thereby giving insights into chemical properties and derived molecular functions. These differing aims can have profound effects on valid understanding in chemistry, especially with regard to chemical classes that have achieved mass attention. Examples of the impact of these can be seen in considering the examples of:

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